The Strannik In The Way Of The Pilgrim
Fedorov, one of Rad Bradburys There Will Come Soft Rains physicians who attended Alexei, Summary: Drug Prohibition In China that "the recovery was wholly inexplicable from a medical point of view. Ten missing The Crucible Act 1 Analysis diamonds. How What Is The Relationship Between The French And Native Americans In The 1600s the empress not trust Rasputin The Crucible Act 1 Analysis that? A crowned eagle of lapis lazuli The Crucible Act 1 Analysis perched Summary Of John Steinbecks The Moon Is Down either side of the egg; King Arthur: The Lady And The Lake pear-shaped pearl hangs Stonewall Riots Sociology each of them. This may have been a separate gift. The former Imperial Mesozoic Era Essay was finally scrapped in Estonia in Alexandra wrote to Nicholas at the Summary Of John Steinbecks The Moon Is Down. Their relationship cooled after several Rasputin prophecies failed to come true.
Throughout history, many men and women exemplified what it truly means to be badass without the assistance of big-budget filming and expensive PR campaigns. When was the last time you saw James Bond or Lara Croft emerge from the countryside, aged 19, to prevent France from becoming England? You didn't, because that was Joan of Arc, the first figure taught in Historical Badasses A badass is defined as a "tough, uncompromising or intimidating person" and many historical figures - including world leaders, medieval warriors, and military men - fit that bill. In fact, being a badass is how many of them made history. Many of these tough guys have been called the toughest man or woman!
Many of these strong leaders even have the most badass names - or their names became cool after their impressive deeds. Who do you think will wind up the top ten badasses? Compiled here is a list of historical figures who took toughness and intimidation to the next level. During times when everything was much more dangerous including people , the most badass people in history rose above it all by simply being even more dangerous. Vlad the Impaler didn't inspire Dracula with his mercy, that's for sure.
Now, who do you think is the most badass guy ever? Vote up the toughest humans ever below. He is believed to have killed over men during the —40 Winter War, the highest number of sniper kills in any major war. His unit's chaplain Antti Rantama credited him with confirmed kills by sniper rifle and an equal number of kills by submachine gun during the Winter War Hugh Glass. Hugh Glass c. He is best known for his story of survival and retribution after being left for dead by companions when he was mauled by a grizzly bear. His life story has been adapted into two feature-length films: Man in the Wilderness and The Revenant They both portray the survival struggle of Glass, who in the best historical accounts crawled and stumbled miles km to Fort Kiowa, South From to Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands — the Tchihende, the Tsokanende and the Nednhi — to carry out numerous raids, as well as resistance to U.
Geronimo's raids and related combat actions were a part of the prolonged period of the Apache—United States conflict, which started with American settlement in Apache lands Daniel Daly. Daly is said to have yelled, "Come on, you sons of bitches, do you want to live forever? Little is known about Spartacus beyond the events of the war, and surviving historical accounts are sometimes contradictory and may not always be reliable.
However, all sources agree that he was a former gladiator and an accomplished military leader. This rebellion, interpreted by some as an example of oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning oligarchy, has provided inspiration for many political Miyamoto Musashi. He is considered the Kensei, sword-saint of Japan. Attila The Hun. Attila ; fl. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans among others, in Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople.
His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in by an invasion of the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire, the success of which emboldened Attila to invade the West. He also attempted to conquer Roman Gaul modern France , crossing the Rhine in Genghis Khan. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed Genghis Khan, he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. These campaigns were often accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations — especially in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled lands. By the end of his Photo: Alchetron. Ching Shih.
She commanded over junks traditional Chinese sailing ships manned by 20, to 40, pirates—men, women, and even children. She entered into conflict with the major nations, such as the British Empire, the Portuguese Empire, and the Qing dynasty. Ching Shih and her crew's exploits had since been featured in numerous books, novels, video games, and films about piracy, pirates and their way of life in China as well as He is widely considered one of the greatest military commanders in world history. His younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair, who also commanded Carthaginian armies.
Hannibal lived during a period of great tension in the western Mediterranean Basin, triggered by the emergence of the Roman Republic as a great power after it had established its supremacy over Italy. Jack Churchill. Nicknamed "Fighting Jack Churchill" and "Mad Jack", he was known for the motto: "Any officer who goes into action without his sword is improperly dressed. Photo: user uploaded image. Ivar The Boneless. The origin of the nickname is not certain. George S. George Smith Patton Jr.
Born in to a family with an extensive military background that spanned both the United States and Confederate States armies, Patton attended the Virginia Military Institute and the U. Military Academy at West Point. When closed, the panels fit so well together that the surprise miniatures are effectively concealed. The egg is supported on a varicolored gold, four-legged stand, decorated with crowned heads of eagles, crossed arrows, and other classical ornaments Snowman, ; Lesley, The first pictorial miniature is of the Elisabeth Institute, founded in St. Petersburg in , and is engraved in Cyrillic: Elisabeth Inst. Petersburg founded in the year The engraving is on the back of the second miniature since the first miniature itself is not engraved, because the first and last gold ovals form the front and back of the closed Egg.
The St. It was handed over to the Imperial Philanthropic Society, under the custody of Empress Elisabeth Alexeievna in December The Institute was informally named after Elisabeth Alexeievna, and later, after her death in , it was formally named in her honor. The second pictorial miniature is of the St. Petersburg Nicholas Institute founded in , and is engraved in Cyrillic: St. Petersburg Orphanage Nikolaevski Inst. Tsar Nicholas I in had ordered the construction of the St. The building opened in , and in after the death of Nicholas I , the institute was given the name Nicholas. Significantly, the university entrance building has, as its historical emblem, the Pelican Feeding its Young.
The third pictorial image is of the St. Petersburg Catherine Institute founded in and is engraved in Cyrillic: Catherine Institute founded in Wintraecken advises a two-story building known as the Italian Palace was built on a piece of land given by Peter the Great to his daughter Anna in He had also been responsible for the Smolny Institute. Empress Marie Feodorovna wife of Paul I in founded a school for girls in the new palace, the St. Catherine Institute. The institute was named after St. Catherine the Great Martyr, also known as St. Catherine of Alexandria.
