Declarative Sentences In The Woman Warrior

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Declarative Sentences In The Woman Warrior

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14. Maxine Hong Kingston, The Woman Warrior

These are the only things in English, that can properly be said to be subject to government; and these are always so, in their own names; unless we except such infinitives as stand in the place of nominatives. Gerundives are participles governed by prepositions; but, there being little or no occasion to distinguish these from other participles, we seldom use this name.

The Latin Gerund differs from a participle, and the English Gerundive differs from a participial noun. The participial noun may be the subject or the object of a verb, or may govern the possessive case before it, like any other noun; but the true English gerundive, being essentially a participle, and governing an object after it, like any other participle, is itself governed only by a preposition. At least, this is its usual and allowed construction, and no other is acknowledged to be indisputably right.

Of Articles to nouns, by Rule 1st; 2. Of Nominatives to verbs, by Rule 2d; 3. Of Nominatives absolute or independent, by Rule 8th; 4. Of Adjectives to nouns or pronouns, by Rule 9th; 5. Of Participles to nouns or pronouns, by Rule 20th; 6. Of Conjunctions as connecting words, phrases, or sentences, by Rule 22nd; 8. Of Prepositions as showing the relations of things, by Rule 23d; 9. Of Interjections as being used independently, by Rule 24th. The twenty-four rules above, embrace the following ten heads, which may not improperly be taken for so many distinct concords: 1.

Of a Noun or Pronoun in direct apposition with another, by Rule 3d; 2. Of a Noun or Pronoun after a verb or participle not transitive, by Rule 6th; 3. Of a Pronoun with its antecedent, by Rule 10th; 4. Of a Pronoun with a collective noun, by Rule 11th; 5. Of a Pronoun with joint antecedents, by Rule 12th; 6. Of a Pronoun with disjunct antecedents, by Rule 13th; 7. Of a Verb with its nominative, by Rule 14th; 8. Of a Verb with a collective noun, by Rule 15th; 9. Of a Verb with joint nominatives, by Rule 16th; Of a Verb with disjunct nominatives, by Rule 17th. To these may be added two other special concords, less common and less important, which will be explained in notes under the rules: Of one Verb with an other, in mood, tense, and form, when two are connected so as to agree with the same nominative; Of Adjectives that imply unity or plurality, with their nouns, in number.

Words in apposition agree in case , according to Rule 3d; of which principle, Rule 6th may be considered a modification. Pronouns agree, with their nouns, in person, number, and gender , according to Rule 10th; of which principle, Rules 11th, 12th, and 13th, may be reckoned modifications. Verbs agree with their nominatives, in person and number , according to Rule 14th; of which principle Rules 15th, 16th, and 17th, and the occasional agreement of one verb with an other, may be esteemed mere modifications. Some adjectives agree with their nouns in number.

These make up the twelve concords above enumerated. Of Nouns. Of Verbs. Of Words indeclinable. Vocum indeclinabilium. This division of the subject brings all the titles of the rules wrong. For example, if the rule be, "Active verbs govern the accusative case," this is not properly "the government of verbs " but rather the government of the accusative by verbs. At least, such titles are equivocal , and likely to mislead the learner. The governments in English are only seven, and these are expressed, perhaps with sufficient distinctness, in six of the foregoing rules: 1.

Of Possessives by nouns, in Rule 4th; 2. Of Objectives by verbs, in Rule 5th; 3. Of Objectives by participles, in Rule 5th; 4. Of Objectives by prepositions, in Rule 7th; 5. Of Infinitives by the preposition to , in Rule 18th; 6. Of Participles by prepositions, in Rule 20th. But it is to be remembered, that the mere collocation of words in a sentence never affects the method of parsing them: on the contrary, the same words, however placed, are always to be parsed in precisely the same way, so long as they express precisely the same meaning.

In order to show that we have parsed any part of an inverted or difficult sentence rightly, we are at liberty to declare the meaning by any arrangement which will make the construction more obvious, provided we retain both the sense and all the words unaltered; but to drop or alter any word, is to pervert the text under pretence of resolving it, and to make a mockery of parsing. Grammar rightly learned, enables one to understand both the sense and the construction of whatsoever is rightly written; and he who reads what he does not understand, reads to little purpose. With great indignity to the muses, several pretenders to grammar have foolishly taught, that, "In parsing poetry, in order to come at the meaning of the author, the learner will find it necessary to transpose his language.

