How Does Culture Affect Canada Multiculturalism

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How Does Culture Affect Canada Multiculturalism



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Multiculturalism and the Canadian Identity

The first immigrants to step foot in Canada were the Norsemen who settled around AD in Newfoundland. Later in , the Italian sailor John Cabot explored the Atlantic coast of the country. In the early 16 th century, the Portuguese mariners established fishing outposts along the coast. The French immigrants settled in and were followed by the English in The federal land act was introduced in that allowed the purchase of the Canadian land to people who could be considered loyal to Canada to populate the western parts of the country. In , the federal law on Canadian citizenship was issued whereimmigrants were offered the opportunity to obtain citizenship after living in Canada for five years.

In the late s, many practices that were promoting racial discrimination were revoked and during this period, Canada began to accept a growing number of non-white immigrants and immigrants of non-European descent. It was only in when multiculturalism was formally proclaimed in the country. In , it received a legislative framework with the Canadian Multiculturalism Act. Canada is a multicultural society whose cultural diversity has been shaped over time by immigrants and their descendants. This perspective is an explicit policy of multiculturalism in Canada, which is explained more in detail in essay writing service that provides do my homework and assignment help in Canada. Cultural diversity varies greatly from one region of the country to another.

Canada has two official languages: French and English. Most provinces are English-speaking, however, Quebec is significantly a French-speaking region. The majority of Nunavut is dominated by Inuit language speakers. Newcomers from South Asia, China and other non-European countries have also changed the religious distribution of Canada. Each new wave of immigration has enriched the ethnic and cultural composition of the country. Canadians are very inclusive on the issue of homeless refugees.

Multiculturalism can augment common values, commitments, civil order, democratic participation and social relationships between different cultural groups. It has the power to strengthen the social cohesion among the citizens. It is a link that binds people at both the community and national levels. These changes are already having an impact. Over the past few years, cultural policies designed for our own cultural industries have come under close international scrutiny. As a nation, we believe in the benefits of open markets, but we are concerned about the effect that global trade, combined with rapid technology change, may have on our ability to promote Canadian culture.

How should Canada respond to these pressures? What is the right balance between domestic policies that promote Canadian culture and trade policies that enable Canada to prosper in a free trading world? In this paper, the SAGIT describes the cultural policies now in place in Canada, cultural policies used by other countries, and the growing pressure from technology and international trade agreements. It then sets out options for Canada's cultural trade policy. According to the SAGIT's analysis, there is growing concern worldwide about the impact of international agreements on trade and investment on culture. Canada has reached an important crossroad in the relationship between trade agreements and cultural policies.

The tools and approaches used in the past to keep cultural goods and services from being subject to the same treatment as other goods and services may no longer be enough. As is clear from events over the past few years, the cultural exemption has its limits. It is time for Canada to make some crucial decisions. Do we define ourselves simply as the producers and consumers of tradeable goods and services? Or are we prepared to step forward and reaffirm the importance of cultural diversity and the ability of each country to ensure that its own stories and experiences are available both to its own citizens and to the rest of the world? Just as nations have come together to protect and promote biodiversity, it is time for them to come together to promote cultural and linguistic diversity.

Movies, along with all the other activities driven by stories and the images and characters that flow from them, are now at the very heart of the way we run our economies and live our lives. If we fail to use them responsibly and creatively, if we treat them simply as so many consumer industries rather than as complex cultural phenomena, then we are likely to damage irreversibly the health and vitality of our own society. Canada has long been a leader in cultural policies. The time has come for Canada to call on other countries to develop a new international cultural instrument that would acknowledge the importance of cultural diversity and address the cultural policies designed to promote and protect that diversity.

Such a move will enrich us all. Our culture -- our ideas, songs and stories -- gives meaning to who we are as Canadians. Through cultural products, such as sound recordings, books and films, we express ideas and perspectives, and we share stories and images that are uniquely Canadian -- among ourselves and with the rest of the world. Cultural products are "brain and soul foods" that help us communicate with others and share differing views.

They entertain, and they inform. They help shape our sense of identity. They add richness to our lives. In Canadian books, magazines, songs, films and radio and television programs, we are able to see and understand ourselves. We develop a more cohesive society and a sense of pride in who we are as a people and a nation. Our cultural industries not only help us exchange ideas and experiences, they make a significant contribution to our economy. Over the years, the number of companies and individuals involved in producing cultural products has grown dramatically. For example, in the 's, the broadcasting industry was dominated by the CBC. Since that time, the number of private broadcasters and independent producers of programs has grown significantly, as has the impact of their activities on the economy.

