Social Problems By Anna Leon-Guerrero: Summary

Saturday, December 25, 2021 3:36:05 AM

Social Problems By Anna Leon-Guerrero: Summary



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The good news is that course help online is here to take care of all this needs to ensure all your assignments are completed on time and you have time for other important activities. There are several factories in other countries including China that have PPE supplies, and these suppliers are ready to provide the PPE at minimal cost. The problem is the current U. In addition to the lack of connections with suppliers, hospitals are also unable to accurately measure the current need for PPE as the pressure from this need falls directly on providers.

Instead, we need an e-commerce shopify-type open marketplace for personal protective equipment. Unit directors or nursing managers should be able to directly purchase what is required for their units from these international suppliers. This solution would directly connect the international suppliers with the people who actually need the PPE - providers. Currently there are an estimated , dentists and 71, veterinarians in the U. One of the main obstacles to charitable giving from these offices include concerns over their ability to maintain their private practices, which operate at a high overhead.

The state of Texas alone has over 14, private practices. While many of these offices do not possess N95s, some clinics do. Oral surgery clinics might have their own respirators and equipment. Dentists all possess surgical masks that would certainly provide greater protection than bandanas and makeshift hardware currently used in some hospitals. I propose the government establish a policy program that encourages these clinics to give their medical supplies in exchange for one of the following: either a direct buyback program at a discounted Medicare rate, or establish a "war bonds" style program that can be federally backed and offer some return on their interest.

Historically, war bonds were debt securities used to raise capital during WWII. The idea was that civilians would purchase these bonds at discounted rates but with a guaranteed maturation value, and since they were backed by the federal government, there was no risk of losing the valuation of the bond. The bonds also controlled for inflation by restricting the amount of deficit spending; the bonds would essentially phase the artificially generated money out of market once they reached maturation. As many of these offices are operating in the red and still seeing patients to stay afloat, an immediate injection of capital will give them reprieve as small business loan programs roll out and also aid the immediate need for PPE.

This buys time for both small offices and hospitals; the latter awaiting a slowly--but surely--snowballing manufacturing effort for medical equipment. Additionally, war bonds have two net benefits. The first being a spirit of patriotism and capturing the urgency of the health care crisis we face. There are many offices still operating and this offers a meaningful way for members of the private sector to contribute to a public cause. This would also force hesitant private practices to recognize the gravity of the pandemic. Second, war bonds generated a secondary market for their exchange, where individuals in immediate need of capital could sell them to one another.

This reduces the overall spending on the part of the government, grants some capital reprieve in the short term for sellers of the bonds, and holders will have extra capital following cessation of the coronavirus outbreak that can return to the market. I've written an op-ed through Politico that gives some background onto this idea 1. I'm hoping policies that nurture innovative public-private partnerships will result in more collaboration between health care allies to develop a concerted effort in combating the disease.

Dentists all possess surgical masks that would certainly provide greater protection that bandanas and makeshift hardware currently used in some hospitals. Most construction companies use N95 or P respirators that are reusable with disposable filters for painting and handling toxic materials or other activities that require them. These respirators are reusable and can be cleaned with alcohol and probably bleach. There is a very simple, inexpensive and effective way to sterilize and recycle all personal protective equipment against COVID Sterilization using ethylene oxide is used by most surgical units and is readily available.

It takes 12 hours and can be used on masks, gowns, plastics and any delicate equipment. I was horrified when I heard on the news tonight that health care professionals were trying to sterilize their masks by spraying them with lysol spray! Ethylene oxide sterilization provides ove kill for pathogens and provides indicators that the sterilization was complete. It can be done in bulk and the small ethylene oxide molecules penetrates materials extremely well.

Please review the videos below 1,2. Until we can get the production of PPE up to the levels needed to fight this pandemic, ethylene oxide sterilization can provide a viable method of recycling critical PPE. One solution is placing an ozone generator in the room and blasting the room with ozone. Proper ventilation is required before reentry to the room. We had several tents outside the Emergency Departments in many of our campuses to deal with and screen any potential patients with COVID 19 before they reach the hospital or Emergency Department for potential admission. At cancer centers with patients at higher risk of complications and even mortality because of their immunocompromised status, we screen every patient or staff member as they enter the cancer center.

We implemented telephone screening for patients the day before their visits to make sure they do have any flu-like symptoms and direct them to the right place for examination or advise them to stay home for isolation as indicated. We also limited the number of visitors. We created a negative pressure room away from the remaining examination rooms with only one provider and one nurse daily to deal with any suspicious COVID 19 cases. Only these providers would require full gear PPE. N95 face mask can be reused by being placed in a brown bag with their name written on it. We also postponed all elective surgeries andused telephone or WebEx visits for all routine visits to decrease the traffic and exposure to other patients and staff because of shortage of PPE.