See also the books of Merchant, Wilcox, O. Peirce, Hull, Smith, Felton , and others, to the same effect. To what purpose can he transpose the words of a sentence, who does not first see what they mean, and how to explain or parse them as they stand? Murray's Gram. In accordance with this assertion, some assume, that, "Every nominative has its own verb expressed or understood;" and that, "Every verb except in the infinitive mood and participle has its own nominative expressed or understood.

The adopters of these dogmas, of course think it right to supply a nominative whenever they do not find a separate one expressed for every finite verb, and a verb whenever they do not find a separate one expressed for every nominative. This mode of interpretation not only precludes the agreement of a verb with two or more nominatives, so as to render nugatory two of the most important rules of these very gentlemen's syntax; but, what is worse, it perverts many a plain, simple, and perfect sentence, to a form which its author did not choose, and a meaning which he never intended.

Suppose, for example, the text to be, "A good constitution and good laws make good subjects. Does not the verb make agree with constitution and laws , taken conjointly? Away then with all this needless subaudition! But while we thus deny that there can be a true ellipsis of what is not necessary to the construction, it is not to be denied that there are true ellipses, and in some men's style very many. The assumption of O. Peirce, that no correct sentence is elliptical, and his impracticable project of a grammar founded on this principle, are among the grossest of possible absurdities.

Wilson says, "There may be several subjects to the same verb, several verbs to the same subject, or several objects to the same verb, and the sentence be simple. But when the sentence remains simple, the same verb must be differently affected by its several adjuncts, or the sense liable to be altered by a separation. If the verb or the subject be affected in the same manner, or the sentence is resolvable into more, it is compounded.

Thus, 'Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, mixed in due proportion, produce white,' is a simple sentence, for the subject is indivisible. But, 'Violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red, are refrangible rays of light,' is a compound sentence, and may be separated into seven. The propriety of the distinction here made, is at least questionable; and I incline to consider the second example a simple sentence, as well as the first; because what the writer calls a separation into seven, involves a change of are to is , and of rays to ray , as well as a sevenfold repetition of this altered predicate, " is a refrangible ray of light.

Nor do I admit that he has a right to insert or repeat anything needlessly ; for the nature of a sentence, or the syntax of some of its words, may often be altered without change of the sense, or of any word for an other: as, "'A wall seven feet high;' that is, 'A wall which is seven feet high. Smith's , ; Weld's , ; and others. By this notion of ellipsis, the connexion or joint relation of words is destroyed. Adam, who thought the division of sentences into simple and compound, of sufficient importance to be made the basis of a general division of syntax into two parts, has defined a simple sentence to be, "that which has but one nominative, and one finite verb;" and a compound sentence, "that which has more than one nominative, or one finite verb.

The parts of which a compound sentence consists, are called Members or Clauses. In every compound sentence there are either several subjects and one attribute, or several attributes and one subject, or both several subjects and several attributes; that is, there are either several nominatives applied to the same verb, or several verbs applied to the same nominative, or both. Every verb marks a judgment or attribute, and every attribute must have a subject. There must, therefore, be in every sentence or period, as many propositions as there are verbs of a finite mode.

Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunctions; as, Happy is the man who loveth religion, and practiseth virtue. And if "a simple sentence is that which has but one nominative and one finite verb," and "a compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences," it follows, since "all sentences are either simple or compound," that, in no sentence, can there be "either several nominatives applied to the same verb, or several verbs applied to the same nominative. Nor is it less repugnant to his subsequent doctrine, that, "Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and conjunctions ;" for, according to his notion, "A conjunction is an indeclinable word, which serves to join sentences together.

It is assumed, that, "In every sentence there must be a verb and a nominative expressed or understood. Now if there happen to be two nominatives to one verb, as when it was said, "Even the winds and the sea obey him;" this cannot be anything more than a simple sentence; because one single verb is a thing indivisible, and how can we suppose it to form the most essential part of two different sentences at once?

For example: "And they all forsook him, and [they all] fled. Some will say, that the words in brackets are here understood. I may deny it, because they are needless; and nothing needless can form a true ellipsis. To the supplying of useless words, if we admit the principle, there may be no end; and the notion that conjunctions join sentences only, opens a wide door for it. For example: "And that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil. No additional words will make this clause any plainer, and none are really necessary to the construction; yet some grammarians will parse it with the following impletions, or more: "And that man was a perfect man , and he was an upright man , and he was one man that feared God, and that eschewed evil things.