In , the building was being used by the Russian National Library. The fourth pictorial image is of the St. The Pavlovski Institute was built in the year of its founding by decree of Paul I as a military orphanage for children of officers and soldiers who died in battle. The focus was on the education of boys, and a division for girls was only supplementary. When Alexander I came to power, he ordered separate wards. The military orphanage at the same time was renamed for the Pavlovski Cadet Corps. The students lived in separate quarters, ate in different dining rooms, walked separately, and attended church at different times. In the Institute was reorganized into a unified labor school, used as a hospital during the Great Patriotic War , and later returned to a school again.
The fifth pictorial image is engraved in Cyrillic: Smolny Institute founded in Wintraecken reports the Smolny Institute is the large building on the right of the image. In the background is the church of the Smolny Convent. Empress Elizabeth I , daughter of Peter the Great, ordered her favorite court architect, Bartolomeo Rastrelli, to build a convent where she wished to spend the rest of her days. Russian tradition required that churches and cathedrals be erected on a riverbank, so Rastrelli chose to place the convent in a bend of the Neva River previously allotted for the Smolnoi dvor the tar-yard for the needs of the Admiralty.
The construction of the Convent began in and continued for an extended period. Empress Elizabeth did not live to see it completed. Catherine II in opened a boarding school for ladies on land of the Smolny Convent. Throughout the 19 th century, the Smolny maintained its reputation as the most elite educational institution for girls and was regarded as synonymous with high cultural standards, manners, and poise. Since then, the Smolny campus has continued to be used for government purposes, eventually becoming home to the St.
Petersburg Duma. The sixth pictorial image is engraved in Cyrillic: Patriotic Institute founded in In this building in , a school was established for girls daughters of officers , whose fathers had been killed during the Napoleonic war. In , the school received the status of institute and in it was rebuilt with two side wings. In the years , the Russian writer Nikolai Gogol, now considered the father of modern Russian realism, worked there as a teacher of history. The seventh pictorial image is engraved in Cyrillic: Xenia Institute founded in When the Grand Duke died, his wife took the veil and the palace passed into the Treasury. Currently the building is used by the Council of Trade Unions of St. Petersburg city and the region. It is also used for commercial purposes.
Annemiek Wintraecken says earlier sources believed all the institutions depicted on the Pelican miniatures were located in St. After an exhaustive internet search Ms. Wintraecken located images of the building which exactly replicated the building on the eighth and final miniature pictorial surprise contained within the Pelican Egg. She reports: …In Moscow was hit by a great fire and although the Moscow Orphanage was saved thanks to local police, half of the city and almost half of all the schools were destroyed. In the Nicholas Orphanage was opened in the Orphanage building, in the western wing. The Bolsheviks disbanded the Orphanage immediately after the Revolution. The main building was used by Soviet trade unions, followed by a Military Academy and a long succession of state institutions.
The right wing of the Orphanage was topped out by June , but the project was not completed until after World War II. Viewed from the outside, this later addition is only marginally different from the left wing, to which the top floor was added at about the same time. The main building now conforms quite closely to the original designs of architect Karl Blank. Future plans are to use the complex as the main seat of the Russian Parliament.
The egg retains its original red velvet case, the only time this color was apparently used for a Tsar Imperial Easter egg. The egg is listed in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure. The surprise consists of three oval miniatures of Nicholas II in military uniform and the Grand Duchesses Olga and Tatiana, his first two children. It rises from the top of the egg by means of a geared mechanism and spreads into a fan when a gold-mounted pearl button at the side is turned. A turn in the opposite direction automatically folds and returns the miniatures back to the interior of the egg.
The Julian date, April 5, , is engraved on the reverse of the miniatures which were painted on ivory by Johannes Zehngraf Snowman, ; Brezzo et al. The egg retains its original fitted velvet case. The Lilies of the Valley Egg is the first known Tsar Imperial egg in which the surprise springs from the top. This idea would gain its fullest expression in the Cockerel Egg. Eleven tiny translucent strawberry-enameled gold covers, each bearing its own monogram, are connected by a large diamond M to form a decoration for the front of this plaque. When a tiny knob at the bottom point of the heart is depressed, the enameled covers open simultaneously to reveal eleven miniatures of the immediate Imperial family.
The heart miniature is backed with mother of pearl. The egg has a wooden carrying case, which is probably not original. It is one of the few significant Imperial Eggs to remain in a private collection. The lid had been torn off one, and the enamel was chipped on the other. The Pansy Egg is seldom seen publicly. One is awed by the skill of the Russian gem-cutters who adroitly crafted delicate semi-open buds and fully open flowers with curvaceous and semi-transparent petals. Muntian, T. When a button at the rear of the egg is depressed, the circular pierced gold grille opens and an automaton singing bird rises, crowing, on a gold platform, while moving its wings and beak. When the crowing finishes, it descends again into the egg, and the grille closes down.
On the top of the grille, the date is inscribed beneath a diamond. It was paid January 13 OS , Muntian has also found references to this egg in both the and inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure. An archival black and white photograph indicates a drop pearl used to hang from a small suspension ring on the bottom of the open-work apron under the dial. They also believe this egg was inspired by the cockerel which is part of the famous Peacock Clock in the Winter Palace, created in the 18 th century by Englishman James Cox.
There was a mix-up in the delivery of this egg to the Dowager Empress. Consequently, the egg did not arrive on time. The egg is supported by three griffins cast in gold-plated silver, each brandishing a sword and shield. The stepped base is of white onyx in the form of a triangle with concave sides and rounded corners. A gold-plated silver plait is inlaid into the base. A faithful folding miniature replica of the Trans-Siberian Express is contained in the egg, in three sections.