The cultural sector is also an important source of economic growth. Between and , it grew by 9. From to , the cultural labour force increased 5. Unlike other industries, employment opportunities in the cultural sector remained high during the last recession and have continued to grow throughout the current recovery. Many of the jobs in the cultural industries are knowledge-based. They require creativity, critical thinking and the knowledge and skills to use advanced technology. People who are able to nurture this combination of creativity and high-tech skills are not only able to create the cultural products that add value to our lives, they are highly marketable in other fields.

Cultural industries are a driving force in technological innovation. Compared to other sectors, more people working in culture fields are successfully self-employed. According to UNESCO, culture includes cultural heritage, printed matter and literature, music, the performing and visual arts, cinema and photography, radio and television, and socio-cultural activities. Canadian Cultural Policy. The goal of the Canadian government's cultural policy is to foster an environment in which Canada's cultural products are created, produced, marketed, preserved and shared with audiences at home and abroad, thereby contributing to Canada's economic, social and cultural growth.

Within the larger goal of fostering Canadian culture, the country's cultural policy objectives are:. As a result of these policy objectives, Canada has one of the most open markets for foreign cultural goods in the world. While an open market clearly has its advantages, it also creates pressure on local cultural industries. For example, because of economies of scale, it can be extremely difficult for small Canadian firms to compete with the large, well-capitalized foreign cultural producers for a place within our own market.

Producing for a small market is costly. Canadian companies have few opportunities to achieve cost efficiencies, and production costs can be a significant barrier. In contrast, other countries have markets many times larger than Canada's. They have more opportunities to recover their costs and can provide less expensive products. This is not the case in the Canadian French language market, which has the "natural buffer" of a different language.

In fact, foreign competition dominates the Canadian cultural market. Foreign firms and products account for:. Considering the size and openness of our market, Canada has developed a relatively strong cultural sector. The success that we have managed to achieve in the competitive Canadian market is due to:. The growth and diversity in our cultural industries is also due, in part, to cultural policies that nurture and promote Canadian culture. While Canada believes its citizens should have access to foreign cultural goods, the government also recognizes that we need space for our own voice.

Our culture is an integral part of who we are. Sharing stories and ideas and creating a better understanding among people in Canada is an effective way to build a healthy multicultural society. The government, as steward of our national identity, promotes cultural activities that help build a sense of community. Culture is also a critical tool in the task of nation building. Canadian culture represents the values that make us unique from other nations. The Canadian government, like governments in other countries, recognizes that cultural diversity, like biodiversity, must be preserved and nurtured.

As the world becomes more economically integrated, countries need strong local cultures and cultural expression to maintain their sovereignty and sense of belonging. For a culture to thrive, it needs a supportive distribution system and investment infrastructure, as well as a stimulating environment for creators and artists. The Canadian government invests in promoting culture, just as it invests in other activities that benefit its citizens, such as protecting the public health, protecting the environment and maintaining a defense force.

In this way, the government acknowledges that cultural products are not simply commodities that can be packaged and sold. Cultural goods and services are different from the goods and services of other industries, and should be treated differently. Canada has developed a policy and regulatory environment that gives Canadians a worldwide choice of cultural products, and still allows us to maintain our cultural diversity. In the past, the government tended to rely on subsidies to support the cultural industries and achieve the country's cultural objectives.

Over time, government support has evolved to take the form of tax and investment measures, coupled with regulatory measures in the tv, film, music and book publishing industries. Border measures e. Canada's current policies, which are intended to encourage the creation, production and distribution of Canadian cultural products in the Canadian marketplace, can be grouped into the following "tools:". Freedom of expression. Canadians live in a free and democratic society where freedom of cultural expression is both necessary and desirable. Freedom of choice. Canadians are able to choose from a broad range of domestic and foreign cultural goods. Canada's domestic market is open to the world. The government uses policy tools, such as regulation and support, to maintain a place for Canadian cultural products in the Canadian market, and to give Canadians ready access to their culture.