Reusable gowns for patients in contact isolation have already been deployed at large medical centers 1 , with the primary motivation being an overall reduction in waste and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the manufacture, transportation, and disposal of one time use gowns. While under normal circumstances implementation of a workflow, especially the laundering process, would take time to carefully plan, there may be opportunities currently to speed this process along. It is likely that commercial laundry facilities with high throughput capabilities, such as those servicing hotels and restaurants, are currently being underutilized and could be called upon to clean reusable gowns.

If there is not adequate stock of new gowns currently available, a pattern could be widely disseminated along with yardage of suggested material to allow for speedy production by either citizen volunteers or existing textile manufacturers. References: 1. Duan, et al, found that dried films of SARS-CoV had rapid inactivation at low temperatures; surfaces "were converted to be non-infectious after , and min exposure at 56 degrees C, at 67 degrees C and at 75 degrees C, respectively. Additionally, due to the temperature range of degrees C being easily attained in a conventional dry-heat oven commonly found in many parts of the world or wet-steam autoclave commonly found near surgical theaters or clinic procedure rooms and the rapid time to inactivation, this poses an attractive option for translation to underserved health populations.

Duan SM, et al. Accessed Mar WHO Report. Ozone and Microwave Sterilization, Filter Materials. Ozone has been used successfully for sterilization in medical research. I've designed very high concentration ozone generators for semiconductor atomic layer deposition. In high concentrations, ozone can be quite hazardous, but when used in a controlled manner at moderate concentrations, it might prove to be very effective at sterilizing PPE.

One of it's benefits is that it penetrates even the smallest spaces. Here's an example of an ozone generator being used in a medical research lab environment. Microwave energy as delivered by microwave ovens has also been shown to have some efficacy in deactivating viruses 1. Although N95 respirators often contain one or more metal parts, at least in some cases these do not generate sparking in microwave ovens. The tendency for metal to spark in a microwave oven is highly dependent on the shape of the metal.

If such a technique is viable, it will need to be done in a controlled manner accounting for the mask type. The positioning of the mask in the microwave will be an important factor. The number, volume and placement of masks and other items will also be important factors. It may be wise to use a separate microwave oven for every healthcare worker. Most importantly, the efficacy of the approach will have to be proven beyond a doubt and thoroughly reviewed. N95 respirators are often made from non-woven polypropylene fabrics. Although I don't know of a domestic source yet, here's a Chinese source. Blisters packs, the clear plastic sheet formed packages often used for electronics and toys among other things, are made with a very simple vacuum process that can be brought on line very quickly.

This approach to thermal forming might yield vented masks to which the N95 filtering material could be applied. A soft foam gasket could be applied to the edge in liquid or paste form, robotically, as a reactive foam. I expect the domestic garment industry in NJ and elsewhere could very quickly produce many surgical style masks if the right materials were available. I also expect that the filter material would hold up well to washing and could be paired with other washable materials. Certain high quality vacuum cleaner bags are designed to filter out particles in the 0.

Those materials and the manufacturers of these bags might be considered as supply chain options. At ours and many other institutions, a facial mask with an eye shield is worn over the N If N95 was thought not to be contaminated, one. Isolation and treatment centers need to be staffed to the maximum extent possible by people with natural immunity after recovery from COVID who can work without PPE. There are two sources. First are community volunteers who have recovered from infection. They can be immediately deployed to isolation and treatment centers. Second are young healthy soldiers deployed to isolation and treatment centers, housed in their own hotels with state-of-the-art treatment floors, quarantined from the general community, and with rest, exercise, food and other supports that enhance immune response.

They will rapidly constitute a large group of caretakers who do not need PPE. As with war time mobilizations, selected individuals can be provided with training to assume more and more functions. Recruitment of retired healthcare workers to provide urgent help now is exactly the wrong thing to do. They will require PPE, many will still get infected, spread COVID when they return home, and because of their age be more likely to have severe illness further burdening the delivery system.

Treatment of N95 mask with salt water to allow reuse. I came across an article published in that reports the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt 1. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens.

The authors found that salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. This might allow reuse of the limited masks that we have. We would need validation of this technique to see if it is effective and allows reuse of masks. Also came across a video on YouTube explaining the technique.

Interesting concept but needs further testing and validation! I see an opportunity to reach out to the food canning industry. Biohazard waste handling and transport infrastructure is already in place. The only significant steps to develop are appropriate packaging for reissue and a standardized marking system to indicate previous use and allow discard after a set number of uses. I practice in Grand Island, Nebraska. We have a shortage of N95 masks. My husband is a farmer and went around to the NAPA stores and hardware stores in surrounding smaller, more rural towns.