It consists of a platinum clockwork locomotive with a ruby lantern and rosette headlights and five gold coaches with windows of rock crystal. The train is wound with a golden key Snowman, ; Brezzo et al. Petersburg, The bill was not presented to the tsar until January The magazine Capital and Country Estate Ed. It is not known where the pearls listed in the invoice were used on the egg. Perhaps they identified the railway stations along the route. This egg is described in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure. It also noted that the enamel was chipped in one place. When the velvet-lined egg is opened, a detailed model of the Gatchina Palace near St. Petersburg is revealed. The replica is faithful to the last detail. Executed in four colors of gold, the model includes trees, bridges, cannon, turrets a flag even flies from one , as well as the graveled courtyard and walkways.
The egg reflects accurately the interests of the Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovna. An outgoing, witty person, she actively supported the arts, and Gatchina was the palace her husband, Alexander III, preferred as his usual home, thirty miles southwest of St. He had fled Russia in and set up an antique shop in Paris. The book does not explain how Polovtsov acquired the two Tsar Imperial Easter eggs. Ulstrup says the list was compiled in July As German troops advanced, precious items were selected for evacuation to safety. The box with the two Tsar Imperial Easter eggs was among them. The photograph of the egg at the von Dervis Mansion shows the entire body of the egg in white enamel. Basket with bouquet of wild flowers, with rose-cut diamonds and 10 pearls.
Yet there is no sign of the pearls on the basket, and significantly, they were not mentioned by N. The egg is included in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure. This description might also fit the Diamond Trellis Egg. It is assumed the two previous descriptions of the Alexander III Medallion Egg omit certain elements because of their brevity. Miniature by Zehngraf, in nephrite frame. Johannes Zehngraf specialized in miniature portraits of the royal families of Europe. Tatiana N. Easter Gifts , , Workmaster: Mikhail Perkhin Marks: M. The edges where the top and bottom halves of the egg meet are almost hidden by the cleverly placed clover leaves. The egg stands in an almost-too-delicate three-legged gold bracket of clover leaves and curving stems, with inward-turning foliate feet Snowman, There are clips inside the egg which probably held the surprise in place, much like the Tsar Imperial Mosaic Egg.
Background Notes: This is the third known example of Art Nouveau in the Imperial Easter eggs and among the most satisfying. At the time, this was a new technique, fraught with difficulty. As the enamel had no support, it could crack while being fired or while cooling. The inventory of items in the private apartments of the Imperial family at the Winter Palace, supplies a detailed account of the Clover Leaf Egg, but not the surprise. It can be assumed, therefore, the surprise had already been removed. I hope it will arrive safely. There are no secrets in it-the egg simply opens from the top. Petersburg Standard Board Materials: Egg — varicolored gold, platinum, translucent yellow, and opaque white enamel, square-cut rubies, rose-cut diamonds, rock crystal, watercolor on ivory Miniature statue — bronze, sapphire Dimensions: Height of egg — mm.
Diameter of egg — 83 mm. Height of miniature — 39 mm. Description: This egg, made of red, green, and yellow gold and platinum, is elaborately enriched with a rococo cage work of diamond and ruby set scrolls in the Louis XV style, with shells, foliage, and bulrushes in green gold, set with square-cut rubies. The dates and in rose-cut diamonds appear on either side of the lid. Linked by quatre-couleur gold swags of roses, four miniature paintings by the court miniaturist Vasilii Zuiev, show Peter the Great, the wooden hut that he is traditionally said to have built himself, Nicholas II, and the 1,room Winter Palace as it was in Each of the miniatures is covered by rock crystal.
Opaque white enamel ribbons inscribed with relevant historical details encircle the upper and lower portions of this egg. The body of the egg is covered with an interwoven medley of laurel leaves triumph and eternity , roses victory, pride, and heavenly joy , and bulrushes. These plants symbolize the faithful multitude by the source of the living waters. To the inhabitants of St.
Petersburg, the River Neva was a counterpart of the Jordan. Every year, in the first week of January, the waters of the Neva were blessed; hence the bulrushes also denote the source of salvation. It depicts Peter charging up a boulder on horseback, his right hand extended in blessing, and his horse trampling the serpent of evil. The tiny, removable bronze model by Georgii Malychev, is surrounded by a carved gold railing, which is itself encircled by chains and posts pinned to an engraved gold pavement within a raised gold bezel in the form of a wall. The enameling would have been doubly difficult to achieve, given the confining concave surface to which the enamel had to be applied.
The egg celebrates the th anniversary of the founding of St. Petersburg by Peter the Great. The ultra-conservative Nicholas II regarded the forward-looking Peter the Great with more than a degree of distaste —. The egg is readily identifiable in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure. Dimensions: Height of egg — mm. Base of egg — mm. Description: This, the most ambitious and tallest of the known Imperial Easter eggs, represents the Uspenski Dormition Cathedral where the tsars of Russia were crowned.
The turrets of the Kremlin are fashioned in red gold and the roofs are enameled translucent light green. There are musical chimes in two of the towers, the decorative clock dials measuring about half an inch 12 mm. The Spasskaia Tower, which is duplicated, bears the coat of arms of the Russian Empire and of Moscow. Through the glass windows of the egg can be seen a minutely accurate representation of the interior of the cathedral, with its rich carpets, decorations, and High Altar, shown on an oval glass plate. Two Cherubim chants, traditional triumphal Easter hymns, are played when a mechanism is wound up by a gold key two and a half inches 63 mm. The egg, which rests on an octagonal white onyx base, is consciously designed as a pyramid and is built up of other smaller pyramids.
The bill is signed by A. Petersburg, June 7 OS , The egg can be removed from the towers, which hold it in place. They had tended to avoid the capital following a disastrous incident during the celebrations to mark their coronation. Hundreds of Muscovites died, crushed to death, when a crowd ran amok in Khodynka Meadow. Many Russians took the tragedy as a bad omen for the reign of the new tsar. This was the first and only time a member of the ruling dynasty was murdered in the ancient citadel of the Moscow tsars. This may have delayed presentation of the egg for a second year. Nicholas II did not receive the Moscow Kremlin Egg to give to Alexandra Feodorovna until , and the bill of sale was not presented until that year.
