How Did Linus Pauling Build A Helix

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How Did Linus Pauling Build A Helix



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Franklin , "A rapid approximate method for correcting the low-angle scattering measurements for the influence of the finite height of the X-ray beam", Acta Crystallographica , 3 2 : —, doi : Franklin , "The interpretation of diffuse X-ray diagrams of carbon", Acta Crystallographica , 3 2 : —, doi : Franklin , "Influence of the bonding electrons on the scattering of X-rays by carbon", Nature , : 71—72, Bibcode : Natur. Franklin , "The alpha dimension of graphite", Acta Crystallographica , 4 6 : —, doi : Franklin , "Graphitizing and non-graphitizing carbons, their formation, structure and properties", Angewandte Chemie , 65 13 : , doi : Franklin , "The role of water in the structure of graphitic acid", Journal de Chimie Physique et de Physico-Chimie Biologique , 50 : C26, doi : Franklin , "Graphitizing and nongraphihastizing carbon compounds.

Formation, structure and characteristics", Brenstoff-Chemie , 34 : — R. The influence of water content". Acta Crystallographica. Franklin, R. The cylindrically symmetrical Patterson function". Mering , "La structure de l'acide graphitique", Acta Crystallographica , 7 10 : , doi : Klug , "The nature of the helical groove on the tobacco mosaic virus particle X-ray diffraction studies", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta , 19 3 : —, doi : Finch, and K. Retrieved 13 November Bibcode : Natur. PMID EMBO Reports. PMC The Lancet. S2CID Quarterly Journal of Speech. The physical chemistry of solid organic colloids, with special reference to the structure of coal and related materials. University of Cambridge.

OCLC EThOS uk. The Nobel Prize. Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 3 September Retrieved 23 January Official Website of the Nobel Prizes. Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 24 January Science History Institute. June Archived from the original on 21 March Retrieved 20 March The Gazette. Retrieved 21 November London Remembers. Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: Norton. ISBN Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 13 February United Synagogue Women.

Retrieved 7 February Agar; R. Burge Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. JSTOR March Interdisciplinary Science Reviews. Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 28 August Terriere, A. Oberlin, J. Mering, Oxidation of graphite in liquid medium — observations by means of microscopy and electron diffraction , Carbon, 5, , The Daily Telegraph. Elkin, L. Rosalind Franklin and the Double Helix. Physics Today, March available free on-line, see references. Olby, R. Journal of Molecular Biology. The Physics Teacher. Bibcode : PhTea.. Chemical Society Reviews. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. Acta Crystallographica , 6, — Retrieved 11 October Women, Science, and Technology 3rd ed.

Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. The Politics of Women's Biology. Rutgers State University. It is also quoted by both Maddox, p , and Olby. Craig Venter Institute Archives. Retrieved 15 September Gosling April April Stokes, H. Wilson April Nature Structural Biology. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. Bernal, the sage of science , Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Retrieved 21 January Planning Perspectives. Medical Research Council. New Humanist. Retrieved 2 February Franklin, age Secret of Photo Retrieved 10 November Dumbo Feather. Medicine's 10 Greatest Discoveries.

Universities Press. UK Government. Retrieved 14 September New Scientist. Retrieved 10 January About Education. What is Biotechnology. PBS Online. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Oregon State University Libraries. Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 14 February Notes and Records of the Royal Society. In Gavin, Eileen A. Biology Today: An Issues Approach 2 ed. New York: Garland Publishing. American Scientist. Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 25 January Max Perutz and the Secret of Life. Genome Biology. The Kenyon Review. Harvard University Press. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology. Changes in the number of strands in E. Biophysical Journal. Bibcode : BpJ Scientific American.

Retrieved 17 August The New York Times. Retrieved 17 September Iota Sigma Pi. Archived from the original on 29 August The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. King's College London. Newnham College. Archived from the original on 3 September Crystallography News. British Crystallographic Association 62 : 16— September Archived from the original on 25 September National Portrait Gallery. Archived from the original on 11 December Dielectrophoresis Retrieved 12 May We the Curious.

Retrieved 11 April Franklin Award". National Cancer Institute. European Platform of Women Scientists. Archived from the original on 29 November University of Groningen. Royal Society. Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science. Archived from the original on 1 July Archived from the original on 15 June Genetics Society of America. Retrieved 25 October Retrieved 17 March Cambridge News. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 17 May Biotech Week. Archived from the original on 11 September Retrieved 9 July — via HighBeam Research.

Rosalind Franklin Society. Medical News Today. Retrieved 10 April Institute of Physics, London, UK. Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 14 January Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Bibcode : Natur. PMID S2CID Bibcode : PNAS PMC ISBN Bibcode : Sci Retrieved 15 June J Chem Soc. Part III. Viscosity and streaming birefringence of solutions of the sodium salt of the deoxypentose nucleic acid of calf thymus.

In Victor K. McElheny ed. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing. OCLC Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: Norton. History of biology. Fisher E. Ford J. Stephen Jay Gould W. Williams Carl Woese. Carroll Scott F. History of science Philosophy of biology Teleology Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry. Authority control Microsoft Academic. In spite of her growing reputation and many published papers, Dr.

Franklin had to fight for status and pay. She lacked job security. She struggled to obtain funding and equipment. After her fellowship ended, she received a three-year contract for virus research from the Agricultural Research Council ARC , which offered her, with no explanation, a reduction in her salary entitlement and refused her the rank of principal scientific investigator. Despite those humiliations, Dr. Franklin championed her science and the people who depended on her. She wrote to her ARC supervisor that the work of her group at Birkbeck concerned what was "probably the most fundamental of all questions concerning the mechanisms of living processes, namely the relationship between protein and nucleic acid in the living cell Franklin thrived on many trusting and fruitful collaborations with other scientists, particularly on coal and virus research, including at Birkbeck with Aaron Klug, a physicist, chemist and crystallographer.

She made two extended trips to the United States, where she visited laboratories and both shared and gathered information on new findings and obtained funding — denied her in England — from the National Institutes of Health for her virus research. Diagnosed with ovarian cancer in September , Dr. Franklin continued to work and travel during periods of remission.

She died on April 16, , the day before the opening of the fair, where the five foot-tall models drew great interest in the International Science Hall. In a moving tribute, Dr. Bernal, who had been so instrumental to and supportive of her work, lauded Dr. Bernal credited Dr. Four years after Dr. Crick, along with Dr. Rosalind Franklin published consistently throughout her career, including 19 papers on coals and carbons, five on DNA and 21 on viruses. Shortly before her death she and her team, including Dr. Klug, who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in , embarked upon research into the deadly polio virus.

She set high standards for herself and others and diligently pursued answers to her questions despite the many obstacles she faced. The discovery of the structure of DNA sparked a revolution in the biological sciences and technology and expanded knowledge in many other fields. Based on the structure of DNA, the new science of molecular biology was born, leading to prevention, diagnosis and treatment in ways that were unimaginable in The advances in identification and analysis of the genetic code based on Dr. On Jan. Michael Welch hailed Dr. Breadcrumb Home. Rosalind Franklin. Our History. Annual Report. State Authorization. Strategic Initiatives. Freedom of Expression Resolution. Franklin at work in her lab. A statue of Rosalind Franklin, unveiled in May , stands at the entrance to the university.

Life and Work in Discovery She earned a PhD in physical chemistry from Cambridge in at a time when few women were working as professional chemists or researchers. Meanwhile, Dr. Virus Research Dr. Early death Diagnosed with ovarian cancer in September , Dr.

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