Cyclamate Case Study

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Cyclamate Case Study

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Differentiation 3. You can report adverse reactions to food dyes to www. Some foods are artificially colored with natural substances, such as beta-carotene or carmine. Just because they are natural does not mean that they are entirely safe. Carmine, for example, can cause severe allergic reactions. Please see their entries in the alphabetical listing. The use of colorings, be they natural or synthetic, usually indicates that a natural ingredient is not used. Artificial Coloring: Beverages, candy, baked goods. One unpublished animal test suggested a small cancer risk, and a test-tube study indicated the dye might affect neurons. It also causes occasional allergic reactions.

Blue 1 might be safe for people who are not allergic, but it should be better tested. Artificial Coloring: Pet food, beverages, candy. Animal studies found some—but not conclusive—evidence that Blue 2 causes brain cancer in male rats, but the Food and Drug Administration concluded that there is "reasonable certainty of no harm. Artificial Coloring: Skin of some Florida oranges only. The amounts of this rarely used dye that one might consume, even from eating marmalade, are so small that the risk is not worth worrying about. Artificial Coloring: Candy, beverages. A industry-sponsored study gave hints of bladder and testes tumors in male rats, but FDA re-analyzed the data using other statistical tests and concluded that the dye was safe.

Fortunately, this possibly carcinogenic dye is not widely used. Artificial Coloring: Sausage. Approved for use only in sausage casings, high doses of this dye are harmful to the liver and bile duct. However, that is not worrisome because Orange B has not been used for many years. Artificial Coloring: Candy, baked goods. The evidence that this dye caused thyroid tumors in rats is "convincing," according to a review committee report requested by FDA. FDA's recommendation that the dye be banned was overruled by pressure from the cherry industry and the U. Department of Agriculture. Red 3 used to color maraschino cherries, but it has been replaced there by the less controversial Red 40 dye.

It is still used in a smattering of foods ranging from cake icing to fruit roll-ups to chewing gum. Artificial Coloring: Soda pop, candy, gelatin desserts, pastries, pet food, sausage. The most widely used food dye. While this is one of the most-tested food dyes, the key mouse tests were flawed and inconclusive. An FDA review committee acknowledged problems, but said evidence of harm was not "consistent" or "substantial. Like other dyes, Red 40 is used mainly in junk foods.

Artificial Coloring: Gelatin dessert, candy, pet food, baked goods. The second-most-widely used coloring causes allergy-like hypersensitivity reactions, primarily in aspirin-sensitive persons, and triggers hyperactivity in some children. It may be contaminated with such cancer-causing substances as benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl or chemicals that the body converts to those substances. Industry-sponsored animal tests indicated that this dye, the third-most-widely-used, causes tumors of the adrenal gland and kidney. In addition, small amounts of several carcinogens, such as 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine or chemicals that the body converts to those substances , contaminate Yellow 6. However, the FDA reviewed those data and found reasons to conclude that Yellow 6 does not pose a significant cancer risk to humans.

Yellow 6 may cause occasional, but sometimes-severe, hypersensitivity reactions. Flavoring: soft drinks, candy, breakfast cereals, gelatin desserts, and many other foods. Hundreds of chemicals are used to mimic natural flavors; many may be used in a single flavoring, such as for cherry soda. Most flavoring chemicals also occur in nature and are probably safe, but FDA does not review their safety, and a few have been shown to cause cancer in animals and should not be permitted. In , after CSPI and other organizations petitioned FDA, the Agency banned seven synthetic carcinogenic flavors, based primarily on evidence from government-sponsored studies in animals.

Flavors are used almost exclusively in junk foods. Their use indicates that the real thing often fruit has been left out. Companies keep the identity of artificial and natural flavorings a deep secret and are not required to list them on food labels. That secrecy is unfortunate, because some people may be allergic or sensitive to certain flavoring ingredients, such as sesame, or MSG or HVP, and vegetarians and others may not want to consume flavors that are derived from animals. Artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are used in a wide range of foods and especially beverages to provide sweetness with fewer or no calories.