This is not surprising; the tsarina was deeply religious and became more so with age. The cost of 11, rubles made it the most expensive Tsar Imperial Easter egg to date. Cupola dented, one window broken, another missing. One eagle and two flags missing. Various small parts dented. Key broken. Petersburg to the Alexandra Palace at Tsarskoye Selo, 25 kilometers south-west of the capital, feeling they and their family would be safer there. Alexandra left all her other earlier Easter eggs behind at the Winter Palace. Marks: 56, kokoshnik, Y. Petersburg Standard Board. Materials: Egg — gold, matt opaque mauve enamel, rose-cut diamonds, portrait diamonds Miniature swan — quatre-couleur gold, silver-plated gold, aquamarine. Width of egg — 73 mm.
Length of swan: 55 mm. Description: This gold egg is covered with matt mauve enamel within a twisted ribbon trellis of rose-cut diamonds, with a four-looped bow at each intersection. Lifted from the egg by a handle formed of water lilies in four colors of gold, a miniature lake is revealed composed of a large aquamarine, also richly decorated with water lilies, upon which rests a superbly chased silver-plated gold swan. When wound up under one wing, chased gold feet guide the bird along its course; it wags its tail characteristically. The head is raised and the wings are opened and spread to display each feather separately Snowman, In , the egg retained its original cream-colored velvet case.
Background Notes: It had been suggested Alexandra Feodorovna must have received this egg, as mauve was known to be her favorite color. Indeed, she had a veritable passion for the hue, with her famous sitting room decorated almost entirely in the color; it was known as the Mauve Sitting Room. The belief that the egg was presented to Alexandra appears to have stemmed from the catalog of the Hammer New York exhibition.
Much of the information contained in that catalog has since proven to be incorrect, as a casual glance at it will verify. Not only does it reveal that the Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovna received the Swan Egg but it also indicates that the miniature swan is made of silver-plated gold, not silver or platinum as originally believed:. Indeed, Robert C. Both the and inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure list the Swan Egg and its surprise.
Materials: Egg — varicolored gold, translucent pale blue and green enamel, opalescent oyster enamel, diamonds, rubies, pearls, white onyx, silk-lining Missing easel surprise — white enamel, ruby, pearls, rose-cut diamonds, watercolor possibly on ivory , probably gold. It is surmounted by a pierced basket in colored golds of enameled roses among foliage set with rose-cut diamonds and hung with pearl swags. The interior is lined in silk with a hollow of about 24 mm. Heavy swags of enameled roses and leaves set with rose-cut diamonds and pearls link each column.
Background Notes: This egg, seen only infrequently since being brought to the West, was a source of controversy for fifty years. Debate had raged over who received it and when and what the surprise was. So, the egg had been made as an Easter gift to mark the arrival of the long-awaited heir: the Tsesarevich Alexei had been born on July 30 OS , The question of the surprise is vexing. The official invoice confirms the surprise was a miniature of all the Imperial children. How this egg came to the West has yet to be documented.
It is not listed in either the or inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure. It is possible the Egg came into the possession of Alexander Polotsov, the court official in charge of the evacuation described above. See the Gatchina Palace Egg entry for details. Equally, Hammer Galleries or its associates may have acquired this egg in the late s through Anastas Mikoyan, the Soviet trade minister. Materials: Egg — gold, translucent pale green enamel, opaque green enamel, opaque light and dark pink enamel, portrait diamonds, rose-cut diamonds, satin lining Missing chain surprise — diamonds, watercolor on ivory Missing stand — silver-gilt wire. Dimensions: Height of egg — 77 mm. Diameter of egg — 58 mm.
Description: This gold Easter egg in translucent pale green enamel is latticed with rose-cut diamonds and decorated with opaque light and dark pink enamel roses and translucent emerald green leaves. A portrait diamond is set at either end of this very charming egg, the one at the base covering the date; unfortunately the monogram has disappeared from beneath the other. An oval jeweled locket was originally concealed in the egg, but now only its impression on the satin lining remains Snowman, This description appeared in an album of Tsar Imperial eggs given to the Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna between and , which was located by Marina Lopato.
The Rose Trellis Egg has a portrait diamond at either end, yet there is only one portrait diamond listed in the invoice. It would seem there is an error in the bill. The inventory of items in the private apartments of the Imperial family in the Winter Palace by N. Dementiev, lists this egg. Dementiev describes two portrait diamonds, but does not mention the surprise. It can be concluded, therefore, that the surprise at this time was kept separate from the host egg. Dementiev says the egg rested on a silver-gilt wire stand.
The other years when this is known to have occurred are:. The author, reputedly an official of the British Red Cross and now known to be Albert Stopford, was on friendly terms with Polovtsov and his wife. Petersburg, in Materials: Egg — gold, portrait diamonds, rose-cut diamonds, rubies, nephrite, watercolor on ivory Miniature palace — tinted gold, silver, varicolored gold, rock crystal, light green enamel, wood, glass. Diameter of egg — 68 mm. Miniature palace — 30 mm. Description: This nephrite egg is adorned with five miniature portraits of the children of Tsar Nicholas II and contains a replica of the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo.
Each diamond is surrounded by an inlaid wreath of golden leaves, and flowers composed of rubies and diamonds. In the space between the vertical lines are five miniature oval portraits of the children of Tsar Nicholas II, executed in watercolor on ivory and framed in diamonds. Above each portrait is a crowned diamond monogram, the first initial of the child represented. Inside the egg, on the reverse side of each portrait, is engraved the birth date of the person represented, framed by two branches tied into a bow:.
The replica of the Alexander Palace and its adjoining gardens is concealed within the egg. Executed in tinted gold and silver, with rock crystal windows and a light green enamel roof, the model is mounted on a gold table with five high, narrow legs. Vari-colored gold is used for different aspects of the palace gardens. For example, green gold is used for the shrubbery, and granulated red gold for the driveway. The stand is modern, having been made in at the Moscow Experimental Jewelry Factory. The original stand is lost. In relation to other palaces, both in St. Petersburg and in Moscow, the Alexander Palace was quite modest. Pierre Gillard spent more than a decade at the Imperial court, being hired in the spring of to teach the Imperial children French.
