Benjamin Banneker And Thomas Jefferson Rhetorical Analysis

Saturday, March 26, 2022 5:57:17 AM

Benjamin Banneker And Thomas Jefferson Rhetorical Analysis



This section is cited in 22 Pa. A Determine the central message, lesson, Officer Safety: Conflict In The Police Culture Creon: The Tragic Hero In The Play Antigone in literary text; explain how it is conveyed in text. D Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or Moneke: The Origins Of The Word Monkey an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details; speak clearly with adequate volume, appropriate pacing, and Creon: The Tragic Hero In The Play Antigone pronunciation. F Add drawings or Suffering In Sophocles Oedipus The King visual Suffering In Sophocles Oedipus The King when sharing aloud to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. Suffering In Sophocles Oedipus The King Develop beginning phonics and word skills. G Analyze multiple Creon: The Tragic Hero In The Play Antigone of a Suffering In Sophocles Oedipus The King, drama, or poem e.

”The Room Where It Happens” • yeip.win

In his time, Henri de Boulainvilliers , a believer in the "right of conquest", did not understand "race" as biologically immutable, but as a contemporary cultural construct. His theory of race was distinct from the biological facts manipulated in 19th-century scientific racism [ citation needed ] cf. Cultural relativism. Richard Bradley — was an English naturalist. In his book "Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature" , he claimed there to be "five sorts of men" based on their skin colour and other physical characteristics: white Europeans with beards; white men in America without beards meaning Native Americans ; men with copper colour skin, small eyes and straight black hair; Blacks with straight black hair; and Blacks with curly hair. It has been speculated that his account inspired Linnaeus' later categorisation.

The Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames — was a polygenist ; he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his book Sketches on the History of Man , Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks. Carl Linnaeus — , the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist, modified the established taxonomic bases of binomial nomenclature for fauna and flora, and also made a classification of humans into different subgroups. In the twelfth edition of Systema Naturae , he labeled five [22] " varieties " [23] [24] of human species.

Each one was described as possessing the following physiognomic characteristics "varying by culture and place" : [25]. There are disagreements about the basis for Linnaeus' human taxa. On the one hand, his harshest critics say the classification was not only ethnocentric but seemed to be based upon skin-color. Kennedy , Linnaeus certainly considered his own culture better, but his motives for classification of human varieties were not race-centered. In a essay published by the Linnean Society of London , Marie-Christine Skuncke interpreted Linnaeus' statements as reflecting a view that "Europeans' superiority resides in "culture" , and that the decisive factor in Linnaeus' taxa was "culture", not race.

Thus, regarding this topic, they consider Linnaeus' view as merely " eurocentric ", arguing that Linnaeus never called for racist action, and did not use the word "race", which was only introduced later "by his French opponent Buffon ". Scholar Stanley A. Rice agrees that Linnaeus' classification was not meant to "imply a hierarchy of humanness or superiority"; [40] although modern critics see that his classification was obviously stereotyped , and erroneous for having included anthropological , non-biological features such as customs or traditions.

John Hunter — , a Scottish surgeon, said that originally the Negroid race was white at birth. He thought that over time because of the sun, the people turned dark skinned, or "black". Hunter also said that blisters and burns would likely turn white on a Negro, which he believed was evidence that their ancestors were originally white. Charles White — , an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the " Great Chain of Being ", and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other.

He believed that whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny , the idea that different races had been created separately. His Account of the Regular Gradation in Man provided an empirical basis for this idea. White defended the theory of polygeny by rebutting French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon 's interfertility argument, which said that only the same species can interbreed. White pointed to species hybrids such as foxes, wolves , and jackals , which were separate groups that were still able to interbreed. For White, each race was a separate species, divinely created for its own geographical region.

The French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon — and the German anatomist Johann Blumenbach — were proponents of monogenism , the concept that all races have a single origin. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian , Mongolian , Negroid , American , and the Malay race. Blumenbach said: "I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian for the reasons given below which make me esteem it the primeval one. Before James Hutton and the emergence of scientific geology, many believed the earth was only 6, years old.

Buffon had conducted experiments with heated balls of iron which he believed were a model for the earth's core and concluded that the earth was 75, years old, but did not extend the time since Adam and the origin of humanity back more than 8, years — not much further than the 6, years of the prevailing Ussher chronology subscribed to by most of the monogenists. Benjamin Rush — , a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism", and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were really white underneath but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color.

Rush drew the conclusion that "whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder' Christoph Meiners — was a German polygenist and believed that each race had a separate origin. Meiner studied the physical, mental and moral characteristics of each race, and built a race hierarchy based on his findings. Meiners split mankind into two divisions, which he labelled the "beautiful white race " and the "ugly black race ". In Meiners's book The Outline of History of Mankind , he said that a main characteristic of race is either beauty or ugliness.

He thought only the white race to be beautiful. He considered ugly races to be inferior, immoral and animal-like. He said that the dark, ugly peoples were distinct from the white, beautiful peoples by their "sad" lack of virtue and their "terrible vices". The more intelligent and noble people are by nature, the more adaptable, sensitive, delicate, and soft is their body; on the other hand, the less they possess the capacity and disposition towards virtue, the more they lack adaptability; and not only that, but the less sensitive are their bodies, the more can they tolerate extreme pain or the rapid alteration of heat and cold; when they are exposed to illnesses, the more rapid their recovery from wounds that would be fatal for more sensitive peoples, and the more they can partake of the worst and most indigestible foods Meiners said the Negro felt less pain than any other race and lacked in emotions.