The question is: are they safe? The short answer: it depends on the sweetener. Some appear to be safe, some are safe in moderation but may cause diarrhea or other gastrointestinal effects in larger quantities in some people, and others we recommend that people avoid, primarily because they may pose a slight risk of cancer. That said, try to avoid aspartame, which tops our list of risky artificial sweeteners and appears in such popular beverages as Diet Coke, Diet Pepsi, and Diet Dr. Your best bet: water, whether plain, unsweetened flavored e. If you consume diet drinks or artificial sweeteners, look for safer sweeteners. The artificial sweetener neotame, the natural "high-potency" sweeteners stevia leaf extract and thaumatin appear to be safer, as does erythritol, which occurs naturally in some fruits but is also manufactured for use as a sweetener.

Avoid acesulfame potassium, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose, which may pose a small risk of cancer. Sugar alcohols e. Some occur in plants, but they are typically manufactured. Most have about half as many calories as sugar, though erythritol has one-twentieth as many. They appear to be safer sweeteners, except that large amounts of most of them except erythritol may cause diarrhea or have laxative effects. It appears to be a safer sweetener, except that large amounts may lead to diarrhea or other gastrointestinal discomfort in some people.

The American Academy of Pediatrics concluded in that the long-term safety of no-calorie sweeteners in childhood has not been assessed in humans. In , the American Heart Association concluded that it is prudent to advise against prolonged consumption of low-calorie sweetened beverages by children. Can artificial sweeteners and other low-calorie sweeteners help you manage your weight? According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, replacing added sugars with low- and no-calorie sweeteners may reduce calorie intake in the short-term and aid in weight management, but questions remain about their effectiveness as a long-term weight management strategy.

Antioxidant, nutrient, color stabilizer: Cereals, fruit drinks, cured meats. Vitamin C is also used to pump up the vitamin content of foods like "fruit" drinks and breakfast cereals. It also helps prevent loss of color and flavor in foods by reacting with unwanted oxygen. Though heroic amounts of ascorbic acid were recommended by Dr. Linus Pauling as a cure for common cold, subsequent research found only that it might slightly reduce the severity of colds.

Antioxidant, nutrient. Ascorbyl palmitate is a fat-soluble antioxidant formed by combining ascorbic acid vitamin C with palmitic acid derived from fat. Studies indicate that ascorbyl palmitate is completely metabolized, the ascorbic acid becoming available as vitamin C, and the palmitate portion is converted to energy or fat. Though palmitate from palm and other vegetable oils can increase blood cholesterol levels, the amount derived from this additive is trivial. Artificial sweetener: "Diet," "no sugar added," "sugar-free," and other products, including soft drinks, drink mixes, gelatin desserts, frozen desserts, jams and fruit spreads, yogurt, breakfast cereal, candy, chewing gum, condiments, packaged tabletop sweeteners.

Aspartame sometimes marketed under the brand names Equal, NutraSweet, or AminoSweet is a chemical combination of two amino acids and methanol. Questions of cancer and neurological problems, such as dizziness or hallucinations, have swirled around aspartame for decades. A key s industry-sponsored study initially sparked concerns that aspartame caused brain tumors in rats, but the FDA convinced an independent review panel to reverse its conclusion that aspartame was unsafe.

The agency then approved its use in for use as a tabletop packaged sweetener and in breakfast cereals, powdered beverage mixes, and other dry packaged foods. Two years later FDA approved aspartame for use in soft drinks, by far the biggest and most lucrative market. Aspartame dominates the diet soft drink market, and the overall market for artificial sweetener, although its use is declining. The California Environmental Protection Agency and others have urged that independent scientists conduct new animal studies to resolve the cancer question. In , researchers at the Ramazzini Foundation in Bologna, Italy, conducted the first such study. The study found that rats exposed to aspartame starting at eight weeks of age and continuing through their entire lifetimes developed lymphomas, leukemias, and other tumors, including kidney tumors, which are extremely rare in the strain of rat used.

In , the same researchers published a follow-up study that exposed rats to aspartame beginning in the womb and continuing through their entire lifetimes. Then in , they published a study that exposed mice to aspartame , starting in the womb and continuing throughout their entire lifetimes. That third study found that aspartame caused liver and lung cancer in male mice. Those new studies may have found problems that earlier company-sponsored studies did not because the newer studies used far more animals and thus were more capable of detecting adverse effects. Also, the Italian researchers monitored the animals for their entire lifetimes: as long as three years for the rats and two and one-half years for the mice, instead of just two years in the company-sponsored studies Most chemicals are tested for just two years.