In the larger towns the public had bought them for themselves. They had industrial N95 masks. I realize that these are not medical grade, but they are a safer option for providers to wear than just a surgical mask. We contacted local farmers who had boxes of them because they use them on the farm to clean out grain bins. The local ethanol plants and industries and industrial suppliers had some. Eventus WholeHealth is a medical group of greater than providers of primary care, behavioral medicine, podiatry, audiology, and optometry services for skilled nursing facilities and assisted living facilities in five states.

Although skilled nursing facilities have a limited supply of personal protective equipment, assisted living facilities typically do not, yet still provide residential services for populations highly vulnerable to COVID Because traditional PPE suppliers have prioritized their usual customers such as hospitals and ambulatory providers, Eventus has been unable to secure adequate PPE through the usual supply chain. However, inexpensive disposable plastic rain ponchos have been available via amazon and may be worn in rooms of patients at high risk for the corona virus.

Our providers do not perform procedures such as intubations where N95 masks would be necessary. Therefore, we have been able to provide dense-cloth masks to our providers as a results of volunteer seamstresses in our community, providing some droplet protection. We look forward to the supply of PPE expanding, but in the meantime we are grateful to our community volunteers who have allowed us to serve patients in the assisted living facilities and suspect other communities can muster this volunteer resource to assist. Inpatient eConsults to reduce non-essential patient contact. This communication is documented in the medical record similar to a formal consult. While traditionally this has been used in outpatient settings, this model of care can easily be brought inpatient.

Substituting eConsults for in-person consults reduces the number of PPE used by specialists. It also has the potential added benefit of reducing spread of COVID19 by reducing unnecessary contact. An additional benefit is expanding the capacity of physicians to care for more patients during this surge as eConsults usually require less time than an in-person consult. NY Presbyterian has just issued this directive: "The use of a surgical mask over the N95 respirator can prevent droplet contamination of the N Thus, if the N95 is covered as above, it can be reused multiple times until visibly soiled, contaminated, or wet or the wearer is unable to pass a fit check.

The same logic would permit a washable cloth mask to cover a surgical mask, permitting the surgical mask to be used many days. The owner of each surgical mask could UV disinfect it by laying it in direct sunlight for a few hours on each side. Someone with a sewing machine could make 30 masks a day, so community volunteers could produce 60, in 4 days. Separately, I am extremely concerned that some staff and patients are permitted to have uncovered faces within hospitals. The prevalence of infection and transmissibility by asymptomatic persons requires universal droplet precautions. A washable cloth mask would block exhalation of droplets by talking, coughing and sneezing, though it is not as effective as a surgical mask for blocking inhalation of droplets.

A cloth mask should probably be changed every hours since moisture and time could permit droplets to reach the exterior. Under ideal preparedness conditions, what we would need to be ready for something like this: 1. Modular negative pressure containment units with capacity for unlimited interconnectedness and expansion Neal Stephenson's novel Seveneves has described something similar for space powered by renewable energy and batteries, antechambers between, HEPA filtration.

Immediate and swift logistical plans for rapid risk stratification and definitive answers at or close to point of care. Setting these modular units up for testing and treatment as soon as possible. Stockpiles of critical building materials for 2 above reagents, raw materials or the ability to change testing and isolating protocols 5. Experts in charge scientists, engineers, virologists, logistics experts when an emergency is declared. Unfortunately my understanding from my engineer friends is that is difficult to design a de novo industry producing N95 masks with 0. Everything I have seen during this pandemic from the best of humanity from all over the world; there is no dearth of goodwill, we are not wanting for really great ideas and innovation, but for a unified and coordinated response in the face of what could be a catastrophic event.

The potential for implementing UV decontamination is well discussed in a prior comment. Another way to implement this would be to explore the wavelengths possible with research or even pharmacy hoods. This would require turning the masks, but has the advantage of using existing UV sources in a setting where airflow can be regulated to be protective. There is existing literature on the use of UV and masks that provides useful data by mask manufacturer length of irradiation which can further guide institutions that chose to explore this approach. Sterilization Methods for Masks and Face Shields. Simon Mendez, Internal Medicine. All our hospitals likely have vapor, gas, and radiation sterilization equipment in the OR.

There are packages and marker tags designed to ensure sterilization of endoscopes, surgical material. One of these methods can be used to sterilize a pool of masks, goggles, and face shields that are not visibly soiled. Each health care provider can have several surgical masks to use during the day and placed on a bag for decontamination at the end of shift.

The same masks can be given to this provider the next morning. This would depend on testing that sterilization does not deteriorate the physical integrity of the mask. This idea may not apply to the N95 respirators due to the need for a tight fit and filter integrity. Per information from a WHO publication, one sneeze can release as many as 40, droplets in the 0. A cough releases up to 3, droplets, which is equivalent to an amount released by normal talking for 5 minutes. So even a properly fitted N95 mask does not completely eliminate the risk of illness or death. High quality air conditioning AC filters work the same way and might be equal to this level of protection.