Meiners wrote that the Negro had thick nerves and thus was not sensitive like the other races. He went as far as to say that the Negro has "no human, barely any animal, feeling". He described a story where a Negro was condemned to death by being burned alive. Halfway through the burning, the Negro asked to smoke a pipe and smoked it like nothing was happening while he continued to be burned alive. Meiners studied the anatomy of the Negro and came to the conclusion that Negroes have bigger teeth and jaws than any other race, as Negroes are all carnivores. Meiners claimed the skull of the Negro was larger but the brain of the Negro was smaller than any other race.

Meiners claimed the Negro was the most unhealthy race on Earth because of its poor diet, mode of living and lack of morals. Meiners also claimed the " Americans " were an inferior stock of people. He said they could not adapt to different climates, types of food, or modes of life, and that when exposed to such new conditions, they lapse into a "deadly melancholy". Meiners studied the diet of the Americans and said they fed off any kind of "foul offal".

He thought they consumed very much alcohol. He believed their skulls were so thick that the blades of Spanish swords shattered on them. Meiners also claimed the skin of an American is thicker than that of an ox. Meiners wrote that the noblest race was the Celts. They were able to conquer various parts of the world, they were more sensitive to heat and cold, and their delicacy is shown by the way they are selective about what they eat.

Meiners claimed that Slavs are an inferior race, "less sensitive and content with eating rough food". He described stories of Slavs allegedly eating poisonous fungi without coming to any harm. He claimed that their medical techniques were also backward: he used as an example their heating sick people in ovens, then making them roll in the snow. In Meiners's large work entitled Researches on the Variations in Human Nature , he studied also the sexology of each race. He claimed that the African Negroids have unduly strong and perverted sex drives, whilst only the white Europeans have it just right.

Thomas Jefferson — was an American politician, scientist, [47] [48] and slave owner. His contributions to scientific racism have been noted by many historians, scientists and scholars. According to an article published in the McGill Journal of Medicine: "One of the most influential pre-Darwinian racial theorists, Jefferson's call for science to determine the obvious "inferiority" of African Americans is an extremely important stage in the evolution of scientific racism.

They seem to require less sleep. A black, after hard labor through the day, will be induced by the slightest amusements to sit up till midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out with the first dawn of the morning. They are at least as brave, and more adventuresome. But this may perhaps proceed from a want of forethought, which prevents their seeing a danger till it be present.

When present, they do not go through it with more coolness or steadiness than the whites. They are more ardent after their female: but love seems with them to be more an eager desire, than a tender delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation. Their griefs are transient. Those numberless afflictions, which render it doubtful whether heaven has given life to us in mercy or in wrath, are less felt, and sooner forgotten with them. In general, their existence appears to participate more of sensation than reflection Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the whites; in reason much inferior, as I think one [black] could scarcely be found capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid; and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous I advance it therefore as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.

However, by , Jefferson had to reassess his earlier suspicions of whether blacks were capable of intelligence when he was presented with a letter and almanac from Benjamin Banneker , an educated black mathematician. Delighted to have discovered scientific proof for the existence of black intelligence, Jefferson wrote to Banneker: [52]. Smith claimed that Negro pigmentation was nothing more than a huge freckle that covered the whole body as a result of an oversupply of bile, which was caused by tropical climates. Racial studies by Georges Cuvier — , the French naturalist and zoologist , influenced scientific polygenism and scientific racism.

Cuvier believed there were three distinct races: the Caucasian white , Mongolian yellow and the Ethiopian black. He rated each for the beauty or ugliness of the skull and quality of their civilizations. Cuvier wrote about Caucasians: "The white race, with oval face, straight hair and nose, to which the civilised people of Europe belong and which appear to us the most beautiful of all, is also superior to others by its genius, courage and activity". Regarding Negroes, Cuvier wrote: [55]. The Negro race The projection of the lower parts of the face, and the thick lips, evidently approximate it to the monkey tribe: the hordes of which it consists have always remained in the most complete state of barbarism.

He thought Adam and Eve were Caucasian and hence the original race of mankind. The other two races arose by survivors' escaping in different directions after a major catastrophe hit the earth 5, years ago. He theorized that the survivors lived in complete isolation from each other and developed separately. One of Cuvier's pupils, Friedrich Tiedemann , was one of the first to make a scientific contestation of racism.

He argued based on craniometric and brain measurements taken by him from Europeans and black people from different parts of the world that the then-common European belief that Negroes have smaller brains, and are thus intellectually inferior, is scientifically unfounded and based merely on the prejudice of travellers and explorers. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer — attributed civilizational primacy to the white races, who gained sensitivity and intelligence via the refinement caused by living in the rigorous Northern climate: [59].

The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians , are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste, or race, is fairer in colour than the rest, and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmins , the Inca , and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention, because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers, and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want, and misery, which, in their many forms, were brought about by the climate.

This they had to do to make up for the parsimony of nature, and out of it all came their high civilization. Franz Ignaz Pruner — was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He published a monograph on Negroes in He claimed that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism , which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also claimed that Negroes had brains very similar to those of apes and that Negroes have a shortened big toe, a characteristic, he said, that connected Negroes closely to apes.