Two-year-old rats are roughly equivalent to year-old people. Furthermore, two of the new studies included exposure before birth, which increased their ability to detect cancer only one of the industry studies did. The food industry, FDA, and the European Food Safety Authority contest the Italian findings, pointing to what they consider serious flaws in the design and conduct of the study and evaluation of the results. However, scientists at the Center for Science in the Public Interest and elsewhere , citing evaluations sponsored by the U. As one defense of aspartame, industry and FDA point to a human study by U.

National Cancer Institute researchers. That study involved a large number of adults 50 to 71 years of age over a five-year period. The study did not find any evidence that aspartame posed a risk. Meanwhile, the most careful long-term study of aspartame in humans , conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health, found the first human evidence that aspartame poses a slightly increased cancer risk to men, but not women.

The researchers speculated that that might be due to the fact that men have higher levels of an enzyme that converts methanol a breakdown product of aspartame to formaldehyde, a human carcinogen. The Harvard study couldn't prove that aspartame was a carcinogen, but it certainly added to the safety concerns, especially since the cancers observed in the human study multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were similar to the cancers observed in two of the three animal studies leukemias and lymphomas. Another study by researchers with the American Cancer Society, not quite as large as the Harvard study, did not find any link.

A recent review of all of the evidence by the scientists who conducted the three positive animal studies urges governments to re-examine their positions on aspartame, and recommends that pregnant women and children not consume aspartame. The bottom line is that three independent studies have found that consumption of aspartame causes cancer in rodents, and one epidemiology study found evidence that aspartame increases the risk of cancer in men.

That should be reason enough for the FDA and other governments to eliminate aspartame from the food supply. Meanwhile, consumers should read labels carefully and avoid this artificial sweetener. Another concern about aspartame emerged in , when Danish researchers linked the consumption of artificially sweetened soft drinks, but not sugar-sweetened soft drinks, to preterm delivery of babies. In another study, this time conducted in Norway, corroborated that finding. However, it also found a link between sugar-sweetened beverages and preterm delivery. The fact that two large, independent studies found a link between artificially sweetened beverages and preterm delivery is troubling. Pregnant women should make a special effort to avoid or at least cut back on aspartame and acesulfame K, as well as moderating their consumption of added sugars.

Since aspartame was first used, some people have contended that it causes headaches or dizziness. Some small studies have documented that finding, while others did not. Anyone experiencing such problems should simply avoid aspartame. Flavoring: ready made meals, snack foods, meat products, gravies and sauces, soups, broths, and soup mixes. Autolyzed yeast extract is a flavoring agent made from yeast, usually the same kind used to make bread rise or ferment beer.

Generally, the yeast is heated or otherwise killed in a way that allows enzymes inside the cells break down the yeast, including the proteins. Other types of yeast extracts are made by adding enzymes, rather than using the enzymes already present inside the yeast cell. Some people who have allergic reactions to inhaling molds also react to ingesting yeast or yeast extracts. All proteins are made up of amino acids, and one amino acid of interest—glutamic acid—is present in autolyzed yeast extract, as well as in many other foods and in our bodies. A small number of people experience headache, numbness, flushing, tingling, or other short-term symptoms when consuming large amounts of MSG.

Autolyzed yeast extract is sometimes used to substitute for MSG, but has much lower levels of glutamate so adverse reactions are unlikely. Foods such as Parmesan cheese, seaweed, dried shitake mushrooms, and dried tomatoes naturally contain relatively high levels of glutamate, and so could also potentially be a problem for individuals sensitive to MSG, although that does not seem to be the case. Flour improver and bleaching agent: Flour, bread and rolls. Azodicarbonamide ADC has long been used by commercial bakers to strengthen dough, but has been poorly tested. A review published by several United Nations agencies concluded that "There are no adequate data relating to carcinogenic, reproductive, or developmental effects, hence it is not possible to evaluate the risk to human health for these endpoints.