This stands for Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value. The scale from was designed to represent the worst case performance of a filter handling particles in the range of 0. The higher the MERV rating, the better the particles are captured. This is equivalent to an N95 mask. I have a 20x25x1 inch AC filter in my house that was made by 3M, purchased at Lowes. It has a MERV rating of Could these filters possibly be taken out of their square cardboard AC filter frames and cut into makeshift masks? Speed up testing, identify necessary staff, triage inpatients, increase virtual visits. I propose a 4 stage policy for managing shortages 1.

Speed up testing- turnaround time should be less than 12 hours possible here in Cleveland, Ohio where we have in-house testing Impact: It will take negative patients out of the system faster and reduce the need for observing them for days. This will single-handedly reduce the need for PPE. Identify necessary staff- Identify a group of people who will work in 8-hour shifts to give emergency care to patients suspected of COVID Impact: It helps to log how much PPE is required for each shift and inflated demands are not made on a particular shift. It helps in rationing what we have. A principle I have seen to great effect from my service days. Such patients do not need multiple teams visiting them. A virtual monitor can be assigned and a single physician for 20 patients to examine them if need be.

All other teams can have virtual visits. Impact: Lessen the number of physicians and the need for PPE. Strictly follow protocol- Cancel all elective procedures surgical or medical - Insurance companies should stop payments for all elective procedures unless they deal with life-threatening conditions like cancer treatment. Nothing beats old-style hand washing. Personal hygiene is important. This does not replace PPE but hopefully would reduce transmission. Big companies should step in to start making equipment for the healthcare industry. Desperate times call for desperate measures. Mark VanDerwater, Ed. Orchard Park High School. The mandatory biology course in the high school where I teach normally does a fetal pig dissection and we offer an anatomy elective.

I estimate that we have nearly boxes of latex exam gloves on hand. I imagine this is true for thousands of high schools across the country. Likewise, Science Education suppliers may also stock other basic medical supplies. Brian Lichtenstein, M. Racquetball and other sporting glasses provide significant eye protection and are inexpensive. Cleaning may be easily performed with soap and water. Clearly masks both disposable surgical and N95 are a precious commodity, both for source control and prevention, which has complicated decision making about use and reuse.

Furthermore, risk of exposure will continue in or communities when our staff return home. Best available research has led all to presume that asymptomatic spread is likely a common mode of transmission. If so, we should expect all sites of care will have prodromal or asymptomatic staff working who may spread this infection before clinical recognition and isolation from work. To that end, I believe all medical staff should be issued a single mask of any type, to be worn continuously throughout time in high-risk settings, e. Ideally reusable protective eyewear such as sports googles should also be issued.

If a mask is visibly soiled or no longer viable due to extended wear, a replacement mask should be provided. Creating and using cloth masks, made from bandanas, t-shirts, etc. I've included some references below that were previously conducted discussing efficacy of cloth masks and different material. As other commenters have already noted, multiple templates are available online. Potentially these could be laundered in currently available linen services used by hospitals. Storing N95s immediately after use for future use. Some of my fellow hospitalists and I are preserving N95 masks by removing them and placing them immediately in a brown paper bag instead of throwing them away.

The bag is then labeled with the patient's last name and the date. These bags are then being stored in our locked offices. When a patient's test result returns as negative, the masks used in that patient's room are immediately available to be reused. If the patient's test comes back positive, then the masks used in their room are reusable a number of days later. Based on the time that the virus can live on surfaces see references below , it should be safe to reuse them again 5 days later. On the conservative side, I am planning on reusing them after 7 days. This strategy involves having a supply of paper bags, a place to store them, and enough masks to get through a week--this number could vary quite a bit depending on many factors. Once our hospital switches to Covid-only wards, one mask could be worn an entire shift.

My sincere hope is that enough new masks are manufactured and distributed that I never have to reuse the masks I've been storing. As that seems unlikely to happen anytime soon, I am happy that I am building a supply of masks that can be safely used as soon as next week. I have heard of several initiatives where alternatives to traditional PPE using high-quality materials are produced in the community and transported to hospitals. For example, some have advocated for 3D printing masks or ordering mylar and elastic to construct facemasks. I've seen other social media posts about crafting gowns from fabrics to be shared with HCWs on the frontlines.

I've heard that Lysol is a sufficient disinfectant for the masks and that gowns could be disinfected per usual hospital gown-disinfection protocol -- is this true? Similarly, in Philadelphia, students have had the extremely clever idea to reach out to art museums to request the gloves they use in their conservation departments. Another source that has proven fruitful is requesting masks, gloves, and testing reagents from research labs associated with the universities that host each hospital system. Unless there is a draining wound with MRSA for example, no gowns will be used.

