Summary Of Robin Priors When Britain Saved The West
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Although the feud originally was fought between the Tewksburys and the Grahams against the well-established cattleman James Stinson, it soon involved other cattlemen associations, sheepmen, hired guns, cowboys, and Arizona lawmen. The feud lasted for about a decade, with its most deadly incidents occurring between and ; the last-known killing took place in The Pleasant Valley War had the highest number of fatalities of such civilian conflicts in U. The Pleasant Valley War was one of the deadliest and well-known range wars. Years after its end, the feud remained a subject of many books and articles, and a number of gunmen made a name of themselves for their participation.
The conflicts started when cattle companies ruthlessly persecuted supposed rustlers throughout the grazing lands of Wyoming. As tensions swelled between the large established ranchers and the smaller settlers in the state, violence finally culminated in Powder River Country, when the former hired armed gunmen to invade the county and wipe out the competition. The war ended when the U. Cavalry, on the orders of President Benjamin Harrison, relieved the two forces. One of the most well-known range wars of the American frontier, the Johnson County War has since become a highly mythologized and symbolic story of the Wild West, and over the years, variations of the storyline have come to include some of its most famous historical figures.
Its themes and elements of class warfare have served as a classical basis for numerous popular novels, films, and television shows of the Western genre. In the north, overgrazing stressed the open range, leading to insufficient winter forage for the cattle and starvation. This was particularly true during the harsh winter of —, when hundreds of thousands of cattle died across the Northwest, leading to a collapse of the cattle industry. By the s, barbed wire fencing was standard in the northern plains, railroads had expanded to cover most of the nation, and meat-packing plants were built closer to major ranching areas.
This made long cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas unnecessary. Hence, the age of the open range was gone, and large cattle drives were over. Meanwhile, ranches multiplied all over the developing West. The end of the open range was not brought about by a reduction in land due to crop farming, but by overgrazing. However, cattle were a nonnative species, and the grazing patterns of their ever-increasing numbers slowly reduced the quality of the rangeland; this was in spite of the simultaneous massive slaughter of American bison that occurred. In the winter of —, as livestock that were already stressed by reduced grazing died by the thousands, many large cattle operations went bankrupt, while others suffered severe financial losses.
Thus, after this time, ranchers also began to fence off their land and negotiated individual grazing leases with the American government so that they could keep better control of the pasture land available to their own animals. Pioneer women took care of child-rearing, fed and clothed the family, managed the housework, and fed the hired hands. On the Great Plains, very few single men attempted to operate a farm or ranch; farmers understood the need for a hard-working wife and numerous children to handle the many chores. This meant women were fully employed in farm-centered labor, including child-rearing, feeding and clothing the family, managing the housework, and feeding the hired hands.
Monument to pioneer women : This Omaha monument honors pioneer women. During the early years of settlement, farm women played an integral role in assuring family survival by working outdoors with the men. After a generation or so, women increasingly left the fields, thus redefining their roles within the family. New conveniences such as sewing and washing machines encouraged women to concentrate on domestic roles. The scientific housekeeping movement was promoted across the land by the media and by government extension agents, as well as through county fairs which featured achievements in home cookery and canning, advice columns for women in the farm papers, and home economics courses in the schools.
Although the eastern image of farm life on the prairies emphasizes the isolation of the lonely farmer, in reality, rural folk created a rich social life for themselves. They often sponsored activities that combined work, food, and entertainment such as barn raisings, corn huskings, quilting bees, Grange meetings, and church and school functions. Women organized shared meals and potluck events, as well as extended visits between families. Childhood on the American frontier is contested territory among academics. One group of scholars, following the lead of novelists Willa Cather and Laura Ingalls Wilder, argue the rural environment was salubrious to a growing child.
Historians Katherine Harris, in Long Vistas: Women and Families on Colorado Homesteads , and Elliott West, in Growing Up with the Country: Childhood on the Far Western Frontier , write that a rural upbringing allowed children to break loose from urban hierarchies of age and gender, promoted family interdependence, and in the end, produced children who were more self-reliant, mobile, adaptable, responsible, independent, and in touch with nature than their urban or eastern counterparts.
Entrepreneurs set up shops and businesses to cater to miners. The most famous were the houses of prostitution found in mining camps. Prostitution was a growth industry, drawing in sex workers from around the globe, who were pulled in by the money despite the harsh and dangerous working conditions and low prestige. For some, it was a practical decision; others had little choice in the matter. Chinese women, for example, were frequently sold by their families and taken to the camps as prostitutes; they had to send their earnings back to their families in China. She nursed victims of an influenza epidemic; this brought her acceptance in the community and the support of the sheriff.