Most of the concern about ADC relates to two suspicious chemicals that form when bread is baked. The first chemical is semicarbazide SEM , which caused cancers of the lung and blood vessels in mice. It did not cause cancer in rats. In the International Agency for Research on Cancer considered SEM to be a carcinogen in mice, but in concluded that the animal data were "limited" and that SEM was "not classifiable" as to its carcinogenicity to humans. A second breakdown product, urethane, is a recognized carcinogen.

ADC used at its maximum allowable level 45 ppm in bread leads to levels of urethane in bread that pose a small risk to humans. Toasting that bread increases the amount of urethane. However, when used at 20 ppm, which may be the amount used by some commercial bakeries, a FDA study found "only a slight increase" in urethane. Some urethane forms in bread not made with azodicarbonamide. Considering that many breads don't contain azodicarbonamide and that its use slightly increases exposure to a carcinogen, this is hardly a chemical that we need in our food supply.

It appears that the Delaney amendment, which bars the use of additives that cause cancer in humans or animals, would require FDA to bar its use. At the very least, FDA should reduce the amount allowed to be used. Coloring, nutrient: Margarine, shortening, non-dairy whiteners, beverages, breakfast cereals, supplements. Beta-carotene is used as an artificial coloring and a nutrient supplement. The body converts it to Vitamin A, which is part of the light-detection mechanism of the eye and which helps maintain the normal condition of mucous membranes. Large amounts of beta-carotene in the form of dietary supplements increased the risk of lung cancer in smokers and did not reduce the risk in non-smokers.

Smokers should certainly not take beta-carotene supplements, but the small amounts used as food additives are safe. Natural high-potency sweetener Brazzein has not yet been approved as a food additive, but some food manufacturers see it as a better-tasting alternative to stevia-derived rebiana. Brazzein is a small 54 amino acids protein molecule that occurs naturally in the berries of a climbing vine found in West Africa, where it has been consumed by people and animals.

It is about 1, times sweeter than sugar, but, as far as we can determine, it has not been tested for safety. Because it is a protein, it might cause food allergies. One company is planning to market the sweetener under the name Cweet. BVO keeps flavor oils in suspension, giving a cloudy appearance to citrus-flavored soft drinks such as Mountain Dew and Fanta Orange. Decades later, BVO is still poorly tested and remains on the interim list. Health concerns start with the finding that eating BVO leaves residues in body fat and the fat in brain, liver, and other organs. Indeed, doctors have identified bromine toxicity in two people who drank extremely large amounts of such sodas. Sensitive, modern studies are urgently needed to better understand the risk, especially at the lower levels typically consumed by large numbers of children.

Meanwhile, BVO should not be used it is not permitted in Europe. Antioxidant: Cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, vegetable oil. BHA retards rancidity in fats, oils, and oil-containing foods. While some studies indicate it is safe, other studies demonstrate that it causes cancer in rats, mice, and hamsters. Those cancers are controversial because they occur in the forestomach, an organ that humans do not have.

However, a chemical that causes cancer in at least one organ in three different species indicates that it might be carcinogenic in humans. That is why the U. This synthetic chemical can be replaced by safer chemicals e. Antioxidant: Cereals, chewing gum, potato chips, oils, etc. BHT retards rancidity in oils. It either increased or decreased the risk of cancer in various animal studies. Residues of BHT occur in human fat. Avoid it when possible. Stimulant: Naturally occurring in coffee, tea, cocoa, coffee-flavored yogurt and frozen desserts. Additive in soft drinks, energy drinks, chewing gum, and waters.

Caffeine is one of only two drugs that are present naturally or added to widely consumed foods quinine is the other drug used in foods. It is mildly addictive, one possible reason that makers of soft drinks add it to their products. Many coffee drinkers experience withdrawal symptoms, such as headaches, irritability, sleepiness, and lethargy, when they stop drinking coffee. Because caffeine appears to increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriages, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and childhood leukemia and possibly birth defects and inhibits fetal growth, women who are pregnant or may become pregnant should avoid caffeine. Caffeine also may make it harder to get pregnant.

The less those women consume, the lower the risk. Caffeine also keeps many people from sleeping, causes jitteriness, and affects calcium metabolism. However, on the positive side, drinking a couple of mugs cups per day of regular but not decaf coffee appears to reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, gallstones, and even suicide. It also can relieve headache pain, increase endurance, such as on a treadmill, and improve alertness.