We currently use washable isolation gowns, not disposable. This type of protocol is already implemented at some institutions regardless of the current shortage. Hospital leaders and decision makers. If we are truly facing a supply shortage and are not able to keep up with demand, one of the most important thing leaders can do apart from obviously spurring industry to ramp up production is realize that front line clinicians are looking to their facility leadership for real guidance at this time.

Have effective and established communication channels with frontline staff. Many frontline clinicians are very scared. Many are making great personal sacrifices to show up for the patients served in your facilities. Frontline staff need coordinated guidance and functioning communication channels with updated policy and process information. Not having PPE is a resource problem. How to face that problem is as much a process problem as it is a resource or policy problem.

Encourage sharing of failures and negative findings so that we can learn collectively faster. Other 5 Create structured venues for information sharing to facilitate shared learning at local site, organization, medical community, and national levels. I use an eye mask, usually used as a sleeping aid, in place of the surgical mask whenever the hospital cannot provide one. The mask applies firmly, has a decent seal since it blocks light, is thicker than the surgical mask and can be washed and dried for reuse with reliable durability.

Kelly Cann, MD. Many colleges and universities use PPE in their class and research labs including gloves, masks, and even goggles or face shields. Medical and health professions schools also use this kind of PPE and N95s for simulations and fit testing. Given that many of these institutions have closed their doors for weeks or even the entire semester, they could donate the unused supplies to local hospitals. Colleges and universities also have cleaning supplies that could be donated.

N95 and other masks are getting donned and doffed repeatedly in 1 day, subjecting caregivers to risk of facial cross-contamination; overnight sterilization with ethylene oxide won't fix that. A persistent treatment that accelerated viral inactivation would lower that risk. Maybe it's time to get blue instead of feeling blue! The function is the same as non-contact infrared thermometers e. One can even imagine using infrared cameras to quickly measure the forehead temperature of many people, e. I have been looking into this for the past week as to the best solution to preserve disposable N95 masks. The best proposition I came up with is saving N95 masks and placing them in paper bags.

Then rotating through the masks giving each one 72 hours in between each use. COVID reportedly survives on plastic and metal surfaces for up to 72 hours. So if you can cycle several masks through a rest period, potentially the risk of contamination can be minimized. Unfortunately UV light degrades the plastic in N95 masks compromising the integrity 1. Rachel Umoren, MB. Hospital systems can leverage telehealth and wearable sensors to facilitate timely discharges and home monitoring. The use of inpatient telehealth should be expanded to provide supportive services and conserve personal protective equipment PPE.

Can we take droplet precautions to the community? As a sustainable way forward. We have to rethink the problem. The real issue driving the pandemic is involuntary hand-face contact. This is the critical and final step in the chain of contact transmission which we should try to target. Temporal and physical social distancing is not helpful if everyone is united by shared contaminated surfaces.

A motorbike rider protects his vulnerable area by using a helmet, not by staying off the road. In war, you can either shoot down every arrow aimed at you or elegantly use armour. Consideration of robotics and virtual visits in a Pandemic. These unusual times call for innovative, thoughtful, and expedited actions. Plans to secure PPE in times of surge and crisis are vital to the health of our frontline providers and their families.

CDC has recommended various options based on the level of surge and availability of PPE, including use of bandanas and scarves 1. The need is clear. We need more time for our system to complete research and development for evidenced-based prevention and treatment. We must protect the safety of our providers despite expected surges. Can those who have antibodies to this novel coronavirus be protected from reinfection? Answers could help us optimize providers of COVID units to be those with possible immunity in times of protective equipment shortage. Also, strong consideration of robotics, virtual visits, and larger scale virtual ICU care to minimize need for as much PPE at this extraordinary time may be warranted The American public has been told to NOT wear masks.

Yet we see citizens of China, S. Korea and Taiwan, countries that have successfully mitigated the virus, wearing masks. This creates a medical authority credibility problem. I have about 8 masks and am afraid to use them due to the social stigma. I do not want to be perceived as part of the problem, yet I want to protect myself and go about my business. I do not know who is mildly inflected, showing few symptoms and spreading the virus, it could be anyone. Maybe me at some point, given the projections.

What's the healthy spouse supposed to do to protect themselves as a caregiver? The medical authorities need to offer mask reuse techniques to citizens that have masks and at the same time ask those citizens to drop off their extra masks at designated medical facilities. Show me how I can reuse my mask and protect myself and family. I'll gladly give up extras which I purchased at a hardware store. Could I disinfect my mask by using a spray bottle to mist it with an alcohol or a hydrogen peroxide solution and let it dry?

Could I heat the mask dampened? How would I make a washable, reusable mask from readily available materials at home? Is there a sewing machine pattern that could be provided? Would the CDC or some other organization put up vetted mask reuse solutions on its website? Social distancing and shelter in place are, in part, mask shortage responses. And it's crushing the economy. Thank you to all the medical professionals that are doing their best to help us through this crisis!