Adam and others would recognize a sentence as being compound. What then? Yes, truly; but these authors are wrong in their notions and definitions of both. Joint nominatives or joint verbs may occur in either; but they belong primarily to some simple sentences, and only for that reason are found in any that are compound. A sentence, too, may possibly be made compound, when a simple one would express the whole meaning as well or better; as, "And [David] smote the Philistines from Geba until thou come to Gazer. Here, if we omit the words in Italics, the sentence will become simple, not elliptical.

To analyze a sentence, is, to resolve it into some species of constituent parts, but most properly into words, its first significant elements, and to point out their several relations and powers in the given connexion. The component parts of a sentence are members, clauses, phrases , or words. Some sentences, which are short and simple, can only be divided into their words; others, which are long and complex, may be resolved into parts again and again divisible.

Of analysis applicable to sentences, there are several different methods; and, so far as their difference may compatibly aid the application of different principles of the science of grammar, there may be an advantage in the occasional use of each. Sentences not simple may be reduced to their constituent members, clauses, or simple sentences; and the means by which these are united, may be shown. Thus The three members are united in one sentence, by a suspension of the sense at each dash, and by two virtual repetitions of the subject, " Atheist " through the pronoun " he ," put in the same case, and representing this noun. The sense mainly intended is not brought out till the period ends.

The first of these relative clauses involves also a subordinate, supplementary clause,--" the universe is self-existent and indestructible "--introduced after the verb " tells " by the conjunction " that. Rasselas could not catch the fugitive, with his utmost efforts; but, resolving to weary, by perseverance, him whom he could not surpass in speed, he pressed on till the foot of the mountain stopped his course.

Its principal parts are-- Fear, quickens, flight ; Fear being the subject, quickens the verb, and flight the object. Fear has no adjunct; naturally is an adjunct of quickens ; the and of guilt are adjuncts of flight. The second period is composed of several clauses, or simple members, united. The first of these is also a simple sentence, having, three principal parts-- Rasselas, could catch , and fugitive ; the subject, the verb, and its object, in their order. Not is added to could catch , reversing the meaning; the is an adjunct to fugitive ; with joins its phrase to could not catch ; but his and utmost are adjuncts of efforts. The word but connects the two chief members as parts of one sentence. Him is governed by weary , and is the antecedent to whom.

Not and in speed are adjuncts to the verb could surpass. Its principal parts are two, he and pressed ; the latter taking the particle on as an adjunct, and being intransitive. Till is a conjunctive adverb of time, connecting the concluding clause to pressed on. The adjuncts of foot are the and of the mountain ; the verb in this sentence has no adjunct but course , which is better reckoned a principal word; lastly, his is an adjunct to course , and governed by it. Attainment is followed by neglect, and possession, by disgust. Few moments are more pleasing than those in which the mind is concerting measures for a new undertaking. From the first hint that wakens the fancy, to the hour of actual execution, all is improvement and progress, triumph and felicity.

In the first clause, emptiness is the grammatical subject, and " the emptiness of human enjoyment " is the logical. Is some would call the grammatical predicate, and "Such is," or is such , the logical; but the latter consists, as the majority teach, of "the copula" is , and "the attribute," or "predicate," such. In the second clause, which explains the import of " Such ," the subject is we ; which is unmodified, and in which therefore the logical form and the grammatical coincide and are the same.

Are may here be called the grammatical predicate; and " are always impatient of the present ," the logical. The second period, too, is a compound sentence, having two clauses, which are connected by and. Attainment is the subject of the former; and, " is followed by neglect " is the predicate. In the latter, possession alone is the subject; and, "[ is followed ] by disgust ," is the predicate; the verb is followed being understood at the comma.

The third period, likewise, is a compound, having three parts, with the two connectives than and which. Here we have moments for the first grammatical subject, and Few moments for the logical; then, are for the grammatical predicate, and are more pleasing for the logical: or, if we choose to say so, for "the copula and the attribute. In which is an adjunct of is concerting , and serves well to connect the members, because which represents those , i.

Mind , or the mind , is the next subject of affirmation; and is concerting , or, " is concerting measures for a new undertaking ," is the predicate or matter affirmed. Lastly, the fourth period, like the rest, is compound. The phrases commencing with From and to , describe a period of time, and are adjuncts of the verb is. The former contains a subordinate relative clause, of which that representing hint is the subject, and wakens , or wakens the fancy , the predicate. Of the principal clause, the word all , taken as a noun, is the subject, whether grammatical or logical; and "the copula," or "grammatical predicate," is , becomes, with its adjuncts and the nominatives following, the logical predicate.