The caffeine in a standard cup or two of coffee is harmless to most people. But be aware that a middle-size 16 oz. That is equivalent to three old-fashioned 5-ounce-cups' worth of caffeine. A oz. Click here for a list of the caffeine content of beverages and foods. If you drink more than a couple of cups of coffee or several cans of caffeine-containing soda per day and experience insomnia or jitters, are at risk of osteoporosis, or are pregnant, you should rethink your habit.

Preservative: Bread, rolls, pies, cakes. Calcium propionate prevents mold growth on bread and rolls. The calcium is a beneficial mineral; the propionate is safe. Sodium propionate is used in pies and cakes, because calcium alters the action of chemical leavening agents. Dough conditioner, whipping agent: Bread dough, cake fillings, artificial whipped cream, processed egg whites. These additives strengthen bread dough so it can be used in commercial bread-making machinery and help produce a more uniform grain and greater volume. They act as whipping agents in dried, liquid, or frozen egg whites and artificial whipped cream. Not approved by FDA for, but nonetheless added to, supplements, beverages, foods, pet foods, cosmetics, and personal care products.

CBD is derived from cannabis, a class of plants that includes both marijuana and hemp. CBD is sold as an oil, in capsules, gummies, and powders, and added to various foods or beverages. It can also appear in cosmetics and personal care products such as creams and bath products. It is even found in some pet products. Both marijuana and hemp also contain THC tetrahydrocannabinol , which is psychoactive. However, levels of THC high enough to have psychoactive effects have been found in tests of CBD-labeled products, albeit rarely.

However, the Farm Bill removed hemp—defined as cannabis and cannabis derivatives with no more than 0. While this action decriminalized the possession and sale of hemp, the Food and Drug Administration has made clear in a Consumer Advisory and through enforcement actions that foods, and dietary supplements, as well as cosmetics and products for pets containing CBD, have not been approved, and it is currently illegal from a federal perspective to market CBD by adding it to a food or labeling it as a dietary supplement.

Epidiolex is the only approved drug containing CBD. Such claims are potentially dangerous since people may forgo other treatments that have been proven to be effective for these conditions. FDA has approved three related drugs, made from synthetically derived cannabis compounds other than CBD, for certain uses, including the treatment of anorexia associated with weight loss in AIDS patients, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in certain patients. Several states have legalized marijuana and hemp for food, dietary supplements, recreational, and medical uses not approved by the FDA.

These laws vary from state to state and are often in conflict with FDA regulations. Confusion over the legality of CBD-containing food and supplement products or disregard for their legal status has led to many such products entering the marketplace with little to no regulatory oversight or control over effectiveness, quality, potency, or safety. The safety of CBD, especially at lower doses, is not well studied or understood, although research is ongoing. Adverse effects have been noted at doses of hundreds of milligrams based on data collected in the Epidiolex clinical trials , whereas most food and supplement products are labeled to contain less than 20 milligrams. A typical Epidiolex dose for an adult is mg per day; exact doses depend on body weight.

CBD has not been studied in pregnant or nursing women, but since it is detected in breastmilk, nursing women should avoid it. Given the dearth of relevant data in pregnant animals, pregnant women should also avoid CBD. However, the effect of CBD on these enzymes has only been demonstrated in animal and test-tube studies that use high doses of CBD. Forthcoming human studies will likely provide more insight into these and other potential safety concerns. You should speak with your doctor before taking CBD if you take medications such as some statins, calcium channel blockers, antidepressants, antiepileptics, proton-pump inhibitors, antibiotics, or antihistamines.

There are also mislabeling concerns with CBD products. In one study, only 30 percent of 84 CBD products purchased online were accurately labeled as to the amount they actually contained some contained more, some less. The amount of THC in a few of the studied products may have been sufficient to make a person especially a child feel intoxicated. As these data indicate, those who are seeking treatment for seizures should use the prescription product, Epidiolex, under the care of a licensed physician, as non-prescription versions lack adequate manufacturing controls.