We are all in this together. At my hospital, people have been stealing large quantities of PPE since it is not under lock and key. If N95 masks and other crucial PPE could be kept in a Pyxis-like system, requiring an ID, password, and inventory count, it might prevent stealing and hoarding. Robotic cleaners are an option for disinfection and cleaning patient care areas; potential should be explored for additional applications as well, including high traffic areas elevators, restrooms with the ability to engage UV light when not in use, as well as in air handlers. In addition to effectiveness and efficiency, utilization of this technology would decrease human workload, and potential exposure.

Also, consideration of swimming goggles for eye protection tight seal, good visibility, reusable. The use of personal protective equipment is related to how many COVID patients are able to be effectively isolated outside of hospitals. The fewer patients we admit, the less PPE we use. I therefore propose the following two suggestions, both of which I have published in the Washington Post, but feel that the JAMA audience might find interesting. A temporary change in litigation standards in every state that changes the medical malpractice standards to gross negligence or malice 1. Physicians need the confidence to discharge low-yield admissions during this time, without fear of future legal exposure.

This not only conserves hospital beds, but it decreases the turn-over of PPE that is necessary to prevent nosocomial infection. Home isolation is problematic because of community transmission. This policy is an in situ economic stimulus by keeping these businesses open and their employees working, and provides a reasonable mechanism for the United States Federal Government and governments elsewhere to create coviddedicated facilities that match the World Health's Organization recommendations. This too limits the need to utilize PPE at home or in other facilities which do not offer single-occupancy isolation in any practical sense.

In efforts to mitigate the same, our hospital an academic institute has planned to avoid exposure of students, which includes banning residents, nursing students, pharmacy students, and advanced practitioner students to care for COVID suspected or confirmed cases. The idea behind this step is one, to prevent unnecessary infectious exposure to students, and, second, to prevent more than 1 PPE being utilized per patient encounter as every case seen by a student, also needs to be supervised by an attending physician or a senior healthcare provider.

With this idea, we have been able to utilize PPE judiciously. Studies show that the Coronavirus can last up to about 3 days on surfaces. An individual could be issued 4 masks and 4 storage boxes or hooks on a wall if space allows. At the end of the day the mask would be put back in place and the next day they would use the next mask or one could could use 8 masks and 8 storage locations to change mid shift without fear of the mask being contaminated as it will have been 4 days since last used.

Depending on the mask used a decision would need to be made on how many times it could be used. On the storage container a piece of paper could be used to log the date each was used. That would help if the user forgot which mask they last used, and would help track when the mask needed to be disposed. During World War II, we saw American women step up to take factory jobs to help the war effort, allowing for the mass production of weaponry and other war needs. Repeatedly, we have heard this pandemic likened to times of war.

As such, we need to get an "all hands on deck" approach to maximizing the supply of PPEs. First, industries that are facing slow business can be incentivized to switch to PPE production. We have seen this work today in New York, with fashion designer Christian Siriano temporarily switching from fashion to PPE production. With more incentives, this can be encouraged at a state-by-state or national level. Second, for the many Americans who are now encouraged or mandated to stay at home who want to help out, hospitals and other groups can provide the materials and instructions needed to manufacture PPE at home safely and effectively.

This can be on a volunteer basis, or possibly even for pay-- especially as unemployment rates are beginning to skyrocket and many Americans are looking for work to do in this period. We have the workforce to do this, but the workforce needs to be provided materials, instructions, and incentives in order to join together in producing PPE. Lee, MD University of Pittsburgh. As previously mentioned in the online comments, this method could conceivably enable the reuse of PPE. If UV-C light can extend the use of one N mask by 2 or 3 times, the supply of PPE available for each healthcare worker increases by 2- or 3-fold. Tseng C. Inactivation of viruses on surfaces by ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. J Occup Environ Hyg Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol Letter to the Editor.

NEJM In addition, they are making choices regarding the protection of themselves and their patients from potential COVID infection and use of PPE for safe handling of hazardous cancer drugs. Song et al [1] provided a simple method for heat inactivation of virus on the surface of personal protective equipment like medical masks without damaging the filtration function of the treated masks by using a hair dryer to heat for 30min. This method can be easily used by community people. However, it is not suitable for people who were in close contact with patients such as medical staffs and laboratory technicians to use this method. Modified PPE has also been created by many clinicians. For example, image film and other plastic sheets that are available in the hospital could be modified into a face shield.

It is important that medical staff treat patients in hospitals, but everyone in society can contribute in an effort to help address the COVID pandemic by canceling gathering activity and decreasing unnecessary travel, which could help to limit the scale of epidemic thus relieve the current shortage of medical resources. Evaluation of heat inactivation of virus contamination on medical mask [J]. Journal of microbes and infection. We made our own supplies at home using a clear film cover A4 , double-sided tape 3cm wide , elastic tape 3cm wide and sponges 3cm thick. The instructions: the double-sided tape sticks on the top of the film cover, then sponges stick to the double-sided tape, finally use a stapler to fasten the elastic tape to the ends of the sponge.