Hence sentences may be, in some sort, analyzed, and perhaps profitably, by the tracing of such relation or connexion, from link to link, through a series of words, beginning and ending with such as are somewhat remote from each other, yet within the period. The period is designed to show, that Swift preferred words of Saxon origin; and Johnson, of Latin. Swift is the subject of would say ; and would say introduces the clause after it, as what would be said. The relates to thing ; thing is the subject of has ; has , which is qualified by not , governs life ; life is qualified by the adjective enough , and by the phrase, in it ; enough is the prior term of to ; to governs keep ; keep governs it , which stands for the thing ; and it , in lieu of the thing , is qualified by sweet.

The chief members are connected either by standing in contrast as members, or by but , understood before Johnson. Johnson is the subject of would say , understood: and this would say , again introduces a clause, as what would be said. The relates to creature ; creature is the subject of possesses ; possesses , which is qualified by not , governs vitality ; vitality is qualified by sufficient ; sufficient is the prior term of to ; to governs preserve ; preserve governs it , and is the prior term of from ; and from governs putrefaction. As to "the chain of connexion," Away relates to can take ; can take agrees with its nominative nothing , and governs which ; which represents security ; security is governed by finding ; finding is governed by of ; of refers back to conviction ; conviction is governed by with ; with refers back to can look ; can look agrees with we , and is, in sense, the antecedent of to ; to governs whom ; whom represents Being ; and Being is the subject of is.

This method is fully illustrated in the Twelfth Praxis below. The last four or five observations of the preceding series have shown, that the distinction of sentences as simple or compound , which constitutes the chief point of the First Method of Analysis above, is not always plain, even to the learned. The definitions and examples which I have given, will make it generally so; and, where it is otherwise, the question or puzzle, it is presumed, cannot often be of much practical importance. If the difference be not obvious, it can hardly be a momentous error, to mistake a phrase for an elliptical clause, or to call such a clause a phrase. There is, in many of our popular grammars, some recognition of the principles of this analysis--some mention of "the principal parts of a sentence," in accordance with what are so called above,--and also, in a few, some succinct account of the parts called " adjuncts ;" but there seems to have been no prevalent practice of applying these principles, in any stated or well-digested manner.

Lowth, Murray, Alger, W. In Allen's English Grammar, which is one of the best, and likewise in Wells's, which is equally prized, this reduction of all connected words, or parts of speech, into "the principal parts" and "the adjuncts," is fully recognized; the adjuncts, too, are discriminated by Allen, as "either primary or secondary," nor are their more particular species or relations overlooked; but I find no method prescribed for the analysis intended, except what Wells adopted in his early editions but has since changed to an other or abandoned, and no other allusion to it by, Allen, than this Note, which, with some appearance of intrusion, is appended to his "Method of Parsing the Infinitive Mood:"--"The pupil may now begin to analyse [ analyze ] the sentences, by distinguishing the principal words and their adjuncts.

Allen's E. Lowth says, "In English the nominative case, denoting the agent, usually goes before the verb, or attribution; and the objective case, denoting the object, follows the verb active. Murray copies, but not literally, thus: "The nominative denotes the subject, and usually goes before the verb [,] or attribute; and the word or phrase , denoting the object, follows the verb: as, 'A wise man governs his passions. Of course, they have not failed to set forth the comparative merits of this scheme in a sufficiently favourable light. The two ingenious gentlemen who seem to have been chiefly instrumental in making it popular, say in their preface, "The rules of syntax contained in this work result directly from the analysis of propositions, and of compound sentences; and for this reason the student should make himself perfectly familiar with the sections relating to subject and predicate , and should be able readily to analyze sentences, whether simple or compound, and to explain their structure and connection.

If the latter be conducted, as it often is, independently of previous analysis, the principal advantage to be derived from the study of language, as an intellectual exercise, will inevitably be lost. Butler, who bestows upon this subject about a dozen duodecimo pages, says in his preface, "The rules for the analysis of sentences, which is a very useful and interesting exercise, have been taken from Andrews' and Stoddard's Latin Grammar, some changes and additions being made.