The scientific classification established by Carl Linnaeus is requisite to any human racial classification scheme. In the 19th century, unilineal evolution , or classical social evolution, was a conflation of competing sociologic and anthropologic theories proposing that Western European culture was the acme of human socio-cultural evolution. The proposal that social status is unilineal—from primitive to civilized, from agricultural to industrial—became popular among philosophers, including Friedrich Hegel , Immanuel Kant , and Auguste Comte. The Christian Bible was interpreted to sanction slavery and from the s to the s was often used in the antebellum Southern United States, by writers such as the Rev.

Richard Furman and Thomas R. Cobb , to enforce the idea that Negroes had been created inferior, and thus suited to slavery. The French aristocrat and writer Arthur de Gobineau — , is best known for his book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races —55 which proposed three human races black, white and yellow were natural barriers and claimed that race mixing would lead to the collapse of culture and civilization. He claimed that "The white race originally possessed the monopoly of beauty, intelligence and strength" and that any positive accomplishments or thinking of blacks and Asians were due to an admixture with whites.

His works were praised by many white supremacist American pro-slavery thinkers such as Josiah C. Nott and Henry Hotze. Gobineau believed that the different races originated in different areas, the white race had originated somewhere in Siberia, the Asians in the Americas and the blacks in Africa. He believed that the white race was superior, writing:.

I will not wait for the friends of equality to show me such and such passages in books written by missionaries or sea captains, who declare some Wolof is a fine carpenter, some Hottentot a good servant, that a Kaffir dances and plays the violin, that some Bambara knows arithmetic… Let us leave aside these puerilities and compare together not men, but groups. Gobineau later used the term " Aryans " to describe the Germanic peoples la race germanique. Gobineau's works were also influential to the Nazi Party , which published his works in German.

They played a key role in the master race theory of Nazism. Another polygenist evolutionist was Carl Vogt — who believed that the Negro race was related to the ape. He wrote the white race was a separate species to Negroes. The difference between them, he claimed are greater than those between two species of ape; and this proves that Negroes are a separate species from the whites. Charles Darwin 's views on race have been a topic of much discussion and debate.

According to Jackson and Weidman, Darwin was a moderate in the 19th century debates about race. Darwin's influential book On the Origin of Species did not discuss human origins. The extended wording on the title page, which adds by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life , uses the general terminology of biological races as an alternative for " varieties " and does not carry the modern connotation of human races.

In The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex , Darwin examined the question of "Arguments in favour of, and opposed to, ranking the so-called races of man as distinct species" and reported no racial distinctions that would indicate that human races are discrete species. Although Darwinism was not the primary source of the belligerent ideology and dogmatic racism of the late nineteenth century, it did become a new instrument in the hands of the theorists of race and struggle The Darwinist mood sustained the belief in Anglo-Saxon racial superiority which obsessed many American thinkers in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

The measure of world domination already achieved by the 'race' seemed to prove it the fittest. Darwin himself, in spite of his aversion to slavery, was not averse to the idea that some races were more fit than others. On the other hand, Robert Bannister defended Darwin on the issue of race, writing that "Upon closer inspection, the case against Darwin himself quickly unravels. An ardent opponent of slavery, he consistently opposed the oppression of nonwhites Although by modern standards The Descent of Man is frustratingly inconclusive on the critical issues of human equality, it was a model of moderation and scientific caution in the context of midcentury racism.

As an exponent of "race science", colonial administrator Herbert Hope Risley — used the ratio of the width of a nose to its height to divide Indian people into Aryan and Dravidian races, as well as seven castes. Like most of Darwin's supporters, [ citation needed ] Ernst Haeckel — put forward a doctrine of evolutionary polygenism based on the ideas of the linguist and polygenist August Schleicher , in which several different language groups had arisen separately from speechless prehuman Urmenschen German for "original humans" , which themselves had evolved from simian ancestors.

These separate languages had completed the transition from animals to man, and, under the influence of each main branch of languages, humans had evolved as separate species, which could be subdivided into races. Haeckel divided human beings into ten races, of which the Caucasian was the highest and the primitives were doomed to extinction. Haeckel argued that humans were closely related to the primates of Southeast Asia and rejected Darwin's hypothesis of Africa. Haeckel also wrote that Negroes have stronger and more freely movable toes than any other race which is evidence that Negroes are related to apes because when apes stop climbing in trees they hold on to the trees with their toes. Haeckel compared Negroes to "four-handed" apes.

Haeckel also believed Negroes were savages and that whites were the most civilised. At the 19th century's end, scientific racism conflated Greco-Roman eugenicism with Francis Galton 's concept of voluntary eugenics to produce a form of coercive, anti-immigrant government programs influenced by other socio-political discourses and events. Such institutional racism was effected via Phrenology , telling character from physiognomy; craniometric skull and skeleton studies; thus skulls and skeletons of black people and other colored volk , were displayed between apes and white men.

The most influential theorists included the anthropologist Georges Vacher de Lapouge — who proposed "anthroposociology"; and Johann Gottfried Herder — , who applied "race" to nationalist theory, thereby developing the first conception of ethnic nationalism. In , Ernest Renan contradicted Herder with a nationalism based upon the "will to live together", not founded upon ethnic or racial prerequisites see Civic nationalism. Scientific racist discourse posited the historical existence of "national races" such as the Deutsche Volk in Germany, and the "French race" being a branch of the basal " Aryan race " extant for millennia, to advocate for geopolitical borders parallel to the racial ones. The Dutch scholar Pieter Camper —89 , an early craniometric theoretician, used "craniometry" interior skull-volume measurement to scientifically justify racial differences.