This homemade protective face shield may be simple and ugly, but it is very practical. The process is easy and takes two minutes. I agree with Dr Cherian from Singapore about taking a different approach. Data suggests this is particularly important to the nose. I propose inexpensive, immediately and widely available nasal PPE for public use that provides both a physical barrier and micro- and possibly ultrafiltration of droplets and particles: an adhesive bandage or Band-Aid. Carefully trim the central outer adhesive off the pad which is often a high density melt woven fabric.

Center the pad over the nostrils and apply. If it does not seal degrees, then add the adhesive strips from another bandage to finish the seal. When moist or soiled, replace as needed. Environment and physical contact may be a greater source than direct airborne transmission 1. Nasal transmission may predominate. Published online March 04, J Hosp Infect. PMID: One possible source of alternative material for face masks are lab coats that are used for PPE in labs. These are generally used over the course of a week disposed of when soiled or at the end of work week. Another possible alternative are spill containment pads absorbs spills; used to line buckets. These generally have a plastic side and an absorbant side.

Either one could be cut into the shape of a surgical mask with lengths of the material cut to use as tiebacks. Strings attached separately could be used too. These make shift masks will need to be modified with a hose or straws to allow the user to breathe. Tape could be used to hold these in place. And of course, breathing would be important for the users. Not glamorous but perhaps serviceable until normal product is received.

Robert Kraus, Ph. Los Alamos National Laboratory, retired. In fact, some clean room PPE is acquired from medical supply sources. I am aware of one clean room operator, while not shutting down, has made excess stock available to health care providers at no cost. This is exemplary of people reaching out to help our health care professionals who are critical to the recovery of our populace and nation.

We anticipate a fairly rapid depletion of our N95 mask and PAPR supply, and have developed a makeshift PAPR using core supplies that we think may remain readily available: a nasal cannula, a transparent plastic bag extending down the torso, and a large rubber band to create a comfortable seal around the neck. By connecting to liters per minute of oxygen, we are able to maintain a breathable environment within the bag with measured CO2 remaining at a stable mmHg. N95 respirator masks can be used for 24 hours with multiple patients if worn with a balaclava over it.

No need of throwing the N95 mask at least within 24 hours if this is covered. For disposable medical gowns, reuse them by hanging them outside the patients' room and pasting your name on it so every person that sees that patient should do the same and reuse those gowns every time they see the patient instead of throwing them. Try to use fabric protective gowns, shoes covers that can be washed, disinfected and then reused several days. But for this you will need time to get as many fabric protective gowns as possible.

This will help not only the healthcare workers but the environment. Re-usable respirators with exchangeable P3 filter cartridges are used for construction workers. The filters are intended for multiple use and not exchanged until clotted by dust. Most of these filters are also effective against liquid aerosols, though there is little specific data regarding containment of bacteria and virus. This should be tested. Extra protection against droplets may be achieved by strapping a surgical mask over the P3 filter. Regarding re-use, some kind of sterilization is probably necessary. Sterilization of the filter cartridges may be envisioned by for instance short-time heat treatment: the SARS-1 virus was reported to be inactivated after 90 minutes at 56 degrees Celsius degrees Farenheit.

In such masks the expiration directly flows to the filtering parts the mask itself , and condensation may limit re-use. For industrial masks, the P3 filter cartridges are protected from expiration by vents directing expiration directly out of the mask. Another option for sterilization would be gamma ray irradiation, akin to sterilization of spice. Again, it would be necessary to test the efficiency of viral inactivation and the stability of the filters under such conditions.

Consider cleaning your worn N95 masks in a resealable plastic bag connected to a hose attached to an ozone generating device such is used for cleaning CPAP masks. These devices can be purchased online and use standard CPAP hose connector. Use a ziplock bag to put your mask in. Many of the devices are pocket size and are portable with rechargeable batteries. Repeatedly changing masks, gloves, faceshields is a huge waste of time and materials. It's not about being perfect, it's about doing the best you can. IV pumps in hallways just outside doors to pt rooms: RNs can hang meds and adjust pumps without having to enter room, cutting number of trips into a room significantly. A nurse posted photos of this in action on a covid healthcare social media thread and it is genius.

Reduce people in room to a minimum: obvious, but rounding teams reduce the number entering rooms, no visitors except for births and deaths, proactive medical decision making with physician declarations of DNR for pts unlikely to survive arrest so as to avoid packed code situations. Chao-Min Cheng, Ph. Alternatively, hypochlorous acid could be used. Three formulations regarding alcohol-contained spray are below described. Although inefficient, tanning beds from closed salons, spas, and gyms might be deployed to UV-disinfect PPE, expanding opportunities for reuse. UV-A light emitted by the beds should still work, but would require longer exposure times than UV-C in conventional units. Hospitals can also commandeer many toy and water UV-C disinfection units for smaller items.