The egg was valued at 20, rubles. Materials: Egg — rock crystal, silver-gilt Peacock surprise — varicolored gold, varicolored enamel, precious stones. Diameter of egg — mm. Length of miniature — mm. Description: This rock crystal Easter egg in Louis XV taste, engraved with the crowned monogram of Marie Feodorovna and the date, each within a border of scrolls, is supported on a silver-gilt scrolling base.
When opened at the top by means of a clasp, the egg falls into halves, each with a heavily chased silver-gilt rococo mount. The peacock, when lifted from the branches, wound up, and placed on a flat surface, struts proudly about, moving its head and, at intervals, spreading and closing its varicolored enamel tail. It was he who made the mechanical peacock for a rock crystal egg.
It took him three years to make it. The clock had been a present to Catherine the Great from Count Grigorii Aleksandrovich Potemkin , the statesman who originally helped Catherine gain the throne. The clock is enclosed in a case the size of a miniature room and was originally housed in the Winter Palace. The relatively simple egg encloses a treasure of astonishing skill and charm. Dorofeiev probably made a number of models in a base metal, gradually reducing them in size until the correct scale-model was achieved. He also made a smaller version of the same peacock. The Peacock Egg is seldom seen publicly.
Could this be the first peacock made by Dorofeiev? I ask you to forgive this involuntary lack of precision. The egg has been out of public view since before the October Revolution of It does not seem to appear in either the or inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure. See the Royal Danish Egg for comments on what may have happened to it. Materials: Egg — gold, diamonds, rose-cut diamonds, drop pearls, lapis lazuli, rock crystal, green and opaque white enamel Miniature ship — gold, platinum, enamel.
Miniature — 20 mm. Description: The Renaissance style rock crystal egg is horizontally mounted in gold and bears the inscription Standart on the edge of the mount. A gold band, with inlaid leaves of green enamel and small diamonds, lines the perimeter of the egg. The top half of the egg has been hollowed out, but the bottom half is solid, the rock crystal having been carved in undulating waves to represent water. The bottom half is decorated with a vertical gold band with inlaid designs. A crowned eagle of lapis lazuli is perched on either side of the egg; a pear-shaped pearl hangs from each of them. The shaft consists of two lapis lazuli dolphins with intertwined tails. The oval base is of rock crystal with a wide band of white enamel inlaid with laurel garlands and bands of small diamonds with laurel branches in green enamel.
An exact replica in gold and platinum of the yacht Standart rests inside the egg on a sea of carved rock crystal Brezzo et al. Background Notes: A. It was meters long, making it the largest yacht in the world at that time. Painted black with gold decorations on the bow and stern, the Standart had crew and servants. It had thirty rooms, with a stable in the hold that had room for a cow. This ensured fresh milk daily for the Imperial children. The Standart took the Imperial family on frequent sorties along the Baltic and Finnish coasts. It may well have been made to commemorate the part played by the tsarina when, on August 29 th OS , , the yacht struck a reef and appeared to be sinking fast and, as Baroness Sophie Buxhoeveden recalled in her Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress of Russia London, :.
By a miracle, Tsesarevich Alexei escaped. The Standart resumed Imperial duties about eighteen months later. Earlier descriptions of the miniature had suggested silver had been used in its construction. The Egg is listed in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure. Ten missing rose-cut diamonds. After the October Revolution of , the Standart was renamed Vosemnadtsat Marta and used for training purposes. In , she was refitted and used to lay mines. The former Imperial yacht was finally scrapped in Estonia in Materials: Egg — platinum, portrait diamond, rose-cut diamonds, rock crystal Miniature statue — green gold, lapis lazuli, rose-cut diamonds. Dimensions: Height of egg incl.
Base — mm. Miniature — 50 mm. Description: The egg, containing a green gold replica of the monument to Alexander III by Prince Paolo Trubetskoi , rests on a rectangular base of lapis lazuli bordered by two rows of rose diamonds. The Renaissance-style egg is carved out of rock crystal and cloaked with a platinum lacework strewn with rose-cut diamonds.
A large diamond surmounts the egg and is engraved with the year The diamond is set in a band of small rose diamonds, with a rosette border of platinum acanthus leaves. The two platinum double-headed eagles on the sides of the egg have diamond crowns. The surface of the egg between the eagles is engraved with branching patterns that are joined at the bottom. The lower hemisphere of the egg serves as a platform for the replica of the monument and is supported by cast platinum cherubs coiled into position on a base of crystal, which is shaped like a four-petaled rosette Brezzo et al.
Background Notes: This Easter egg was described by A. Petersburg, Indeed the dowager empress was said to have kept the model of the statue in her private apartments. This loyalty may have been misplaced. It has since been relocated to a place of prominence in front of the Marble Palace. The profuse use of platinum in the Alexander III Equestrian Egg may be misleading; platinum in Russia at that time was not regarded with the esteem reserved for gold. This situation was to change dramatically after the First World War, when the price of Russian platinum soared Larsons, M. Platinum may not have been as highly regarded as gold in Russia at this time, but the bill still came to 14, rubles.
This egg is listed in both the or inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure, although the platinum setting is erroneously described as silver. The egg was valued at 28, rubles, probably because the valuers realized that platinum and not silver had been used in its construction, and the value of platinum in Russia had, by this time, begun to rise sharply. The egg has no official state mark, probably because platinum had no hallmark in Russia at this time. Materials: Bowenite, quatre-couleur gold, rose-cut diamonds, silver-gilt, platinum, opalescent pale pink and translucent white enamel. Description: Conceived as an Arcadian Temple of Love, this rotary clock egg commemorates the birth of the long-awaited heir to the throne in A silver-gilt cupid, an allegorical representation of the tsesarevich, surmounts the gold egg, which is enameled opalescent pale pink on an engraved ground and is encircled by the broad band of a translucent white enameled dial set with rose-cut diamond numerals; a diamond-set pointer projects from the colonnade in pale green bowenite, which supports the egg.