The townspeople were shocked when she was murdered in ; they gave her a lavish funeral and speedily tried and hanged her assailant. Until the s, madams predominantly ran the businesses, after which male pimps took over, and the treatment of the women generally declined. The common depiction of the openness of bordellos in western towns shown in films is somewhat realistic, allowing for fantasy elements such as the casting of Hollywood starlets. Gambling and prostitution were central to life in many western towns. Only later—as the female population increased, reformers moved in, and other civilizing influences arrived—did prostitution become less blatant and less common.
After a decade or so, the mining towns attracted respectable women who ran boarding houses, organized church societies, worked as laundresses and seamstresses, and strove for independent status. Relations between American migrants and Native Americans were generally peaceful. Signed in between the United States and the Plains Indians and the Indians of the northern Rocky Mountains, the treaty allowed passage by migrants and the building of roads and the stationing of troops along the Oregon Trail. The Pikes Peak Gold Rush of introduced a substantial white population into the front range of the Rockies, supported by a trading lifeline that crossed the central Great Plains. Increasing settlement following the passage of the Homestead Act and the building of the transcontinental railways following the Civil War further destabilized the situation, placing white settlers into direct competition for the land and resources of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountain West.
As in the East, expansion into the plains and mountains by miners, ranchers, and settlers led to increasing conflicts with the indigenous population of the West. But the Sioux of the Northern Plains and the Apache of the Southwest provided the most celebrated opposition to encroachment on tribal lands. Led by resolute, militant leaders such as Red Cloud and Crazy Horse, the Sioux excelled at high-speed mounted warfare. During the American Civil War, U.
Army units were withdrawn from the West to fight the war in the East. They were replaced by the volunteer infantry and cavalry raised by the states of California and Oregon, by the western territorial governments, or by the local militias. These units fought the Indians, holding the West for the Union, and defeating the Confederate attempt to capture the New Mexico Territory. Also, when determining how many deaths resulted from the wars in each of the American states, Arizona again ranked highest.
At least 4, people were killed, including both settlers and Indians—more than twice as many as occurred in Texas, the second-highest-ranking state. The Apache caused most of the deaths in Arizona. The Black Hills region was reserved for their exclusive use. The treaty also provided unceded territory for Cheyenne and Lakota hunting grounds. The growing number of miners and settlers encroaching on the Dakota Territory, however, rapidly nullified the protections. The U. In , the government dispatched the Custer Expedition to examine the Black Hills.
The Lakota were alarmed at his expedition. Prospectors, motivated by the economic panic of , began to trickle into the Black Hills in violation of the Fort Laramie Treaty. This trickle turned into a flood; thousands of miners invaded the Black Hills before the gold rush was over. Grant to honor existing treaties and stem the flow of miners into American Indian territories.
The delegates refused to sign a new treaty with these stipulations. Concerned about launching a war against the Lakota without provocation, the government instructed American Indian agents in the region to notify the various non-treaty bands to return to the reservation by January 31, , or face potential military action. His request to extend the deadline was denied. However, the most renowned, as well as the most brutal of the battles over the Black Hills, is the massacre that took place at Wounded Knee. On the day before, a detachment of the U. On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota.
One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black Coyote was reluctant to give up his rifle, claiming he had paid a lot for it. The few Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking troops, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but the U. Calvary pursued and killed many who were unarmed. By the time the massacre was over, at least men, women, and children of the Lakota Sioux had been killed and 51 wounded 4 men and 47 women and children, some of whom died later ; some estimates placed the number of dead at As settlers moved west, Native American tribes were coerced into signing treaties that gave away their land.
During the early nineteenth century, as eastern settlers of the United States felt the desire to explore westward, native peoples began to be forced out of their homelands to barren areas that contained fruitless soils. Native Americans signed treaties stating that they accepted downsized reservations or allotments, but their allotments were usually sold to white settlers by force. The outcome of this devastating removal cost the natives their tribal identity and independence. In , the U. Congress passed the General Allotment Act, which is considered one of the earliest attempts aimed toward assimilation of native tribes.
This act intended to give natives a sense of land ownership and integrate an agricultural lifestyle much like that of the Americans and Europeans into tribal cultures. Under the General Allotment Act, tribal lands were no longer under the control of tribal governments. Instead, the land was under the control of individual land owners. Allowing native peoples to live their lives according to traditional practices and teachings on the reservation was forbidden; thus, assimilation became the epitome of Federal Indian Policy.
The Allotment Era resulted in the loss of more than two-thirds of tribal entrusted lands, which went from million acres in to 48 million acres in The loss of land was mainly due to leasing and the eventual sales of tribal lands to white settlers. Retrieved 4 January Somerset: The Complete Guide. Dovecote Press. ISBN Retrieved 23 October A vision of Britain Through Time. University of Portsmouth. Retrieved 5 January Natural England. Retrieved 23 August National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 October Church of England. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 18 September Bell Board. Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 3 January Towns, villages and hamlets in the Taunton Deane borough of Somerset , England.
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