The virology literature also explores use of sunlight for disinfection. Thank you Dr. Fabricio Webber for the additional idea! I would also like to add that in the meantime, while we figure out how to 3D print the p filter, healthcare workers could use clean technique to cut a piece of the HEPA filter or N95 mask both have a pore size of 0. This would add the needed airborne protection to the snorkel mask. We also need coordination among healthcare workers to ensure that we maximize the use of all the surface area of these HEPA and N95 to fit the snorkel area of as many masks as possible.

According to a article 1 , taping a classic surgical mask to create a seal improves its protective factor by nearly double for each of five volunteers evaluated. Perhaps taping surgical masks to create a seal along with other modalities could be an option when N95 masks are not available. Journal of the American Biological Safety Association, 5 1 pp. Bill Kournikakis, R. Kent Harding, J. Tremblay, and Maureen Simpson. Over the past decade there has been research completed on the reuse of N95 respirators to prepare for this type of event. The research points to a few methods that inactivate influenza virus and have limited impact on performance of the respirator.

However, the research is usually limited to a few models of respirators and limited cycles of decontamination. Most studies performed 3 cycles but some were up to 20 cycles. I providethe relevant citations below. I also provide a few notes on methods people may be considering: UV Light — We have performed extensive research on UV light disinfection of filtering facepiece respirators FFRs. It does show promise, but the dose applied must be quantified to ensure it is adequate for inactivation. UV light is also harmful so you need to be careful not to expose workers. Bleach — Wiping the FFRs with bleach had little impact on the performance of the respirator. Only three disinfection cycles were completed. Residual bleach may be a concern for dermatitis.

This was demonstrated in a submersion method, but you need to be careful even if you are spraying the alcohol on the respirators. After three treatments little decay in filtration performance was identified. However, some FFRs had nose pad separations. Microwave Generated Steam — This is a quick treatment. Essentially the respirator is placed on reservoir with a defined depth and volume of water. The microwave generates steam that was shown to inactivate the virus.

While these seems simple, there are many considerations. Also, not all respirators will work due to arcing. If you want to try this please obtain the research articles that define the procedure. Large scale methods like vaporized hydrogen peroxide and ethylene oxide also had very little decay on performance of the respirator. We want to help so please reach out with your questions. Mills D.

JEOH, ;7 8 — Bergman et al. Occup Hyg, ;53 8 Viscusi et al. Single-use Mask from Readily Available Materials. Engineering Binghamton University. I've been thinking about how to make disposable masks for patients and caretakers in mass quantities. I've restricted my material-set to commonly available and mass-produced materials. My idea is to use coffee filters with a seal to the face made with a lightly adhesive tape eg painters or masking tape or adhesive spray around the border.

The coffee filter is not hydrophobic, so it wouldn't work for extended periods, but may be good for brief periods. I did a qualitative test of the filter with a nebulized sugar solution. A local hospital will do quantitative testing later today. Reusable Elastomeric Respirators' Role in Healthcare. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine NASEM recommends that reusable elastomeric respirators be considered for routine and surge use in healthcare respiratory protection programs RPP , provided cleaning and disinfection protocols are specified.

Additionally, the CDC recommends inclusion of reusable elastomeric respirators as one strategy to preserve N95 respirators N95 during periods of shortage in healthcare settings. Reusable elastomeric respirators, while infrequently used in healthcare, are in common use in general industry. Similarly, elastomeric respirators are tight-fitting, negative pressure respirators and require a fit-test. They are made by various manufacturers and come in different sizes. Some experts believe that the level of protection afforded by these respirators may actually be higher given the greater reliability of the seal between the mask and the face. Elastomeric respirator facemasks connect to filters.

Plastic cartridge-covered filters can be used and not replaced unless they either become soiled or noticeably hard to breathe through. These respirators can be worn with eye protection or face shields. Elastomeric respirators can be cleaned and disinfected repeatedly. Cleaning involves removal of soiling agents like facial oils, while disinfection involves removal of microbial agents. Evidence-based protocols for both exist. Disinfection can be accomplished by use of standard EPA-registered hospital disinfectant wipes with claims against the appropriate microbial agent such as SARS-CoV-2 , while cleaning is accomplished by removal of the cartridge filters and submersion in soapy water.

Respirators may be assigned to individuals or could be shared, provided that thorough cleaning and disinfection has occurred. Users must know their facemask size and adjust the straps to achieve proper fit. Before each use, users perform seal checks to assure the integrity of the seal, which is taught during training. In a crisis situation in which fit-testing may be untenable, assurance of seal by performing seal checks may provide assurance.

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