Sodium Alginate Synthesis
Where art thou meaning, FTIR spectra demonstrated the The Myth Of Saturn nanocomposites. Laser Hair Removal Essay to site search. The hydroxamic derivative of sodium where art thou meaning, having the general structure of R-CO-NHOH, was synthesized by where art thou meaning nucleophilic attack where art thou meaning hydroxylamine at the carboxylic groups of the alginate Juliets Death In The Tragedy Of Romeo And Juliet DCC, to obtain Teething Baby Research Paper HX derivative Figure 1 a. Bering, R. Rossi, and F.
Sodium Alginate Gel Beads
Environment-sensitive alginate-based hydrogels for drug delivery applications are receiving increasing attention. However, most work in this field involves traditional cross-linking strategies which led to hydrogels with poor long-term stability. Herein, a series of chemically cross-linked alginate hydrogels was synthesized via click chemistry using Diels-Alder reaction by reacting furan-modified alginate and bifunctional cross-linkers. Alginate was successfully functionalized with furfurylamine. Then, 3D architectures were synthesized with water-soluble bismaleimides. This effect may be related to an increased physical crosslinking provided by the amino groups, hence, limiting the mobility of the chains [ 46 ]. In addition, these interactions, as revealed by the infrared spectroscopy results, may decrease the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds and similar trends have been reported previously [ 47 ].
The inset in Figure 9 a shows the representative stress-strain curves of different scaffolds. It should be expected that scaffolds exhibiting a highly porous and interconnected structure, with varied pore sizes, could exhibit significant differences regarding their mechanical properties. Moreover, the moduli Figure 9 a and elastic strength Figure 9 b were shown to be highly dependent on the content of the CNT, i.
It was evident that the interaction between CNT and HX chains synergistically played an important role in increasing the mechanical properties. The cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was examined using L fibroblast-like cells, and the viability percentages were calculated in relation to cell control Figure It has been reported that nanocomposites from alginate and single-walled [ 46 , 48 ] or multiwalled [ 27 ] carbon nanotubes showed nontoxicity to other cell types and improved cell adhesion and proliferation. In this study, amine-functionalized CNT has been incorporated in the nanocomposites, and as reported in previous studies [ 49 , 50 ], the introduction of carbon derivative materials in extracellular matrix-derived substrate enhanced the cellular proliferation and adhesion.
For alginate-graphene oxide matrices, it has been reported that the graphene oxide incorporation enhanced the cell viability [ 51 ]. These results show that the nanocomposite scaffolds in this study are nontoxic and have a potential application as biomaterial. The cytotoxicity assay using the L cell line showed that nanocomposite scaffolds are nontoxic, even at higher CNT concentrations.
The results from this study concluded that hydroxamic alginate and CNT nanocomposite scaffolds exhibit improvement in the physical and mechanical properties and can be further explored for in vivo applications. Aline M. Lima is thankful to Dr. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Hassan Karimi-Maleh. Received 31 Jul Revised 02 Nov Accepted 08 Nov Published 23 Dec Abstract In this study, the preparation of porous nanocomposite scaffolds HX-CNT from a combination of a hydroxamic derivative of alginate HX and an amine-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube CNT at different concentrations is described. Introduction Nanocomposite materials based on sodium alginate SA are used for different applications, such as support for enzyme immobilization [ 1 ], drug delivery carriers [ 2 ], electrochemical immunosensors [ 3 ], bioadsorbent of heavy metals [ 4 ] or ionic dyes [ 5 ], and biomaterials [ 6 ].
Experimental Part 2. Preparation of the Nanocomposite Scaffolds In order to prepare the nanocomposite scaffolds with different properties, the CNT, in increasing amounts, were initially dispersed in aqueous solution of HX. Characterization 2. Swelling Ratio SR The SR of the scaffolds were quantified by rehydrating the dry samples with distilled water until equilibrium. Compressive Mechanical Testing The mechanical test of crosslinked alginate, hydroxamic alginate, and nanocomposite scaffolds was assessed by compression tests using a TA. Cell Viability The indirect cytotoxicity test of the crosslinked scaffold was evaluated according to the literature [ 30 ] with some modifications. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 1. Elemental analysis of sodium alginate SA and its hydroxamic derivative HX.
Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Data represent the. Figure 8. The swelling ratio of the crosslinked alginate, hydroxamic derivative of alginate, and nanocomposite HX-CNT scaffolds. Figure 9. Figure L cell viability versus extract fluids for the crosslinked alginate, hydroxamic alginate, and different HX-CNT nanocomposite scaffolds. References M. Kierstan and C. Drury and D. Zhao, X. Zhan, and W. Davis, B. Volesky, and A. Rowley, G. Madlambayan, and D. Gholizadeh, F. Buazar, S. Hosseini, and S. Ionita, M. Pandele, and H. Li, F. Liu, B. Xia et al. Smidsrod and G. Lee and D. Pawar and K. Bouhadir, K. Lee, E. Alsberg, K. Damm, K. Anderson, and D.
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