Subsequently, he changed his scheme , from that of Parts Principal and Adjuncts , to one of Subjects and Predicates , "either grammatical or logical," also "either simple or compound;"--to one resembling Andrews and Stoddard's, yet differing from it, often, as to what constitutes a "grammatical predicate;"--to one resenbling [sic--KTH] the Third Method above, yet differing from it, as does Andrews and Stoddard's, in taking the logical subject and predicate before the grammatical.

It is gratifying to observe that the attention of teachers is now so generally directed to this important mode of investigating the structure of our language, in connection with the ordinary exercises of etymological and syntactical parsing. If it has been found practicable, to slide "the attention of teachers," and their approbation too, adroitly over from one "important mode of investigating the structure of our language," to an other;--if "it is gratifying to observe," that the direction thus given to public opinion sustains itself so well, and "is so generally" acquiesced in;--if it is proved, that the stereotyped praise of one system of analysis may, without alteration, be so transferred to an other, as to answer the double purpose of commending and superseding;--it is not improbable that the author's next new plates will bear the stamp of yet other "most important principles" of analysis.

This process is here recommended to be used " in connection with the ordinary exercises of etymological and syntactical parsing,"--exercises, which, in Wells's Grammar, are generally, and very improperly, commingled; and if, to these, may be profitably conjoined either his present or his former scheme of analysis, it were well, had he somewhere put them together and shown how. This implies, what is probably true of the etymological exercise, that parsing is more rudimental than the other forms of analysis.

It also intimates, what is not so clear, that pupils rightly instructed must advance from the former to the latter, as to something more worthy of their intellectual powers. The passage is used with reference to either form of analysis adopted by the author. So the following comparison, in which Parsing is plainly disparaged, stands permanently at the head of "the chapter on Analysis," to commend first one mode, and then an other: "It is particularly desirable that pupils should pass as early as practicable from the formalities of common PARSING, to the more important exercise of ANALYZING critically the structure of language.

The mechanical routine of technical parsing is peculiarly liable to become monotonous and dull, while the practice of explaining the various relations and offices of words in a sentence , is adapted to call the mind of the learner into constant and vigorous action, and can hardly fail of exciting the deepest interest,"-- Wells's Gram. From the strong contrast cited above, one might suspect that, in selecting, devising, or using, a technical process for the exercising of learners in the principles of etymology and syntax, this author had been less fortunate than the generality of his fellows.

Not only is it implied, that parsing is no critical analysis, but even what is set in opposition to the "mechanical routine," may very well serve for a definition of Syntactical Parsing--" the practice of explaining the various relations and offices of words in a sentence! Nor, after all, is even this author's mode of parsing, defective though it is in several respects, less "important" to the users of his book, or less valued by teachers, than the analysis which he sets above it.

Greene, a public teacher in Boston, who, in answer to a supposed "demand for a more philosophical plan of teaching the English language," has entered in earnest upon the "Analysis of Sentences," having devoted to one method of it more than the space of two hundred duodecimo pages, speaks of analysis and of parsing, thus: "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or of any complex element into the parts which compose it, is called analysis.

Analysis consists in pointing out the words or groups of words which constitute the elements of a sentence. Analysis should precede parsing. These groups perform the office of the substantive , the adjective , or the adverb , and, in some one of these relations, enter in as the component parts of a sentence. The pupil who learns to determine the elements of a sentence, must, therefore, learn the force of these combinations before he separates them into the single words which compose them. This advantage is wholly lost in the ordinary methods of parsing. Nor indeed could it be; because parsing is a species of analysis. The first assertion would be just as true as it is now, were the former word substituted for the latter: thus, "The resolving of a sentence into its elements, or of any complex element into the parts which compose it, is called parsing.

Again, the suggestion, that, " Analysis consists in pointing out the words or groups of words which constitute the elements of a sentence," has nothing distinctive in it; and, without some idea of the author's peculiar system of "elements," previously impressed upon the mind, is scarcely, if at all, intelligible. Lastly, that a pupil must understand a sentence,--or, what is the same thing, " learn the force of the words combined ,"--before he can be sure of parsing each word rightly, is a very plain and certain truth; but what "advantage" over parsing this truth gives to the lesser analysis, which deals with "groups," it is not easy to discover.