The base of this colonnade consists of six gold-mounted Ionic columns of bowenite. It is set with colored gold chiseled mounts and a broad band of pink enamel. Two cast and chased platinum doves are perched on a white enamel plinth, raised within the circle of columns. Background Notes: There had been some confusion over whether or not this egg was a companion piece for the Love Trophies Egg; both were thought to celebrate the birth of the tsesarevich, with one egg for the tsarina and the other for the dowager empress. A prominent figure in the avant-garde art movement of the late nineteenth century, Alexander Benois, told A.
The Colonnade Egg demonstrates the importance of the tsesarevich to the Romanov dynasty. After the death of his mother, Catherine the Great, Tsar Paul I had decreed that women could no longer inherit the throne. Michael himself yielded the throne on March 3 OS , The silver-gilt cupid representing the tsesarevich sits atop the egg complete with wings i. His four sisters, represented by the silver-gilt figures, are in a subservient position, and without wings. This reflects the reality within the Imperial family, where the Tsesarevich Alexei was all but worshipped by his sisters and his mother.
Alexei did virtually anything he liked and would answer only to his father. The allegorical references in this egg were readily understood by the Imperial family. Indeed the photograph album cited above has as part of the caption for this egg, this sentence:. This is confirmed by early photographs of the egg and by the description of it in the album of the Tsar Imperial Eggs presented to Alexandra Feodorovna between and By the time H. Both the staff and the rose have since disappeared. Marks: H. Materials: Gold, translucent green enamel, opaque white enamel, opalescent oyster enamel, diamonds, rock crystal, watercolor on ivory. Dimensions: Height of egg: mm. Height of case — mm. Description: The red gold shell of the egg is chased and enameled with a trellis of green laurel set with rose-cut diamond ties at the intersections.
It is divided into eighteen panels in three tiers, set with sixteen miniatures, scenes from the life of Nicholas II and portraits of him and his family, painted on ivory by Vasilii Zuiev and framed behind rock crystal. The portraits of the tsar, tsarina, their four daughters and their son are framed in rose-cut diamonds on panels of translucent pale pinkish-blue enamel. The larger panels intersecting them vertically are, from top to bottom and rotating clockwise after the portrait of the tsar:.
The egg sits on a gold stand made before The names and dates of the birth of the children appearing on the egg are: Olga, , Tatiana, , Marie, , Anastasia, , and Alexei, The tsarina kept this egg in a corner cabinet of her Mauve Sitting Room at the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo, along with most of the other eggs made for her after the troubles of There appears to be no clear evidence this egg was among those in the and inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure. The intriguing journey of the 15 th Anniversary Egg from the former Soviet Union to the United States has yet to be fully publicly documented. It may have been a personal gift in the late s from a high-ranking Soviet politician to a longtime American friend of the Soviet Union, or it may have been purchased by Hammer Galleries or its associates in the late s through Anastas Mikoyan, the Soviet trade minister.
Materials: Egg- gold, translucent green and opaque white enamel, nephrite, diamonds, rubies, pearls, white Mexican onyx Miniature songbird — feathers. Height of egg open — mm. Description: The tree has four main branches that rise from the naturalistically chased gold trunk and divide into smaller branches to hold the nephrite leaves, each finely carved with veining and with a socket at the back into which fits the gold twig.
The flowers of white enamel have diamond centers; the buds, rose-cut diamonds; and the fruits are pale rubies and champagne diamonds. The top third of the tree contains the movement for the singing bird, which emerges from the top of the tree when a jeweled fruit is pressed. It then moves its head from side to side, flaps its wings, and opens its beak. The bird returns to a gold filigree recess inside the top of the egg. The leaves fit together to disguise the opening when it is closed. Of the four main branches arising from the trunk, three are soldered, but the fourth is fitted into a specially made groove.
This last branch can be removed but to take it out, it is also necessary to remove the leaves, the flowers, and the fruit from this segment. This exposes the bird mechanism housed in a spherical case concealed in the top of the tree. The upper branch rises when the bird is to perform his little concert and falls back over him when he is finished. The tub is of white Mexican onyx overlaid by a gold trelliswork enriched with enameled green swags set with cabochon rubies and pearl finials at the corners. The egg has a fitted red morocco case, the exterior of which is stamped in gold with the initials A.
Hughes, one of the early post-Romanov owners. It is based on a mechanical tubbed orange tree made by the eighteenth-century jeweler Richard of Paris and sold from the collection of the Earl of Rosebery at the Sotheby Parke-Bernet, Mentmore Towers auction on May 18, It has had almost a dozen known owners in its time. George W. Terrell Jr. This egg is readily identifiable in both the and inventories of confiscated Imperial treasure. Materials: Egg — yellow gold, translucent emerald green, and ruby red enamel, rose-cut diamonds, velvet, satin Miniature screen — yellow gold, rose-cut diamonds, platinum, translucent emerald green, and opaque white enamel, gouache on ivory. Diameter of egg: 89 mm. A golden diamond-set sunburst centered by a portrait diamond displaying the crown and cipher of the Dowager Tsarina Marie Feodorovna surmounts the egg.
The lower terminal is similarly set with a smaller portrait diamond displaying the date The reverse of each panel is enameled in translucent opalescent white over an engine-turned sunburst, trimmed in green enamel, and centered with a crowned Cyrillic script cipher of the dowager tsarina Brezzo et al. The egg retains its original velvet case. Background Notes: This magnificent egg commemorates the th anniversary of the War of the Motherland waged against Napoleon and in particular, the victory at Borodino in They did not view Alexandra in the same light. This is one of only two Imperial Easter eggs for which design drawings have so far been found, the other being the Standart Egg.
Otherwise, the egg was made exactly as the drawing suggested. A color reproduction of the drawing showing the difference in shading is on pp. After the October Revolution of , the Cabinet documents were transferred to the Tsentarkhiv, and while they were being sorted between and a large part of them were unaccountably destroyed, leaving only some isolated documents, including the invoice for the eggs made in However, other account books and correspondence survive that indicate the two Easter eggs produced for together cost 50, rubles, 50 kopecks. But an article published by Tatiana Muntian in December, , to mark the th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, included material from newly-discovered documents about the individual Imperial Easter Eggs for , , and This Egg is included in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure.
