Gestalt Learning Theory

Tuesday, January 11, 2022 10:56:13 PM

Gestalt Learning Theory

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Insightful Learning - Theories of Learning - Gestalt Theory of Learning - Vidya Venue

Bugental adding to the psychology later down the line. Maslow and the humanists believed that behaviorism and other psychology theories had a negative perception of learners—for example operant conditioning in behaviorism psychology suggested that students only acted in a good or bad manner because of the reward or punishment and could be trained based on that desire for a reward. Maslow and humanistic psychology suggests that students are inherently good and will make good decisions when all their needs are met. Humanistic psychology focuses on the idea that learners bring out the best in themselves, and that humans are driven by their feelings more than rewards and punishments.

Maslow believed this and wrote many articles to try and demonstrate it. This belief that humans are driven by feelings causes educators who understand humanistic psychology to focus on the underlying human, emotional issues when they see bad behavior, not to just punish the bad behavior. This encourages teachers to create a classroom environment that helps students feel comfortable and safe so they can focus on their learning. Emotions are at the center of humanism psychology. There are several important principles involved in the humanistic learning theory that all lead to self-actualization. Student choice. Choice is central to the humanistic learning theory and humanistic psychology.

Humanistic learning is student-centered, so students are encouraged to take control over their education. They make choices that can range from daily activities to future goals. Students are encouraged to focus on a specific subject area of interest for a reasonable amount of time that they choose. Fostering engagement to inspire students to become self-motivated to learn. The effectiveness of this psychology approach is based on learners feeling engaged and self-motivated so they want to learn. So humanistic learning relies on educators working to engage students, encouraging them to find things they are passionate about so they are excited about learning. The importance of self-evaluation. Self-evaluation is the most meaningful way to evaluate how learning is going.

Grading students encourages students to work for the grade, instead of doing things based on their own satisfaction and excitement of learning. Humanistic educators help students perform self-evaluations so they can see how students feel about their progress. Feelings and knowledge are both important to the learning process and should not be separated according to humanistic psychology.

Humanistic teachers believe that knowledge and feelings go hand-in-hand in the learning process. Cognitive and affective learning are both important to humanistic learning. Lessons and activities should focus on the whole student and their intellect and feelings, not one or the other. A safe learning environment. Because humanistic learning focuses on the entire student, humanistic educators understand that they need to create a safe environment so students can have as many as their needs met as possible.

They need to feel safe physically, mentally, and emotionally in order to be able to focus on learning. So humanistic educators are passionate about the idea of helping students meet as many of their needs as possible. In the humanistic learning theory, teachers and students have specific roles for success. Gestalt is a German word that roughly means "configuration," or the way things are put together to form a whole object. A core belief in Gestalt psychology is holism , or that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Originating in the work of Max Wertheimer , Gestalt psychology formed in part as a response to the structuralism of Wilhelm Wundt. While followers of structuralism were interested in breaking down psychological matters into their smallest possible parts, the Gestalt psychologists wanted instead to look at the totality of the mind and behavior.

Guided by the principle of holism, Wertheimer and his followers identified instances where our perception was based on seeing things as a complete whole, not as separate components. Wertheimer developed Gestalt psychology after observing what he called the phi phenomenon while watching alternating lights on a railway signal. The phi phenomenon is an optical illusion where two stationary objects seem to move if they are shown appearing and disappearing in rapid succession.

In other words, we perceive movement where there is none. Based on his observations of the phi phenomenon, Wertheimer concluded that we perceive things by seeing the whole perception, not by understanding individual parts. In the example of blinking lights at a train station, the whole we perceive is that one light appears to move quickly between two points; the reality is that two separate lights are blinking rapidly without moving at all. Wertheimer's observations of the phi phenomenon are widely credited as the beginning of Gestalt psychology, and he went on to publicize the core principles of the field. Other psychologists also had an influence on the field. He also studied hearing and looked at problem-solving abilities in chimpanzees.

He applied the concept of Gestalt to child psychology , arguing that infants first understand things holistically before they learn to differentiate things into parts, and he played a key role in bringing Gestalt principles to the United States. Gestalt psychology helped introduce the idea that human perception is not just about seeing what is actually present in the world around us; it is heavily influenced by our motivations and expectations. Wertheimer created principles to explain how Gestalt perception functions.