If the author had any clear idea of " this advantage ," he has conveyed no such conception to his readers. Its chief principles may be briefly stated thus: Sentences, which are simple, or complex, or compound, are made up of words, phrases , and clauses --three grand classes of elements, called the first , the second , and the third class. From these, each sentence must have two elements; the Subject , or Substantive element, and the Predicate , or Predicative element, which are principal; and a sentence may have five, the subordinates being the Adjective element, the Objective element, and the Adverbial element.

The five elements have sundry modifications and subdivisions. Each of the five may, like a sentence, be simple, or complex, or compound; and each may be of any of the three grand classes. The development of this scheme forms a volume, not small. The system is plausible, ingenious, methodical, mostly true, and somewhat elaborate; but it is neither very useful nor very accurate. It seems too much like a great tree, beautiful, symmetrical, and full of leaves, but raised or desired only for fruit, yet bearing little, and some of that little not of good quality, but knurly or bitter.

The chief end of a grammar, designed for our tongue, is, to show what is, and what is not, good English. To this end, the system in question does not appear to be well adapted. Bullions, the projector of the "Series of Grammars, English, Latin, and Greek, all on the same plan ," inserted in his Latin Grammar, of , a short sketch of the new analysis by "subjects and predicates," "grammatical and logical," the scheme used by Andrews and Stoddard; but his English Grammar, which appeared in , was too early for this "new and improved method of investigating" language.

In his later English Grammar, of , however, paying little regard to sameness of "plan " or conformity of definitions, he carefully devoted to this matter the space of fifteen pages, placing the topic, not injudiciously, in the first part of his syntax, and referring to it thus in his Preface: "The subject of ANALYSIS, wholly omitted in the former work, is here introduced in its proper place; and to an extent in accordance with its importance. The selections prepared for the stated praxes of this work, will be found as suitable as any. Analysis of sentences is a central and essential matter in the teaching or the study of grammar; but the truest and the most important of the sentential analyses is parsing ; which, because it is a method distinguished by a technical name of its own, is not commonly denominated analysis.

The relation which other methods should bear to parsing , is, as we have seen, variously stated by different authors. Etymological parsing and Syntactical are, or ought to be, distinct exercises. The former, being the most simple, the most elementary, and also requisite to be used before the pupil is prepared for the latter, should, without doubt, take precedence of all the rest, and be made familiar in the first place. Those who say, " Analysis should precede parsing ," will scarcely find the application of other analysis practicable, till this is somewhat known. But Syntactical Parsing being, when complete in form, the most thorough process of grammatical resolution, it seems proper to have introduced the other methods before it, as above.

It can hardly be said that any of these are necessary to this exercise, or to one an other; yet in a full course of grammatical instruction, each may at times be usefully employed. Bullions suggests, that, " Analysis should precede Syntactical parsing , because, till we know the parts and elements of a sentence, we can not understand their relations, nor intelligently combine them into one consistent whole. This reason is entirely fictitious and truthless; for the words of a sentence are intuitively known to be its "parts and elements;" and, to " understand their relations," is as necessary to one form of analysis as to another; but, "intelligently to combine them," is no part of the parser's duty: this belongs to the writer ; and where he has not done it, he must be criticised and censured, as one that knows not well what he says.

Allen's Grammar, as in Wells's, Syntactical parsing and Etymological are not divided. Wells intersperses his "Exercises in Parsing," at seven points of his Syntax, and places "the chapter on Analysis," at the end of it. Allen treats first of the several parts of grammar, didactically; then presents a series of exercises adapted to the various heads of the whole. At the beginning of these, are fourteen "Methods of Parsing," which show, successively, the properties and construction of his nine parts of speech; and, at the ninth method , which resolves infinitives , it is proposed that the pupil begin to apply a method of analysis similar to the Second one above. The grand clew to all syntactical parsing is THE SENSE; and as any composition is faulty which does not rightly deliver the authors meaning, so every solution of a word or sentence is necessarily erroneous, in which that meaning is not carefully noticed and literally preserved.

In all complete syntactical parsing, it is required of the pupil--to distinguish the different parts of speech and their classes; to mention their modifications in order; to point out their relation, agreement, or government; and to apply the Rules of Syntax. A is the indefinite article: and relates to man , or young man ; according to Rule 1st, which says, "Articles relate to the nouns which they limit. Young is a common adjective, of the positive degree, compared regularly, young, younger, youngest : and relates to man ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns. Man is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and nominative case: and is the subject of will find ; according to Rule 2d, which says, "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.