It was recovered soon after, following a high-speed police pursuit, during which it was jettisoned with two other Tsar Imperial eggs, the Danish Palaces Egg and the Caucasus Egg. Materials: Egg — gold, lapis lazuli, portrait diamond, brilliant diamond Frame surprise — platinum, lapis lazuli, rose-cut diamonds, watercolor on ivory. Diameter of egg — 89 mm. Description: Designed in the style of Louis XV, this egg is carved from a block of lapis lazuli of superb quality and is enclosed in an elaborately carved and chased gold cage-work composed of conventionalized motifs, including scrolls, shells, baskets of flowers, winged cherubs, and the Imperial double-headed eagle beneath a canopy hanging from a fretted arch.
Inside the egg, a crowned double-headed Imperial eagle in platinum is richly set back and front with 2, rose-cut diamonds. It frames a miniature portrait of the tsesarevich, which is supported on a diamond-set lapis lazuli base with four diamond leaves, curled to serve as feet. The reverse side frames a miniature showing the back of the seven-year-old tsesarevich. Here in this whole composition is a striking instance of the beauty of the frame, surpassing by far the picture it holds, for it must be confessed that the miniature portrait, which is understandably not signed, provides in its weakness of execution, a melancholy anticlimax to a good design Snowman, An archival black and white photograph of the egg with its original stand was published in A.
The photograph shows the feet of the original stand turned inward in a Greek key pattern. Alexandra would devote the rest of her life to protecting her son, clutching at any hope offered by anyone, including Grigorii Rasputin:. But in the autumn of , while the Imperial family was at the hunting lodge at Spala in Poland, the tsesarevich suffered a severe hemorrhage in his thigh and groin that almost killed him.
It had been brought on by a fall some weeks before. Gillard, who had just begun teaching the tsesarevich, was a first-hand witness to the drama which unfolded. The first lesson was on October 2, with the tsarina present. But, Gillard said:. Bulletins were issued about his state of health, without saying exactly what was the cause of the problem. A starets unordained holy man and strannik pilgrim sustained by the charity of others , Rasputin first appeared in St. Petersburg in and was introduced to the Imperial family by Anastasia and Militsa, the daughters of the King of Montenegro. The tsarina, desperate for a son after four daughters, sought help from any source, including Rasputin, to fulfill this desire. Their relationship cooled after several Rasputin prophecies failed to come true.
It was the Spala crisis that brought Rasputin back into Imperial favor and gave him unparalleled influence with the tsarina. Bainbridge on June 5, , that on March 13 OS , , he had delivered the egg in person:. The official invoice for this egg has been lost. The egg was valued at 14, rubles. An early photograph indicated the Egg was cradled in a three-legged, diamond-studded stand with inward turned Greek key pattern feet. In , the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts had the original stand replicated in bronze and painted to look like gold. This stand now supports the Tsesarevich Egg.
Materials: Egg — gold, silver, portrait diamonds, rose-cut diamonds, turquoise, rock crystal, purpurine, translucent white enamel, opalescent white enamel, watercolor on ivory Miniature globe — steel, varicolored gold, dark blue enamel. Diameter of egg — 78 mm. The miniatures, painted on ivory, are by Zuiev. The egg, which is removable, rests on a pedestal in the form of a three-sided Imperial eagle in pale gold, the three talons holding respectively, the scepter, orb, and Romanov sword. Supporting this, the circular gem-set purpurine base, mounted in gold, represents the Russian Imperial shield. Within the egg is a rotating steel globe, enameled dark blue and divided into two halves. One hemisphere shows a map of the Russian Empire in , the other, in The blue enamel represents the sea, and the land masses are described in colored golds.
Background Notes: As if saying a last farewell, Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna made a pilgrimage in the tercentenary year, retracing the journey made by Michael Romanov on his way to the throne. In fact, the celebrations across Russia were sustained, extravagant, and, judging by photographs, well attended by the masses. Not surprisingly, the Imperial couple completely misread the mood of the nation. She believed to the end that the Russian peasants worshipped Nicholas and herself. In its own way, this egg-which is the epitome of autocratic Imperial power — indicates how little Russia had changed in years under Romanov rule. The Romanov Tercentenary Egg is listed in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure.
Materials: Egg — rock crystal, platinum, rose-cut diamonds, brilliant diamonds, moonstone Miniature basket — platinum, gold, white quartz, nephrite, demantoid green garnets Base — rock crystal. Dimensions: Overall height — mm. Height of egg — mm. Height of surprise — 82 mm. Description: The egg is set on a rock crystal base formed as a block of melting ice, applied with platinum-mounted rose-cut diamond rivulets. The hinged, rock-crystal egg is detachable and is held vertically above by a pin.
The egg has rose-cut, diamond-set platinum borders, graduated around the hinge and enclosing at the top, a cabochon moonstone painted on the reverse with the date The thinly carved transparent body of the egg is finely engraved on the interior to simulate ice crystals, while the outside is further engraved and applied in carved channels with similar rose-cut diamond-set platinum motifs. The egg opens vertically to reveal the surprise-a platinum, double-handled trelliswork basket, set with rose-cut diamonds and full of wood anemones, suspended from a platinum hook.
It reputedly had sat on a bedroom table in the same apartment in , left undisturbed when the flat was burgled. It symbolizes the transition from winter to spring, the seed emerging into new life, the Resurrection. The spring flowers appear as if through a frosty mist inside the winter ice of the egg, before the egg is opened to reveal the surprise. But none of these has the degree of delicacy achieved in the Winter Egg. Emanuel Nobel, a wealthy industrialist, to give to friends. The design is also used in a different form in the Nobel Ice Egg. The Winter Egg is described on the invoice as follows:. The method by which the rose-cut diamond-set platinum ice crystals are attached to the rock crystal shell of the Winter Egg is not apparent.