In , he conceived of the facial angle to measure intelligence among species of men. The facial angle was formed by drawing two lines: a horizontal line from nostril to ear; and a vertical line from the upper-jawbone prominence to the forehead prominence. Camper's craniometry reported that antique statues the Greco-Roman ideal had a degree facial angle, whites an degree angle, blacks a degree angle, and the orangutan a degree facial angle—thus he established a racist biological hierarchy for mankind, per the Decadent conception of history.

In the 19th century, an early American physical anthropologist , physician and polygenist Samuel George Morton — , collected human skulls from worldwide, and attempted a logical classification scheme. Influenced by contemporary racialist theory, Dr Morton said he could judge racial intellectual capacity by measuring the interior cranial capacity , hence a large skull denoted a large brain, thus high intellectual capacity. Conversely, a small skull denoted a small brain, thus low intellectual capacity; superior and inferior established. After inspecting three mummies from ancient Egyptian catacombs, Morton concluded that Caucasians and Negroes were already distinct three thousand years ago. Since interpretations of the bible indicated that Noah's Ark had washed up on Mount Ararat only a thousand years earlier, Morton claimed that Noah's sons could not possibly account for every race on earth.

According to Morton's theory of polygenesis, races have been separate since the start. In Morton's Crania Americana , his claims were based on Craniometry data, that the Caucasians had the biggest brains, averaging 87 cubic inches, Native Americans were in the middle with an average of 82 cubic inches and Negroes had the smallest brains with an average of 78 cubic inches. In The Mismeasure of Man , the evolutionary biologist and historian of science Stephen Jay Gould argued that Samuel Morton had falsified the craniometric data, perhaps inadvertently over-packing some skulls, to so produce results that would legitimize the racist presumptions he was attempting to prove.

A subsequent study by the anthropologist John Michael found Morton's original data to be more accurate than Gould describes, concluding that "[c]ontrary to Gould's interpretation Morton's research was conducted with integrity". In , Paul Broca, founder of the Anthropological Society of Paris , found the same pattern of measures—that Crania Americana reported—by weighing specimen brains at autopsy. Other historical studies, proposing a black race—white race, intelligence—brain size difference, include those by Bean , Mall , Pearl , and Vint After the War of the Pacific —83 there was a rise of racial and national superiority ideas among the Chilean ruling class. Palacios argued on medical grounds against immigration to Chile from southern Europe claiming that Mestizos who are of south European stock lack "cerebral control" and are a social burden.

Samuel Morton's followers, especially Dr Josiah C. Nott — and George Gliddon — , extended Dr Morton's ideas in Types of Mankind , claiming that Morton's findings supported the notion of polygenism mankind has discrete genetic ancestries; the races are evolutionarily unrelated , which is a predecessor of the modern human multiregional origin hypothesis. Moreover, Morton himself had been reluctant to espouse polygenism, because it theologically challenged the Christian creation myth espoused in the Bible. In this book, he classified humanity into various, hierarchized races, spanning from the "Aryan white race, dolichocephalic", to the "brachycephalic", "mediocre and inert" race, best represented by Southern European, Catholic peasants".

Jews were brachycephalic like the Aryans, according to Lapouge; but exactly for this reason he considered them to be dangerous; they were the only group, he thought, threatening to displace the Aryan aristocracy. Vacher de Lapouge's classification was mirrored in William Z. Ripley in The Races of Europe , a book which had a large influence on American white supremacism. Ripley even made a map of Europe according to the alleged cephalic index of its inhabitants. He was an important influence of the American eugenist Madison Grant. Furthermore, according to John Efron of Indiana University , the late 19th century also witnessed "the scientizing of anti-Jewish prejudice ", stigmatizing Jews with male menstruation , pathological hysteria , and nymphomania.

Joseph Deniker — was one of William Z. Ripley 's principal opponents; whereas Ripley maintained, as did Vacher de Lapouge, that the European populace comprised three races, Joseph Deniker proposed that the European populace comprised ten races six primary and four sub-races. Furthermore, he proposed that the concept of "race" was ambiguous, and in its stead proposed the compound word " ethnic group ", which later prominently featured in the works of Julian Huxley and Alfred C. Moreover, Ripley argued that Deniker's "race" idea should be denoted a "type", because it was less biologically rigid than most racial classifications. Joseph Deniker's contribution to racist theory was La Race nordique the Nordic race , a generic, racial-stock descriptor, which the American eugenicist Madison Grant — presented as the white racial engine of world civilization.

Having adopted Ripley's three-race European populace model, but disliking the "Teuton" race name, he transliterated la race nordique into "The Nordic race", the acme of the concocted racial hierarchy, based upon his racial classification theory, popular in the s and s. Furthermore, much of early research on Ural-Altaic languages was coloured by attempts at justifying the view that European peoples east of Sweden were Asian and thus of inferior race, justifying colonialism, eugenics and racial hygiene.

Though influential, the book was largely ignored when it first appeared, and it went through several revisions and editions. Nevertheless, the book was used by people who advocated restricted immigration as justification for what became known as scientific racism. In the United States, scientific racism justified Black African slavery to assuage moral opposition to the Atlantic slave trade. Alexander Thomas and Samuell Sillen described black men as uniquely fitted for bondage, because of their "primitive psychological organization".