Studious is a common adjective, compared by means of the adverbs; studious, more studious, most studious ; or, studious, less studious, least studious : and relates to man ; according to Rule 9th, which says, "Adjectives relate to nouns or pronouns. To is a preposition: and shows the relation between studious and know ; according to Rule 23d, which says, "Prepositions show the relations of words, and of the things or thoughts expressed by them. Know is an irregular active-transitive verb, from know, knew, knowing, known ; found in the infinitive mood, present tense--no person, or number: and is governed by to ; according to Rule 18th, which says, "The infinitive mood is governed in general by the preposition TO, which commonly connects it to a finite verb.

His is a personal pronoun, representing man , in the third person, singular number, and masculine gender; according to Rule 10th, which says, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it represents, in person, number, and gender:" and is in the possessive case, being governed by duty ; according to Rule 4th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case, is governed by the name of the thing possessed. Duty is a common noun, of the third person, singular number, neuter gender, and objective case: and is governed by know ; according to Rule 5th, which says, "A noun or a pronoun made the object of an active-transitive verb or participle, is governed by it in the objective case. And is a copulative conjunction: and connects the phrase which follows it, to that which precedes; according to Rule 22d, which says, "Conjunctions connect words, sentences, or parts of sentences.

Honestly is an adverb of manner: and relates to bent ; according to Rule 21st, which says, "Adverbs relate to verbs, participles, adjectives, or other adverbs. Thurber, Carrie S The evolutionary genetics of seed shattering and flowering time, two weed adaptive traits in US weedy rice. Tokle, Tanushree Design and fabrication of functional lipid nanoparticles based on control of interfacial properties using biopolymers. Toley, Bhushan J Microtechnologies for mimicking tumor-imposed transport limitations and developing targeted cancer therapies.

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Yesilyurt, Volkan Design and synthesis of stimuli-sensitive dendritic supramolecular assemblies. Yogeeswaran, Kumar The devil's in the details: Abstract vs. Yordem, Burcu Kokturk Establishing Brachypodium distachyon as a new model system for understanding iron homeostasis in grasses. You, Eunyoung Fabrication of nanostructured metal oxide films with supercritical carbon dioxide: Processing and applications. Yu, Min Analysis, design, and management of supply chain networks with applications to time-sensitive products.

Zhang, Miaomin Controlling salmonella accumulation inside solid tumors via bacterial chemotaxis engineering and combined treatment with lipid A. Zhang, Nan Characterization of the function and regulation of type-1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in mouse oocytes and eggs. Zhao, Jia On-chip monitoring infrastructures and strategies for multi-core and many-core systems. Zhao, Wei Helical ordering in chiral block copolymers. Zhao, Yue Improved computational methods for Bayesian tree models. Zheng, Peiwen Preparation, characterization, surface modification and applications of siloxane polymers. Zhou, Ying Analysis of Morgue, a novel ubiquitination protein that functions in programmed cell death.

Zhu, Weining Inversion and analysis of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in estuarine and coastal regions using hyperspectral remote sensing. Zhu, Zhengjiang Mass spectrometric analysis of monolayer protected nanoparticles. Zimbler, Mattitiyahu S Newlywed couples' marital satisfaction and patterns of cortisol reactivity and recovery as a response to differential marital power. Zontine, Angelina I Remaking the political in Fortress Europe: Political practice and cultural citizenship in Italian social centers. Abu Alyan, Abdrabu Exploring teachers' beliefs regarding the concepts of culture and intercultural communicative competence in EFL Palestinian university context: A case study.

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MacEwan, Gregory Borderline personality disorder and object relations: Predicting self-injurious and suicidal behaviors. Mathews, Melissa J Understanding the effect of higher and lower order cognitive functions on daily living: the relationship between processing speed, executive function, and functional ability. Matos, Jennifer M. Mbayo, Aiah A. McGibbon, Jason F Knot contact homology and open strings. McIntosh, Donique R Sometimes sisters: An exploration of the culture of historically Black colleges and universities and its impact on the campus climate for lesbian and bisexual female students.

Menasche, Daniel Sadoc Enabling peer-to-peer swarming for multi-commodity dissemination. Menon, Sandeep A numerical study of droplet formation and behavior using interface tracking methods. Miller, Ross Herbert Optimal control of human running. Mimno, David Topic regression. Monteagudo, Graciela Politics by other means: Rhizomes of power in Argentina's social movements. Moradi, Mohammadreza Structural applications of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty.

