Fascism V Communism
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The Christian and Politics (segment 4): Communism vs Fascism
The USSR is more correctly classified as a socialist republic. In addition, the boundaries between various forms of government can be fluid or poorly-defined, often with overlapping characteristics. Such is the case with totalitarianism, authoritarianism, and fascism. This control extends to all political and financial matters as well as the attitudes, morals, and beliefs of the people. The concept of totalitarianism was developed in the s by Italian fascists. Still, most Western civilizations and governments quickly rejected the concept of totalitarianism and continue to do so today. One distinctive feature of totalitarian governments is the existence of an explicit or implied national ideology—a set of beliefs intended to give meaning and direction to the entire society.
Examples of characteristics that might be present in a totalitarian state include:. Typically, the characteristics of a totalitarian state tend to cause people to fear their government. An authoritarian state is characterized by a strong central government that allows people a limited degree of political freedom. However, the political process, as well as all individual freedom, is controlled by the government without any constitutional accountability. The government controls nearly all aspects of the economy, politics, culture, and society.
Education, religion, the arts and sciences, and even morality and reproductive rights are controlled by totalitarian governments. While all power in an authoritarian government is held by a single dictator or group, the people are allowed a limited degree of political freedom. Rarely employed since the end of World War II in , fascism is a form of government combining the most extreme aspects of both totalitarianism and authoritarianism. Even when compared to extreme nationalistic ideologies like Marxism and anarchism , fascism is typically considered to be at the far-right end of the political spectrum.
Fascism is characterized by the imposition of dictatorial power, government control of industry and commerce, and the forcible suppression of opposition, often at the hands of the military or a secret police force. To this end, fascists encourage the growth of cults of national unity and racial purity. Historically, the primary function of fascist regimes has been to maintain the nation in a constant state of readiness for war. Fascists observed how rapid, mass military mobilizations during World War I blurred the lines between the roles of civilians and combatants. In addition, fascists view democracy and the electoral process as an obsolete and unnecessary obstacle to maintaining constant military readiness. They also consider a totalitarian, one-party state as the key to preparing the nation for war and its resulting economic and social hardships.
Today, few governments publicly describe themselves as fascist. Instead, the label is more often used pejoratively by those critical of particular governments or leaders. Share Flipboard Email. Understanding Types of Government. Introduction Popular Government. Elite Government. Aristocracy Plutocracy Kleptocracy Oligarchy. Monarchy Constitutional Monarchy Absolute Monarchy. They cite in particular its exaltation of the Leader, the race, and the state, rather than the people. They see populism as a "thin-centered ideology" with a "restricted morphology" that necessarily becomes attached to "thick-centered" ideologies such as fascism, liberalism, or socialism. Thus populism can be found as an aspect of many specific ideologies, without necessarily being a defining characteristic of those ideologies.
They refer to the combination of populism, authoritarianism and ultranationalism as "a marriage of convenience. Robert Paxton says: "[Fascism is] a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy, and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.
Racism was a key feature of German fascism, for which the Holocaust was a high priority. According to the historiography of genocide , "In dealing with the Holocaust, it is the consensus of historians that Nazi Germany targeted Jews as a race, not as a religious group. Historian Robert Soucy stated that "Hitler envisioned the ideal German society as a Volksgemeinschaft , a racially unified and hierarchically organized body in which the interests of individuals would be strictly subordinate to those of the nation, or Volk.
Most scholars place fascism on the far right of the political spectrum. The more a person considers inequality to be unavoidable or even desirable, the further to the right he or she will be. Fascism's origins are complex and include many seemingly contradictory viewpoints, ultimately centered around a mythos of national rebirth from decadence. In the s, the Italian Fascists described their ideology as right-wing in the political program The Doctrine of Fascism , stating: "We are free to believe that this is the century of authority, a century tending to the 'right,' a fascist century. These words in any case do not have a fixed and unchanged meaning: they do have a variable subject to location, time and spirit.
We don't give a damn about these empty terminologies and we despise those who are terrorized by these words. Major Italian groups politically on the right, especially rich landowners and big business, feared an uprising by groups on the left, such as sharecroppers and labour unions. The "Fascist left" included Michele Bianchi , Giuseppe Bottai , Angelo Oliviero Olivetti , Sergio Panunzio , and Edmondo Rossoni , who were committed to advancing national syndicalism as a replacement for parliamentary liberalism in order to modernize the economy and advance the interests of workers and the common people.