Cultural diversity. Canada is a diverse, multicultural nation, and its cultural products reflect that diversity. Products are developed to support the two linguistic markets and the country's many regional and local services. The federal government on its own cannot achieve a strong, prosperous culture in Canada. The federal government works in partnership with provincial and municipal governments and with the private sector to nurture and promote Canadian culture. The Broadcasting Act , which sets out the Broadcasting Policy for Canada, strives to create an open, commercially driven broadcasting system that maximizes consumer choice, while providing a wide variety of content and ensuring a place for Canadian voices.

The Act states that It is hereby declared as the Broadcasting Policy for Canada that the programming provided by the Canadian Broadcasting System The government recognizes that, to give Canadians real choice, the market must have a range of Canadian products. However, cultural products are often costly to produce. Many Canadian cultural firms are small and do not have ready access to capital. Like many other countries, Canada actively supports the public broadcasting system that plays a key role in promoting, producing and exhibiting Canadian cultural products. Government supports the cultural industries by providing both direct and indirect subsidies to help develop Canadian products.

For example:. Financial incentives in the television and film industries have gradually evolved from a system of grants, to equity investments made by the Canadian Television Fund and now to the more objective tax credits and license fee top-ups. In its first two years of operation, the CTF assisted in the creation of 2, hours of new Canadian programming, all of which is to be shown on Canadian television screens during prime time generally, p. In broadcasting, its role is to balance the interests of consumers, the creative community and distribution industries in implementing the public policy objectives established by Parliament.

The CRTC reviews all applications for new services or changes to existing services, and makes its decisions based on the Broadcasting Policy for Canada as set out in the Broadcasting Act. It has been extremely effective in promoting Canadian culture, and is likely to continue to play an important role in the future. Because we share common languages with a number of other countries, Canada is a ready market for their cultural goods. While the government does not want to limit access to foreign cultural goods, it wants to ensure that Canadians can experience our own cultural products and that there is a place for them in our market.

To create a place for Canadian cultural products in the broadcasting industry, the government uses a variety of regulatory measures. For example, the CRTC issues licenses to create space for Canadian cultural industries, and monitors performance to regulate and supervise the country's broadcasting system. To ensure that the Canadian broadcasting system will carry Canadian cultural products, the CRTC sets requirements for Canadian content. These rules apply to the radio and television programming services that broadcast programs and to the distribution systems, cable television, direct-to-home DTH satellite, and MDS systems that deliver broadcast services to the home.

Canadian content is defined differently for sound recordings played on radio and programs broadcast on television. For radio sound recordings: Canadian content is based on the MAPL system - or the nationality of the music composer, the artist, the place of production and the author of the lyrics. When at least two of the four are Canadian, then the sound recording meets the requirements for Canadian content. For television programs and feature films: Canadian content is based on a point system.

For example, programs can earn 2 points for using a Canadian director and a point for each leading Canadian actor. Programs must be produced by a Canadian and have at least six points to be considered Canadian. To qualify for financial assistance from the Canadian Television Fund, a production must attain a maximum of 10 points. Canadian content rules can be flexible.

To encourage the production of Canadian programming and help the cultural industries get access to capital and export markets, the Canadian government has signed co-production agreements with more than 30 countries. In addition, basic service usually includes a community channel, the Canadian Parliamentary channel CPAC , eligible distant Canadian television and radio stations, and may include up to five U. Broadcast media provide an extremely effective way to reach Canadian audiences and are a prime distribution system for cultural products.

Virtually every Canadian home has a radio, which is listened to on average about 20 hours a week. About According to the Juneau Report Making Our Voices Heard - Canadian Broadcasting and Film for the 21st Century, , Canadians spend more time watching television than "we spend on reading, going to movies, theatre, ballet and the symphony, attending church, playing sports and participating in PTA meetings combined". New technologies are increasing the number of channels and the way that signals are carried and transmitted.

Canada's Convergence Policy acknowledges that having new types of distribution networks i. DTH and Direct Broadcast Satellite will lead to more competition among the broadcast industry and the telecommunications industry in their own markets. The new distribution networks will give consumers more choice while encouraging competition. For example, telecommunications firms can now apply for licenses to provide broadcast services, and broadcast firms can develop telecommunications services. While new technologies allow telecommunications and broadcasting companies to offer similar services, the distinction between those companies' services will remain, and will continue to be guided by distinct regulatory systems.