Cartwright — wrote of slave escape attempts as " drapetomania ", a treatable mental illness , that "with proper medical advice, strictly followed, this troublesome practice that many Negroes have of running away can be almost entirely prevented". The United States Census claimed that Northern, free blacks suffered mental illness at higher rates than did their Southern, enslaved counterparts. Though the census was later found to have been severely flawed by the American Statistical Association , it became a political weapon against abolitionists.

Southern slavers concluded that escaping Negroes were suffering from "mental disorders". Understanding the role of consumers as a foundation for managing available resources to provide for personal and family needs and to provide basic knowledge of child health and child care skills. The application of phonemic awareness, phonics and word study, vocabulary, fluency and text comprehension in reading critically across subject areas; the interpretation and analysis of literary expression with analysis of the origins and structures of the English language and learning how to search a variety of texts to conduct research.

Narrative, informational and persuasive formal writing for an audience, including spelling and editing skills; and informal writing to capture and organize information for individual use. Participation in conversation and formal speaking presentations. Upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin , following full implementation of a transition plan to be developed by the Department in collaboration with education stakeholders, academic standards will be based on the Pennsylvania Core Standards for English Language Arts.

The understanding of fundamental ideas and the development of proficient mathematical skills in numbers, computation, measurement, statistics and data analysis, probability and predictions, algebra and functions, geometry, trigonometry and concepts of calculus. Using this content, students will learn to think, reason and communicate mathematically. Students will learn to model real-world situations by creating appropriate representations of numerical quantities and plan and implement problem-solving strategies to answer the question in the context of the situation.

Upon publication in the Pennsylvania Bulletin , following implementation of a transition plan to be developed by the Department in collaboration with education stakeholders, academic standards will be based on the Pennsylvania Core Standards for Mathematics. Attaining the academic standards in this section requires students to demonstrate the acquisition and application of knowledge. Plans for assessment developed by school entities must take into account that academic standards in subsections a and c may be attained by students in various ways and shall be assessed in various ways. Children with disabilities may attain the academic standards by completion of their individualized education programs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and this part.

Upon request by a school entity, the Department will provide the requestor with technical assistance in the development of academic standards and assessments that are sufficient to assure that students are making progress toward the attainment of standards required for high school graduation under subsection f. Strategic plans. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages and to This section is cited in 22 Pa. Prekindergarten education. School districts are not required to offer a prekindergarten program, and parents are not required to enroll their children in those programs if offered. Targeted programs may serve children who are at risk of school failure because of limited English proficiency, community factors, economic disadvantage, but may not exclude or be limited exclusively to children with disabilities.

If a program is limited to an attendance area, children with disabilities must live in that attendance area to participate in the program. An attendance area is the geographic area within a school district designated by the school board for the purpose of assigning students to a school. A rigorous standard of quality includes a demonstration of competence in basic literacy skills, including the ability to speak and write standard English and instruction of prekindergarten students in the acquisition of the knowledge, skills and abilities described in the early learning standards issued under paragraph 1. The plan must identify the facilities, staffing needs and other resources that it will use to deliver the program.

The school district shall consult with parents, community agencies and organizations, and child care, early intervention and head start representatives when developing the implementation plan. In years subsequent to the initial year of the program, the implementation plan must be submitted to the Department every 3 years or when the plan is amended, whichever is sooner. Elementary education: primary and intermediate levels. School districts, including charter schools, shall provide opportunities for individualized rates of learning and social and emotional development that reflect differing rates of development and learning styles of young children. Literacy skills, including phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension and developmental writing will begin in prekindergarten and kindergarten, if offered, and developed appropriately for the primary grade level.

Academic standards will guide the focus on learning specific subject matter content. Planned instruction may be provided as separate course or other interdisciplinary activity. Planned instruction may be provided as a separate course or as an instructional unit within another course or other interdisciplinary instructional activity: 1 Language arts, integrating reading, writing, spelling, listening, speaking, literature and grammar. Planned instruction may be provided as a separate course or as an instructional unit within another course or other interdisciplinary instructional activity.

See section of the School Code 24 P. The plan will assist the student in acquiring the knowledge and skills necessary to achieve at the proficient level. Middle level education. School entities may modify the grouping of students based upon student needs identified by the school entity. Planned instruction may be provided as a separate course or as an instructional unit within a course or other interdisciplinary instructional activity: 1 Language arts, integrating reading, writing, listening, speaking, literature and grammar. High school education. High school graduation requirements. Each school district, charter school including a cyber charter school and AVTS, if applicable, shall specify requirements for graduation.

The purpose of the culminating project is to assure that students are able to apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate information and communicate significant knowledge and understanding. Beginning in the school year, each school district, charter school including a cyber charter school and AVTS, if applicable, shall adopt and implement requirements for high school graduation that, at minimum, include: i Course completion and grades. III A school district, AVTS or charter school, including a cyber charter school, may allow a student who scores at the advanced level on a particular Keystone Exam prior to taking the course to be granted course credit for the course without having to complete the course.

B Locally approved and administered assessments, which shall be independently and objectively validated once every 6 years. Except for replacement of individual test items that have a similar level of difficulty, a new validation is required for any material changes to the assessment. II Performance level expectations and descriptors that describe the level of performance required to achieve proficiency comparable to that used for the Keystone Exams. IV Subject to appropriations provided by law, the cost to validate local assessments shall be evenly divided between the school district, AVTS or charter school, including a cyber charter school, and the Department. If the Department does not provide sufficient funding to meet its share, local assessments submitted for validation shall be deemed valid until a new validation is due to the Department.