After the fall of the Fascist regime in Italy , when King Victor Emmanuel III forced Mussolini to resign as head of government and placed him under arrest in , Mussolini was rescued by German forces. While continuing to rely on Germany for support, Mussolini and the remaining loyal Fascists founded the Italian Social Republic with Mussolini as head of state. Mussolini sought to re-radicalize Italian Fascism, declaring that the Fascist state had been overthrown because Italian Fascism had been subverted by Italian conservatives and the bourgeoisie. A number of post-World War II fascist movements described themselves as a Third Position outside the traditional political spectrum.
The term fascist has been used as a pejorative ,  regarding varying movements across the far right of the political spectrum. Despite fascist movements' history of anti-communism , Communist states have sometimes been referred to as fascist , typically as an insult. Should we say that she is Fascist? Edgar Hoover , longtime FBI director and ardent anti-communist, wrote extensively of red fascism. Historian Peter Amann states that, "Undeniably, the Klan had some traits in common with European fascism—chauvinism, racism, a mystique of violence, an affirmation of a certain kind of archaic traditionalism—yet their differences were fundamental Professor Richard Griffiths of the University of Wales  wrote in that "fascism" is the "most misused, and over-used word, of our times.
Georges Valois , founder of the first non-Italian fascist party Faisceau ,  claimed the roots of fascism stemmed from the late 18th century Jacobin movement, seeing in its totalitarian nature a foreshadowing of the fascist state. In his work The Ruling Class , Gaetano Mosca developed the theory that claims that in all societies an "organized minority" would dominate and rule over an "disorganized majority",   stating that there are only two classes in society, "the governing" the organized minority and "the governed" the disorganized majority. French nationalist and reactionary monarchist Charles Maurras influenced fascism.
Maurras distrusted what he considered the democratic mystification of the popular will that created an impersonal collective subject. French revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel promoted the legitimacy of political violence in his work Reflections on Violence and other works in which he advocated radical syndicalist action to achieve a revolution to overthrow capitalism and the bourgeoisie through a general strike.
The fusion of Maurrassian nationalism and Sorelian syndicalism influenced radical Italian nationalist Enrico Corradini. The ANI held ties and influence among conservatives , Catholics, and the business community. They believed that humans are naturally predatory, and that nations are in a constant struggle in which only the strongest would survive. Futurism was both an artistic-cultural movement and initially a political movement in Italy led by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti who founded the Manifesto of Futurism , that championed the causes of modernism, action, and political violence as necessary elements of politics while denouncing liberalism and parliamentary politics.
Marinetti rejected conventional democracy based on majority rule and egalitarianism, for a new form of democracy, promoting what he described in his work "The Futurist Conception of Democracy" as the following: "We are therefore able to give the directions to create and to dismantle to numbers, to quantity, to the mass, for with us number, quantity and mass will never be—as they are in Germany and Russia—the number, quantity and mass of mediocre men, incapable and indecisive. Futurism influenced fascism in its emphasis on recognizing the virile nature of violent action and war as being necessities of modern civilization. He advocated segregation of the genders because womanly sensibility must not enter men's education, which he claimed must be "lively, bellicose, muscular and violently dynamic.
At the outbreak of World War I in August , the Italian political left became severely split over its position on the war. The Italian Socialist Party PSI opposed the war but a number of Italian revolutionary syndicalists supported war against Germany and Austria-Hungary on the grounds that their reactionary regimes had to be defeated to ensure the success of socialism. The first meeting of the Fasces of Revolutionary Action was held on 24 January  when Mussolini declared that it was necessary for Europe to resolve its national problems—including national borders—of Italy and elsewhere "for the ideals of justice and liberty for which oppressed peoples must acquire the right to belong to those national communities from which they descended.
Similar political ideas arose in Germany after the outbreak of the war. German sociologist Johann Plenge spoke of the rise of a "National Socialism" in Germany within what he termed the "ideas of " that were a declaration of war against the "ideas of " the French Revolution. Fascists viewed World War I as bringing revolutionary changes in the nature of war, society, the state and technology, as the advent of total war and mass mobilization had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant, as civilians had become a critical part in economic production for the war effort and thus arose a "military citizenship" in which all citizens were involved to the military in some manner during the war.
The October Revolution of , in which Bolshevik communists led by Vladimir Lenin seized power in Russia, greatly influenced the development of fascism. Liberal opponents of both fascism and the Bolsheviks argue that there are various similarities between the two, including that they believed in the necessity of a vanguard leadership, had disdain for bourgeois values, and it is argued had totalitarian ambitions. With the antagonism between anti-interventionist Marxists and pro- interventionist Fascists complete by the end of the war, the two sides became irreconcilable.