For example, when a telecommunications company provides broadcasting services, those services will fall under the Broadcasting Act and its regulations; when a cable company provides telecommuni-cations services, they will fall under the Telecommunications Act and its regulations. Canada's Convergence Policy reaffirms that all broadcasting distribution systems must provide Canadian programming, contribute financially to producing Canadian content and be subject to the same rules and obligations. In view of the rapid changes in broadcast technologies, the CRTC is now regulating new distribution services, such as DTH services, which use medium-powered fixed satellites or high powered satellites Direct Broadcast Satellites to transmit a number of television stations and services directly to consumers who have satellite dishes and signal decoders.

For example, DTH service providers, like cable television systems and other BDUs, must ensure that a majority of the channels received by their subscribers are Canadian programming services. The services are also encouraged to offer the parliamentary channel and provincial educational service. The advertising rates that television stations charge and the amount of advertising revenues they earn depend on the size of their audiences. When local or regional broadcasters buy programs from American and Canadian producers and networks, they pay substantial sums of money to have exclusive distribution rights in their home markets.

However, if other, more distant stations are showing the same program at the same time, the local audience will be split among several stations and the local station will lose revenue. Simultaneous substitution rules, which are used in both Canada and the United States, are designed to protect the local or regional stations exclusive distribution right. Signal substitution occurs when a cable company inserts the signal of a local or regional Canadian TV station on the channel of a more distant station, showing the same program at the same time. For substitution to take place, the local or regional television station has to make a request to the cable company in advance. While substitution can apply to two Canadian stations, it more often involves the substitution of a Canadian signal for an American one.

With substitution, the local and regional stations maintain their home audiences which, in turn, allows them to earn appropriate advertising revenue and maintain the integrity of the local license. To promote Canada's cultural industries, the government uses tax and other measures to influence the domestic cultural market. These measures are specifically designed to help Canadian companies maintain the advertising revenues they need to survive and to amass the budgets required to develop Canadian programs.

With the advent of cable and U. To help protect this source of income, the Canadian government developed legislation that would stem the flow of advertising revenue to U. Similar legislation also applies to advertising in magazines and newspapers. In , the government introduced an excise tax on advertising in split-run magazines to capture foreign publications that were being transmitted into Canada via satellite, thereby avoiding the existing customs tariff.

Footnote 2. Producers of split-run publications cover the cost of production through sales and advertising in their own market. Canada was the very first region in the world to introduce a multicultural policy Satzewich, It was a different idea than the Us idea of a melting pot, where there will be many different nationalities, yet they would all have American values, which is the main element that united them as being a country. The Royal Percentage agreed with this recommended policy, and presented this to the Federal government of Canada. In , the plan became law, which helped to settle any racial and ethnic complications Satzewich, The Multicultural Policy canada states that all people are equivalent, and can participate as a member of society, irrespective of racial, ethnic, ethnic, or perhaps religious background.

However no matter how much the coverage changed, the consequence of this coverage are very evident. Obvious minorities happen to be persons, apart from Aboriginal lenders, who are non-Caucasian in race or nonwhite in colour Employment and Migration Canada, This means that the immigrants entering Canada are from Euro descent; alternatively, they are originating from other prude, such as Africa, South America, and Asia. Nevertheless , does this signify multiculturalism canada has had an optimistic effect on world?

Many can argue that Canada would be better off without the lenient frame of mind towards migration and multiculturalism. By putting many different races together, all of these have different cultural and worth differences, works of elegance and racism are guaranteed to occur. As well, some migrants bring with them chronicles of issue in their residence countries to Canada, that leads to problems that may include physical violence, hatred, and discrimination Bibby, Instead of unite Canadians, these elements would only divide Canadian society.

Another main reason as to the reasons some people perspective multiculturalism in Canada negatively is really because it creates misunderstandings and disbelief. Many individuals who come to Canada understand only their particular native tongue, and their personal countries rules and regulations. Being introduced to Canadian laws and regulations, language and customs can be quite the process. A third purpose as to why not everyone supports multiculturalism is due to the fear of eroding classic British heritage. Canada has close ties to their mother-nation The united kingdom, and many believe that by allowing immigrants of various ethnic backgrounds into the nation, the link among Canada and Britain only will weaken Satzewich, These are generally all types of downsides to Canadian multiculturalism, but there are many benefits that derive from multiculturalism too.

The benefits of multiculturalism in Canada make up for the downsides. One of the downsides to multiculturalism was that it brings about racism. This is due to the fact that once numerous ethnic teams have been managing each other for some time, they begin to figure out each other more, and therefore feel closer plus more connected to one another Samuda,

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