Some of the most important principles of Gestalt theory are:. Gestalt therapy is based on the idea that our overall perception depends on the interaction between many factors, including our past experiences, current environment, thoughts, feelings, and needs. Research suggests Gestalt therapy is effective at treating symptoms of depression and anxiety, and it may help people gain confidence and increase feelings of self-efficacy and self-kindness. It is often a helpful way to structure group therapy. Gestalt therapy focuses on the present ; while past context is important for viewing yourself as a whole, a Gestalt therapist will encourage you to keep your focus on your present experience.

The therapeutic process is also very reliant on the relationship between the client and therapist. As a client, you must feel comfortable enough to develop a close partnership with your therapist, and they must be able to create an unbiased environment where you can discuss your thoughts and experiences. Beginning in the s, designers began incorporating Gestalt principles in their work. Gestalt psychology led designers to believe that we all share certain characteristics in the way we perceive visual objects and that we all have a natural ability to see "good" design. Designers embraced Gestalt concepts, using our perception of things like contrast, color, symmetry, repetition, and proportion to create their work.

Gestalt psychology influenced other design concepts, like:. Product designers also use Gestalt psychology to inform their decisions during the development process, as we tend to like products that follow Gestalt principles. This is telling us that we all have an active role to play on our own when it comes to understanding reality. According to these thinkers, behaviorism was something that would limit the behavior of humans and make them specific associations between the natural stigmas and the responses that people had to them.

So, that is a perspective that left mental processes and other components entirely aside. Human intelligence and the potential were not discovered adequately due to these approaches. The thinkers who were responsible for the Theory were putting their primary focus on seeking and finding out specific natural and straightforward explanations that would fit properly when it comes to adapting to the thinking that people had naturally.

With perception by our side, we can get more knowledge of the entire world and have specific interactions with it. Not to mention that perception also helps in making sure that there is a connection between the people in the best way. There are several principles in the theory. Let us look at some of the widely recognized principles. This principle states that when we look at an image that has missing parts, our brain is automatically wired to fill in the gaps such that we can perceive a whole picture. This entire image is, thus, a recognizable pattern. This principle states that humans tend to understand the objects or elements that move in the same direction as more related to each other.

It is in comparison with those who are stationary or are moving in different directions. It means that the human mind groups those elements which are moving in the same direction. This Gestalt principle states that the human mind groups those elements which are in the same closed region. Thus, this principle focused on the proximity of the ingredients. This continuity principle states that as elements are arranged in such a manner that they follow a curve or a line, they are perceived as more related to each other than those which are not in a curve or a string. Thus, the human mind flows with or follows lines or patterns. This principle states that the human brain perceives convex shapes before concave shapes.

It is one of the most widely accepted and popular beliefs of the theory. It states that the human mind instinctively perceives elements as either being in the foreground or the background. Either the details stand out prominently, i. This principle states that when elements seem to look similar to each other, the human mind groups them. It also makes us believe that they may have the same functions. The theory has influenced numerous basic psychological processes. Two of these include the study of perception as well as attention. Many researchers and authors apply the principles to practice. For instance, development in the field of perception has helped us to develop programs that help us avoid and prevent accidents and put up road signs. Students should learn to look and understand things and then, solve their challenges on their own.

They should not just record or memorize the data that is already available. Practically, all of the theories can be incorporated into the current system of education. From the mental processes to the insights to the notions of therapy, students will be able to understand and thus, progress both personally and academically. While solving a problem, it can be quite useful in finding prudent outcomes. It tells you that different issues are the conglomeration of various components. So, when you are going to solve that problem, you need to opt for productive thinking by going through reorganizations of different components so that you can reach the real insight. Gestalt theory has had a significant influence.

Its fundamental idea that the whole is different than its parts has played a substantial role in understanding the human mind and its functioning. It has also helped researchers understand human behavior. The Gestalt theory is universal in terms of human experience. It is widely being incorporated to improve user experience and design.

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