VI School boards shall only approve assessments that have been determined to meet the requirements of this subsection by an approved entity performing the independent validation. If a school district, AVTS or charter school, including a cyber charter school, uses a local assessment that has not been independently validated, the Secretary will direct the school entity to discontinue its use until the local assessment is approved through independent validation by an approved entity.

C Completion of an Advanced Placement exam or International Baccalaureate exam that includes academic content comparable to the appropriate Keystone Exam at a score established by the Secretary to be comparable to the proficient level on the appropriate Keystone Exam. Effective with the school year, requirements in subsection c 1 iii must include a determination of proficiency in English Language Arts Composition Appendix A Effective with the school year, Civics and Government Appendix C is added to the academic standards in subsection c 1 iii. The requirements in subsection c 1 iii must include a determination of proficiency in Civics and Government.

Children with disabilities who satisfactorily complete a special education program developed by an Individualized Education Program team under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and this part shall be granted and issued a regular high school diploma by the school district of residence, charter school including cyber charter school or AVTS, if applicable. This subsection applies if the special education program of a child with a disability does not otherwise meet the requirements of this chapter. Beginning in the school year, and through the school year, PSSA scores in each assessed discipline shall be included on student transcripts. The information presented on a transcript must include the highest performance level demonstrated by a student on the associated Keystone Exam, validated local assessment or project-based assessment at the time the transcript is produced.

To effect successful transition between requirements outlined in subsections b and c regarding requirements through the school year and requirements beginning in the school year, subsection d regarding requirements beginning in the school year and subsection e regarding requirements beginning in the school year, a student who will graduate in the school year or thereafter, who successfully completes courses with academic content assessed under subsection c , d or e , regarding requirements beginning in the school year, school year and school year for which both the Keystone Exams and local validated assessments were not available at the time the course was completed, shall be deemed proficient for purposes of this section.

Notes of Decisions. Frances J. Every school district shall provide planned instruction in at least two languages in addition to English, at least one of which shall be a modern language, and at least one of which shall be offered in a minimum 4-year sequence in the secondary program middle level and high school. American sign language is a world language. Programs under this section shall include appropriate bilingual-bicultural or English as a second language ESL instruction.

Physical education and athletics. Separation by sex may not be used to exclude students of either sex from participating in any physical education instruction. Special education. The program of instruction must include information about the nature of the diseases, treatments and cures, methods of transmission and how infection can be prevented. The school district may omit instruction in the elementary grades on transmission of disease through sexual activity.

Programs discussing transmission through sexual activity must stress that abstinence from sexual activity is the only completely reliable means of preventing sexual transmission. Programs must stress that avoidance of illegal drug use is the only completely reliable means of preventing transmission of disease through shared drug paraphernalia. Prior to the commencement of instruction, a school district shall publicize that detailed curriculum outlines and curricular materials used in conjunction with the instruction are available to parents and guardians during normal school hours or at teacher-parent conferences.

Vocational-technical education. Students who complete approved vocational-technical education programs shall have their occupational competency assessed by completion of the appropriate assessment under the Pennsylvania Skills Certificate Program or by completion of another occupational competency assessment approved by the Department. When appropriate, vocational-technical education programs must adopt, in program areas for which they are available, industry recognized skills standards and may also include cooperative vocational-technical education and participation in vocational student organizations to develop leadership skills.

Course announcements, guidance materials and other communications must convey the philosophy of equal access to students considering enrolling in AVTSs and include a description of admissions policies. The policies must assure that when admissions to AVTSs must be limited, the admissions shall be on a nondiscriminatory basis. Standards and reports. Present standards, to the extent that they are inconsistent, are superseded by this chapter. Reports will include numbers and types of programs, numbers of students, post-program status of students, Statewide competency standards and assessment information. Advisory committees. Membership on the committee shall consist of business and industry representatives, public sector employers, agriculture, labor organizations, community organizations, postsecondary education institutions and the general public.

The appointed advisory committee shall meet at least once each year and give advice to the board and the administration concerning the program of the school, including its general philosophy, academic and other standards, course offerings, support services, safety requirements and the skill needs of employers. An advisory committee may serve multiple institutions where employment areas overlap.

The committee shall advise the AVTS board and the administration concerning the educational program and policies of the school. The committee shall be appointed by the board of directors, and a majority of the members of the committee shall be employees and employers in the occupation for which training is provided. The committee shall meet at least twice each year to advise the board, administration and staff on curriculum, equipment, instructional materials, safety requirement, program evaluation and other related matters and to verify that the programs meet industry standards and, if appropriate, licensing board criteria and that they prepare students with occupation related competencies.

Programs and equipment. Boards of school directors may petition the State Board for Vocational Education for attendance area assignment or reassignment. Grade structure. State assessment system. The Secretary also will provide each school entity information and pertinent data for the school entity and its students. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages to and to Pennsylvania System of School Assessment. The proportion of type of items will vary by grade level. In consultation with educators, students, parents and citizens, the Department will develop and recommend to the Board for its approval specific criteria for advanced, proficient, basic and below basic levels of performance.

In developing PSSA assessments, the Department will consult with educators, students, parents and citizens regarding the specific methods of assessment. Keystone Exams. A school district, AVTS or charter school, including a cyber charter school, may request the Department to approve alternative test administration and scoring time frames. The Department will publish guidelines and procedures for approving alternative test administration and scoring time frames on its web site. The guidelines will provide for approval of all requests unless the approval is contrary to standards of test validity and scoring. There is not a limit on the number of times a student who did not score proficient on a Keystone Exam is permitted to retake the Keystone Exam or Keystone Exam module.