Coloring: Colas, baked goods, pre-cooked meats, soy and Worcestershire sauces, chocolate-flavored products, beer. Caramel coloring is made by heating a sugar compound usually high-dextrose corn syrup , often together with ammonium compounds, acids, or alkalis. It is the most widely used by weight coloring added to foods and beverages, with hues ranging from tannish-yellow to black, depending on the concentration and the food.

Caramel coloring may be used to simulate the appearance of cocoa in baked goods, make meats and gravies look more attractive, and darken soft drinks and beer. Caramel coloring, when produced with ammonia, contains contaminants, 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole. In , studies by the U. National Toxicology Program found that those two contaminants cause cancer in male and female mice and possibly in female rats. In , the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a division of the World Health Organization, concluded that 2- and 4-methylimidazole are "possibly carcinogenic to humans. The state lists chemicals when they pose a lifetime risk of at least 1 cancer per , people. California warned that as of January 7, , widely consumed products, such as soft drinks, that contained more than 29 micrograms of 4-methylimidazole per serving would have to bear a warning notice.

In March , when CSPI published the results of a study that found levels up to micrograms per can of Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola purchased in Washington, DC, the soft-drink giants announced that they had reduced the contaminant to below California's threshold for action in products distributed in California. They said they would market the less-contaminated products throughout the country, which Coca-Cola did in and PepsiCo did by The FDA has a limit that is 10 times as strict as California's for regulating chemicals that are contaminated with cancer-causing chemicals. Even that much lower level might exceed the FDA's threshold for action of 1 cancer per million consumers. It would be worth avoiding or drinking less colas and other ammonia-caramel-colored beverages not only because of risk from the 4-methylimidazole, but, of course, because the products contain about 10 teaspoons of sugar per 12 ounces and promote obesity and tooth decay.

Soy sauces, baked goods, and other foods that contain ammoniated caramel coloring are much less of a problem, because the amounts consumed are small. Improve texture, stabilize foam beer , prevent fruit from settling, prevent sugar from crystallizing cake icings , bind water: Ice cream, beer, pie fillings and jellies, cake icings, diet foods. It is also called cellulose gum. CMC has long been considered safe, but a study funded by the National Institutes of Health raised some doubts. In mice that were predisposed to colitis, the emulsifiers promoted the disease.

It is possible that polysorbates, CMC, and other emulsifiers act like detergents to disrupt the mucous layer that lines the gut, and that the results of the study may apply to other emulsifiers as well. Research is needed to determine long-term effects of these and other emulsifiers at levels that people consume. Carbon dioxide, a harmless gas, is responsible for the bubbles in beer, soda pop, mineral water, and the like. Artificial coloring. Cochineal extract is a coloring obtained from the cochineal insect, which lives on cactus plants in Peru, the Canary Islands, and elsewhere. Carmine is a more purified coloring made from cochineal, but in both cases, carminic acid actually provides the color.

These colorings, which are extremely stable, are used in some red, pink or purple candy, yogurt, ice cream, beverages, and other foods, as well as in drugs and cosmetics. They appear to be safe, except that a small percentage of consumers suffer allergic reactions ranging from hives to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Carmine and cochineal have long been listed on labels simply as "artificial coloring" or "color added. Food and Drug Administration gave the food industry until January 1, , to clearly identify the colorings as carmine or cochineal extract on food labels to help consumers identity the cause of their allergic reaction and avoid the colorings in the future.

Unfortunately, sensitive individuals must endure any number of allergic reactions before identifying the cause. The FDA rejected CSPI's request for labels to disclose that carmine is extracted from insects so vegetarians and others who want to avoid animal products could do so. Thickening, gelling, and stabilizing agent: Dairy and non-dairy products, including ice cream, sorbet, frozen desserts, chocolate milk, soy milk, almond milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, whipping cream; jelly, infant formula, salad dressings, deli meat, frozen dinners.

Carrageenan is a family of indigestible large molecules obtained from certain seaweeds. It is used as a thickening or texturing agent in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Large amounts of carrageenan have harmed test animals' colons. The amounts in food are too small to be a concern for most people, but an independent committee of the World Health Organization WHO concluded that it is unclear whether people with episodes of gastrointestinal disease might absorb some carrageenan, which presumably could cause gastrointestinal or immune system problems. Some people have reported that eliminating carrageenan from their diet diminished or eliminated their gastrointestinal discomfort.