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Novark, Albert Eugene Hardening software against memory errors and attacks. Olcay, Hakan Onder Catalytic hydrogenation reactions for the production of renewable fuels from biomass. Olsen, Megan M Variations on stigmergic communication to improve artificial intelligence and biological modeling. Pandey, Sumeet C Modeling of growth and prediction of properties of electronic nanomaterials: Silicon thin films and compound semiconductor quantum dots. Patra, Debabrata Colloidal microcapsules: Surface engineering of nanoparticles for interfacial assembly. Paulose, Bibin Identification and characterization of arsenic responsive genes in plants.

Perreault, Stephen Joseph The relative effectiveness of simultaneous versus sequential negotiation strategies in auditor-client negotiations. Pickbourn, Lynda Joyce Migration, remittances and intra-household allocation in northern Ghana: Does gender matter? Porschitz, Emily T Becoming a young professional: The social organization of career. Powlick, Kristen Maeve Youth and economic development: A case study of out-of-school time programs for low-income youth in New York State.

Radhakrishnan, Kavita Characteristics of patients on telehealth that influence their heart failure outcomes in the home-care setting. Rapetti, Martin The real exchange rate and economic development. Rasoazanabary, Emilienne The human factor in mouse lemur Microcebus griseorufus conservation: Local resource utilization and habitat disturbance at Beza Mahafaly, SW Madagascar. Rathfon, Jeremy M Fiber formation from the melting of free-standing polystyrene, ultra-thin films: A technique for the investigation of thin film dynamics, confinement effects and fiber-based sensing.

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Rojas-Rimachi, Luisa Maria Teaching culture through language and literature: The intersection of language ideology and aesthetic judgment. Rosero, Luis Daniel Essays on international reserve accumulation and cooperation in Latin America. Russell, Elizabeth M Lateral wedges and the biomechanical risk for knee osteoarthritis. Samuels, Tammie Demetri Jenkins A study on preservice teachers' perceptions of teaching as full-time residential interns in urban public secondary school classrooms. Sanchez Barbetty, Mauricio Low cost electronically steered phase arrays for weather applications. Sanghi, Shilpi Ion mobility studies of functional polymeric materials for fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

Saunders, Daniel B Students as customers: The influence of neoliberal ideology and free-market logic on entering first-year college students. Scharber, Helen Three essays on racial disparities in infant health and air pollution exposure. Scully, Stephen J. Seo, Jangwon Search using social media structures. Silapachote, Piyanuch Biologically inspired vision systems. Sisneros, Kathy The forgotten voices behind designated diversity initiatives: Perspectives from students of color living in a multicultural residential community. Smock, Robert Components of a protein machine: Allosteric domain assembly and a disordered c-terminus enable the chaperone functions of HSP Solomon, Benjamin G A multi-level investigation of teacher instructional practices and the use of responsive classroom.

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Ziegler, Christopher R Organic materials as templates for the formation of mesoporous inorganic materials and ordered inorganic nanocomposites. Zito, Mark F Is working together worth it? Examining the relationship between the quality of teacher collaboration, instruction, and student achievement. Abell, Kristopher J Population dynamics and biological control of elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa.

Adams, Catherine Lynn Africanizing the territory: The history, memory and contemporary imagination of black frontier settlements in the Oklahoma territory. Afolabi, Kolajo A Relationship of self-efficacy beliefs of urban public school students to performance on a high-stakes mathematics test. Agha, Nola C The economic effects of minor league baseball: A comprehensive assessment using econometric analysis and a hedonic pricing model. Ahlstrom, Kristoffer On epistemic agency. Ahmadjian, Christopher J Evaluating alternative public -private partnership strategies for existing toll roads: Toward the development of a decision support system.

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Chang, Ryan Plantar fasciitis: Biomechanics, atrophy and muscle energetics. Chang, Yuhua Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation: A molecular approach by target gene knockout and mariner-based transposon mutagenesis. Chellamuthu, Manojkumar A comprehensive study of the extensional rheology of complex fluids. Cheng, Dalton Frederick Correcting misconceptions in wettability theory and utilizing fluid surface tension to create complex hierarchical polymer structures. Chen, Geng Strong wave interactions, exact solutions and singularity formations for the compressible Euler equations. Chen, Wei Photocontrol over the ordering transitions in block copolymer thin films. Chen, Yangbin Self -assembly of novel amphiphilic homopolymer based materials.

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