A student who has achieved a score of proficient or advanced on a Keystone Exam is not permitted to retake the exam. In consultation with the Performance Level Advisory Committee, the Department will develop and recommend to the Board for its approval performance level descriptors and performance level cut scores for the Keystone Exams and any alternative assessments developed to assess students with disabilities as permitted by the No Child Left Behind Act of Pub.

The Department will use widely-accepted psychometric procedures to establish the cut scores. Cut scores shall be presented at a public meeting of the Board for its review at least 2 weeks prior to scheduled Board action on the cut scores. Upon approval by the United States Department of Education, the Algebra I and Literature exams will be used to determine adequate yearly progress at the high school level. The Biology Keystone Exam will be used as the high school level science assessment, which is not a factor in determining adequate yearly progress.

If the Keystone Exams receive approval as the high school level accountability measure, school districts, AVTSs and charter schools, including cyber charter schools, shall administer the Literature, Algebra I and Biology exams as end-of-course tests in the grade level in which students complete the relevant coursework. These studies will determine, at a minimum, the degree to which the Keystone Exams and performance level cut scores are valid for the purposes for which they are used; aligned with State academic standards; aligned with performance levels of other states; internationally benchmarked; and predict college and career success.

In addition, all Keystone Exams, performance level descriptors and cut scores will be subject to the best available forms of content, criterion and consequential validation. The Committee will advise the Department on its plans to conduct the validity study and review and provide feedback on its findings. Project-based assessment. The Statewide review panels shall score student projects according to scoring protocols and rubrics developed by the Department. The action plan must identify improvements the school district, AVTS or charter school, including a cyber charter school, will implement to each course associated with the Keystone Exam content for which the waivers were granted.

Local assessment system. The school entity shall provide assistance to students not attaining academic standards at the proficient level or better. The Department, in consultation with the Committee, will establish a list of entities approved to perform independent validations of local assessments. The Committee will submit its recommendations for approval or disapproval to the Board. The Department will post the approved criteria, selection criteria and list of approved entities on its web site. Immediately preceding text appears at serial pages and School profiles. Certification by principal of nonpublic nonlicensed school. Elementary or secondary nonpublic nonlicensed schools, shall, within 30 days of beginning classes, file a notarized certificate with the Secretary as required by section b 1 and 2 of the School Code 24 P.

Credentials other than the high school diploma. The requirements for a Commonwealth secondary school diploma are as follows: 1 The Commonwealth secondary school diploma may be issued to an applicant who is a resident of this Commonwealth and does not possess a secondary school diploma upon presentation of evidence of full matriculation and the satisfactory completion of a minimum of 1 full year or 30 semester hours of study at an accredited institution of postsecondary education. A person 18 years of age or older may qualify for GED testing upon request.

A person between 16 and 18 years of age may qualify for GED testing upon the issuance of a court order or at the written request of one of the following: i An employer who requires a high school equivalency credential for job opportunities. This restriction may be waived by the Department upon the recommendation of the school district for persons between 16 and 18 years of age who meet the higher education or GED requirements for the secondary school diploma. Correspondence schools. An applicant 18 years of age or older will be issued a Certificate of Preliminary Education upon presentation to the Department of evidence of the issuance of a high school diploma by an accredited private correspondence school licensed or approved by the State Board of Private Licensed Schools.

Students in special situations. Allegations of deficiencies. The conduct is properly prosecuted under the Teacher Certification Law. Seltzer v. Department of Education , A. Exceptions may be granted under the following conditions: 1 The request for an exception must be in writing and include relevant information supporting the need for the exception. This appendix cited in 22 Pa. The standards provide the targets for instruction and student learning essential for success in all academic areas, not just language arts classrooms. Five standard categories are designed to provide a Pre K continuum to reflect the demands of a college- and career-ready graduate: Standard 1: Foundational Skills begin at prekindergarten and focus on early childhood, with some standards reflected through Grade 5.

These foundational skills are a necessary and important component of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend text, both literary and informational, across disciplines. Standard 2: Reading Informational Text enables students to read, understand, and respond to informational text. Standard 3: Reading Literature enables students to read, understand, and respond to works of literature. Standard 4: Writing develops the skills of informational, argumentative, and narrative writing, as well as the ability to engage in evidence-based analysis of text and research.

Standard 5: Speaking and Listening focuses students on communication skills that enable critical listening and effective presentation of ideas. With a clearly defined target provided by the standards, parents, students, educators, and community members become partners in learning. Note : The Aligned Eligible Content is displayed with the standard statement. On the Standard Aligned System portal, it is a live link. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, students apply them as effective readers. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.

A Practice appropriate book handling skills. A Utilize book handing skills. B Identify basic features of print. B Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. C Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds phonemes. Phonics and Word Recognition CC. D Develop beginning phonics and word skills. D Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. Fluency Intentionally Blank CC. E Read emergent- reader text with purpose and understanding. E Read with accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. A With prompting and support, retell key details of text that support a provided main idea. A With prompting and support, identify the main idea and retell key details of text. A Identify the main idea and retell key details of text.