Carrageenan—at least in its natural, undegraded form—does not cause cancer in animals. In animal studies, high doses of carrageenan increase the potency of chemicals that cause cancer, and there has been controversy over whether it could do so at the low levels that people consume. The FDA and the WHO committee have concluded that food-grade carrageenan does not pose either a direct or an indirect cancer risk.

Some experts have been concerned about the safety of carrageenan for infants, given that the GI tract of the infant is still developing. In , however, the WHO committee reviewed new animal studies and concluded that infant formula made with carrageenan is safe. Thickening and whitening agent: Ice cream, ice milk, sherbet, coffee creamers. Casein, the principal protein in milk, is a nutritious protein containing adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids. Natural flavoring: vanilla-flavored and other foods This substance is occasionally used as a natural flavoring.

Only about 1, pounds of the product are used annually, so it really isn't a significant part of the food supply, nor should it pose any risk. The FDA considers it to be "generally recognized as safe. Beavers mix castoreum with urine to mark their territories and make their fur and tail more water-resistant. The food industry finds it strong, tar-like, musky odor to be useful in flavorings. Of course, you'll never see "castoreum from anal sacs of beavers" on food labels; instead, it is just included in the broad term "natural flavorings.

Prevents caking and clumping, binds water used in diet foods , improves texture, thickens, emulsifies, used as a filler: Grated cheese, breads, diet foods, frozen dinners, sauces, salad dressings. Cellulose is a safe and inexpensive carbohydrate that comprises the woody parts and cell walls of plants. It is a type of dietary fiber found naturally in fruits, vegetables, and cereals. Acid, flavoring, chelating agent: Ice cream, sherbet, fruit drink, candy, carbonated beverages, instant potatoes. Citric acid is versatile, widely used, cheap, and safe. It is an important metabolite in virtually all living organisms and is especially abundant naturally in citrus fruits and berries.

It is used as a strong acid, a tart flavoring, and an antioxidant. Sodium citrate, also safe, is a buffer that controls the acidity of gelatin desserts, jam, ice cream, candy, and other foods. Sweetener, thickener: Candy, marshmallows, syrups, snack foods, imitation dairy foods. Corn syrup, which consists mostly of dextrose, is a sweet, thick liquid made by treating cornstarch with acids or enzymes. It may be dried and used as corn syrup solids in coffee whiteners and other dry products. Corn syrup contains no nutritional value other than calories, promotes tooth decay, and is used mainly in foods with little intrinsic nutritional value.

Artificial sweetener: Banned in the United States. Allowed as a packaged tabletop sweetener in Canada, and also in diet soft drinks and foods in some other countries. This controversial high-potency sweetener was used in the United States in diet foods until , at which time it was banned because animal studies suggested that it caused cancer. It is still permitted in Canada, Europe, and some other countries. Now, based on animal studies, cyclamate or a byproduct is believed not to cause cancer directly, but to increase the potency of other carcinogens and to harm the testes. Antioxidant: flour. Cysteine, an amino acid, is a natural constituent of protein-containing foods.

It is added to foods to prevent oxygen from destroying vitamin C. Bakers use cysteine to reduce the mixing time for dough. Emulsifier: Bread, biscuits. This safe emulsifier is used to build a strong gluten network to improve bread volume and keep dough from getting sticky or collapsing. Emulsifier: Prevents sugar from crystallizing, encapsulates flavor oils, thickening agent: Candy, powdered mixes. Dextrin is the mixture of fragments that results from treating starch with acid, alkali, or enzymes. It is as safe as starch. Sweetener: Bread, caramel, soda pop, cookies, many other foods.

Dextrose is an important chemical in every living organism. A sugar, it is a source of sweetness in fruits and honey. Reviews and dietetic professionals have concluded that moderate use of non-nutritive sweeteners as a safe replacement for sugars can help limit energy intake and assist with managing blood glucose and weight. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sugar free disambiguation. Sugarless food additive intended to provide a sweet taste. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Allulose. Main article: Acesulfame potassium. Main article: Aspartame. Main article: Cyclamate. Main article: Siraitia grosvenorii.

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