They do not appear to be pinned, and the only suggestion is that they were glued into channels carved in the rock crystal beneath. The egg is described in the inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure. It is egg is unmarked, probably because Russia had no hallmark for platinum at this time. The Winter Egg changed hands several times at auction after its rediscovery in the early s. But by March , Sheikh Saud was under house arrest for misappropriating public funds. The scandal was exposed in a series of articles by the plain-speaking London-based The Art Newspaper beginning in March Materials: Egg — quatre-couleur gold, pink grisaille and opaque white enamel, portrait diamonds, rose-cut diamonds, seed pearls, velvet lining Automaton surprise — gold, enamel, probably diamonds.
Two additional oval panels above and below and to the sides are similarly painted and then framed with two-color gold borders with diamond-set bowknots at the top and sprays of leaves at the bottom. The oval panels contain representations of cupids, each typifying a season. The side panels depict trophies of the arts of peace. Spandrels are chased in four-color gold with musical trophies and laurel leaves on a matt gold ground.
On the top and bottom of the egg are rosettes of leaves and berries carved in varicolored gold. The top rosette centers a portrait diamond with the cipher of the Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovna. The rosette at the bottom has another portrait diamond with the date The frames of the rosettes have rows of pearls and outer borders of white enamel. The sedan chair was, at the time, for sale and the museum was thinking of bidding for it. Kenneth Snowman told Professor George W. It therefore would not have been the surprise from a Tsar Imperial Easter Egg. The nature of the accompanying text suggests, without actually saying, the items were in the inventory of Armand Hammer. If this is so, it may well the second, smaller sedan chair which accompanied this Egg and which had also been acquired by Hammer.
Plotnitskii was reported to have worked on a number of other Tsar Imperial eggs as well, although the notes regrettably do not go into detail. A Armoury description of this egg says its surprise was missing when it arrived at the Kremlin. The description noted the egg was decorated with about rose-cut diamonds and pearls and had with it a silver stand. However, other account books and correspondence survive that indicate the two Easter eggs produced for together cost 59, rubles. But an article published by Tatiana Muntian in December, , to mark the th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty, included material from newly-discovered documents about the individual Imperial Easter Eggs for , and The Catherine the Great Egg had cost 26, rubles.
The Hillwood Museum says there are a number of references in Mrs. Other references to a acquisition by Mrs. Post, however superficially convincing, are incorrect. Marks: C. Alexandra Feodorovna. Materials: Egg — yellow gold, platinum, brilliant diamonds, rose-cut diamonds, rubies, emeralds, topazes, sapphires, garnets, half-pearls, moonstone, white enamel, opaque pink enamel Pedestal surprise — gold, pearls, rose-cut diamonds, green garnets, translucent green, opaque white, opalescent pale pink, pale green and pale sepia grisaille enamel.
Dimensions: Height of egg — 95 mm. Diameter of egg — 70 mm. Height of miniature — 79 mm. Diameter of miniature — 55 mm. Depth of miniature — 29 mm. This technique gives the look of petit point tapestry work, partly completed. The egg is divided into five oval panels by these gold belts, which are set with half-pearls within lines of opaque white enamel. Five brilliant diamonds are set at each intersection; it is further decorated by grilles of rose-cut diamond scrolls, and the rounder end is set with a moonstone beneath, through which may be seen the gold initials of the tsarina in Russian characters, inlaid in an opaque, pale pink enameled plaque serving as a foil.
The surprise, concealed inside and held in place by two gold clips, consists of a gold, pearl, and translucent green and opaque white enameled pedestal set with diamonds and green garnets and surmounted by a diamond Imperial crown, supporting an oval plaque. On one side is painted in pale sepia grisaille enamel, the profiles of the five Imperial children against a background of engraved vertical parallel lines enameled opalescent rose-pompadour.
The reverse is enameled with a pale sepia basket of flowers against a pale green background, around which the year and the names of the children are painted in sepia on the opaque white enameled border. Background Notes: We now know that Alma Theresia Pihl, who was responsible for the Winter Egg, also designed the tapestry flower detail that has so effectively been translated to the Mosaic Egg. He died in Alma survived the turbulent times ahead, dying in , at age eighty-eight.
Hans Nadelhoffer points out in Cartier: Jewelers Extraordinary New York, that a mosaic tapestry motif was used by the French jewelry firm two years earlier, but Cartier had used only colorless diamonds, so the full effect of a mosaic pattern was not realized. The war would call many of his craftsmen to arms, and soon the company would be making utilitarian items as part of the war effort. This was the last Easter gift made without the constraints of a menacing outside world.
It seems appropriate that it should be something as beautiful and original as the Mosaic Egg is. See Royal Collection Trust video. The official invoice for the Tsar Imperial Easter eggs appears lost. However, other account books and correspondence survive that indicating that the two Easter eggs produced for together cost 59, rubles. The inventory of confiscated Imperial treasure lists 1 gold egg as though embroidered on canvas, with diamonds, rose-cut diamonds and colored gemstones, containing a portrait screen with rose-cut diamonds and pearls. The Moscow Kremlin Egg was given the highest value, rubles. Materials: Egg — silver, gold, opalescent white and translucent red enamel Miniature screen — gold, mother of pearl, watercolor on ivory.
Dimensions: Height of egg — 76 mm. Diameter of egg — 60 mm. Two opposing red enamel crosses bear the dates and The egg contains a hinged, folding screen of five oval miniature portraits, each set in an opalescent white enameled panel mounted in gold.On The Strannik In The Way Of The Pilgrim shoulder of the egg rests a swagged rose garland of quatre-couleur gold caught Stonewall Riots Sociology diamond-set platinum bowknots with a rose spray pendant. The Bolsheviks disbanded the book thief rudy Orphanage immediately after Here Yet Be Dragons By Lucille Clifton Analysis Revolution. Despite all these varying descriptions, it now Robert Capa Essay clear only ten miniatures ever existed. And Stonewall Riots Sociology egg was late arriving in London when Marie was staying at Buckingham Palace with her sister, Queen Alexandra. In the tail feathers is a hinge on which Summary Of John Steinbecks The Moon Is Down hen opens Mesozoic Era Essay when the beak is lifted.