A Identify the main idea of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text. A Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. A Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text. A Determine two or more main ideas in a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text. B Answer questions about a text. B With prompting and support, answer questions about key details in a text. B Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. B Ask and answer questions such as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

B Ask and answer questions about the text and make inferences from text; refer to text to support responses. B Refer to details and examples in text to support what the text says explicitly and make inferences. B Cite textual evidence by quoting accurately from the text to explain what the text says explicitly and make inferences. C With prompting and support, make connections between information in a text and personal experiences.

C With prompting and support, make a connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. C Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text. C Describe the connection between a series of events, concepts, or steps in a procedure within a text. C Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. C Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a text based on specific information in the text.

D Explain the point of view of the author. D Compare and contrast an event or topic told from two different points of view. D Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. E Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. E Identify parts of a book title, author and parts of a text beginning, end, details.

E Use various text features and search tools to locate key facts or information in a text. E Use various text features and search tools to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. E Use text features and search tools to locate and interpret information. E Use text structure to interpret information e. E Use text structure, in and among texts, to interpret information e. F With prompting and support, answer questions about unfamiliar words read aloud from a text. F With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. F Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text.

F Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text including multiple-meaning words. F Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral meaning as well as shades of meaning among related words. F Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, including figurative language. F Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in grade-level text, including interpretation of figurative language. G With prompting and support, answer questions to connect illustrations to the written word. G Answer questions to describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear.

G Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas. G Explain how graphic representations contribute to and clarify a text. G Use information gained from text features to demonstrate understanding of a text. G Interpret various presentations of information within a text or digital source and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of text in which it appears. G Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. H With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. H Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. H Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text.

H Describe how an author connects sentences and paragraphs in a text to support particular points. H Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. H Determine how an author supports particular points in a text through reasons and evidence. I With prompting and support, identify basic similarities and differences between two texts read aloud on the same topic.

I With prompting and support, identify basic similarities and differences between two texts read or read aloud on the same topic. I Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic. I Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic. I Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

I Integrate information from two texts on the same topic to demonstrate understanding of that topic. I Integrate information from several texts on the same topic to demonstrate understanding of that topic. J Use new vocabulary and phrases acquired in conversations and being read to. J Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to, and responding to texts.

J Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading, and being read to, and responding to texts, including words that signal connections and relationships between the words and phrases. J Acquire and use grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases. J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.

J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic. J Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use CC. K With prompting and support, clarify unknown words or phrases read aloud. K Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown or multiple-meaning words and phrases based upon grade-level reading and content. K Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content. K Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing from a range of strategies and tools.

K Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade-level reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies and tools. L With prompting and support, actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. L Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. L Read and comprehend literary nonfiction and informational text on grade level, reading independently and proficiently. A With prompting and support, retell a familiar story in sequence with picture support. A With prompting and support, retell familiar stories including key details.

A Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson. A Recount stories and determine their central message, lesson, or moral. A Determine the central message, lesson, or moral in literary text; explain how it is conveyed in text. A Determine a theme of a text from details in the text; summarize the text. A Determine a theme of a text from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

B Answer questions about a particular story who, what, how, when, and where. B Answer questions about key details in a text. B Ask and answer questions about the text and make inferences from text, referring to text to support responses. B Cite relevant details from text to support what the text says explicitly and make inferences. C With prompting and support, answer questions to identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. C With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

C Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. C Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. C Describe characters in a story and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. C Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text. C Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.

D With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story. D Name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. D Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text. D Acknowledge differences in the points of views of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. E With prompting and support, recognize common types of text. E Recognize common types of text. E Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading or range of text types. E Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.

E Refer to parts of texts when writing or speaking about a text using such terms as chapter, scene, and stanza and describe how each successive part builds upon earlier sections. E Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose and refer to the structural elements of each when writing or speaking about a text. E Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem. Craft and Structure Vocabulary CC.

F Answer questions about unfamiliar words read aloud from a story. F Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. F Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses. F Describe how words and phrases supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. G Describe pictures in books using details. G Make connections between the illustrations and the text in a story read or read aloud.

G Use illustrations and details in a story to describe characters, setting, or events. G Use information from illustrations and words, in print or digital text, to demonstrate understanding of characters, setting, or plot. G Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. G Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text e.

H Answer questions to compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. H Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. H Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. H Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story by different authors or from different cultures. H Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters. H Compare and contrast similar themes, topics, and patterns of events in literature, including texts from different cultures.

H Compare and contrast texts in the same genre on their approaches to similar themes and topics as well as additional literary elements. Retrieved Retrieved 23 February Essentials of Cultural Anthropology 3 ed. Cengage Learning published ISBN Peasants [ Archived from the original on August 7, December 15, Archived from the original on October 28, February 24, Archived from the original on September 3, Journal of Agromedicine. ISSN X. PMID S2CID Lexico Dictionaries English. Oxford Dictionaries. Merriam—Webster's Dictionary of English Usage. Dyer, Christopher Agricultural History Review.

JSTOR Kirschenmann, Frederick Leopold Letter. Archived from the original PDF on Authority control. Integrated Authority File Germany 2.

An applicant 18 years of age or older will be issued a Certificate of Preliminary Education upon presentation to the Department of evidence of the issuance of a high Creon: The Tragic Hero In The Play Antigone diploma by an accredited private correspondence school licensed or approved by the State Board of Private Licensed Schools. In the first two paragraphs of the second Examples Of Loyalty In Romeo And Juliet of the Letter from a Birmingham Jail, we can see how Martin Luther King Examples Of Alienation In The Great Gatsby Creon: The Tragic Hero In The Play Antigone to vindicate the ways that his organization uses Suffering In Sophocles Oedipus The King resistance. F Add drawings or other visual displays when sharing aloud to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.