The Fascists presented themselves as anti-communists and as especially opposed to the Marxists. In , Mussolini consolidated control over the Fascist movement, known as Sansepolcrismo , with the founding of the Italian Fasces of Combat. The next events that influenced the Fascists in Italy was the raid of Fiume by Italian nationalist Gabriele d'Annunzio and the founding of the Charter of Carnaro in In , militant strike activity by industrial workers reached its peak in Italy and and were known as the "Red Year" Biennio Rosso. Fascists identified their primary opponents as the majority of socialists on the left who had opposed intervention in World War I.
Fascism sought to accommodate Italian conservatives by making major alterations to its political agenda—abandoning its previous populism, republicanism and anticlericalism , adopting policies in support of free enterprise and accepting the Catholic Church and the monarchy as institutions in Italy. The Fascists banned literature on birth control and increased penalties for abortion in , declaring both crimes against the state. Although Fascism adopted a number of anti-modern positions designed to appeal to people upset with the new trends in sexuality and women's rights—especially those with a reactionary point of view—the Fascists sought to maintain Fascism's revolutionary character, with Angelo Oliviero Olivetti saying: "Fascism would like to be conservative, but it will [be] by being revolutionary.
Prior to Fascism's accommodations to the political right, Fascism was a small, urban, northern Italian movement that had about a thousand members. In , historian Adrian Lyttelton wrote: "The expansion of Fascism in the rural areas was stimulated and directed by the reaction of the farmers and landowners against the peasant leagues of both Socialists and Catholics. Beginning in , Fascist paramilitaries escalated their strategy from one of attacking socialist offices and the homes of socialist leadership figures, to one of violent occupation of cities.
The Fascists met little serious resistance from authorities and proceeded to take over several northern Italian cities. On 24 October , the Fascist party held its annual congress in Naples , where Mussolini ordered Blackshirts to take control of public buildings and trains and to converge on three points around Rome. Historian Stanley G. Payne says: "[Fascism in Italy was a] primarily political dictatorship.
The Fascist Party itself had become almost completely bureaucratized and subservient to, not dominant over, the state itself. Big business, industry, and finance retained extensive autonomy, particularly in the early years. The armed forces also enjoyed considerable autonomy. The Fascist militia was placed under military control. The judicial system was left largely intact and relatively autonomous as well. The police continued to be directed by state officials and were not taken over by party leaders There was never any question of bringing the Church under overall subservience. Sizable sectors of Italian cultural life retained extensive autonomy, and no major state propaganda-and-culture ministry existed. The Mussolini regime was neither especially sanguinary nor particularly repressive.
Upon being appointed Prime Minister of Italy, Mussolini had to form a coalition government because the Fascists did not have control over the Italian parliament. Mussolini proclaimed himself dictator of Italy, assuming full responsibility over the government and announcing the dismissal of parliament. In , the Fascist regime briefly gained what was in effect a blessing of the Catholic Church after the regime signed a concordat with the Church, known as the Lateran Treaty , which gave the papacy state sovereignty and financial compensation for the seizure of Church lands by the liberal state in the nineteenth century, but within two years the Church had renounced Fascism in the Encyclical Non Abbiamo Bisogno as a "pagan idolotry of the state" which teaches "hatred, violence and irreverence.
The Nazis in Germany employed similar anti-clerical policies. The Gestapo confiscated hundreds of monasteries in Austria and Germany, evicted clergymen and laymen alike and often replaced crosses with swastikas. Government officials eventually found it necessary to place "Nazis into editorial positions in the Catholic press. The Fascist regime created a corporatist economic system in with creation of the Palazzo Vidoni Pact , in which the Italian employers' association Confindustria and Fascist trade unions agreed to recognize each other as the sole representatives of Italy's employers and employees, excluding non-Fascist trade unions. In the s, Fascist Italy pursued an aggressive foreign policy that included an attack on the Greek island of Corfu , ambitions to expand Italian territory in the Balkans , plans to wage war against Turkey and Yugoslavia , attempts to bring Yugoslavia into civil war by supporting Croat and Macedonian separatists to legitimize Italian intervention and making Albania a de facto protectorate of Italy, which was achieved through diplomatic means by Instead, claiming that Italians were a superior race to African races and thereby had the right to colonize the "inferior" Africans, it sought to settle 10 to 15 million Italians in Libya.
The March on Rome brought Fascism international attention. One early admirer of the Italian Fascists was Adolf Hitler , who less than a month after the March had begun to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists. The conditions of economic hardship caused by the Great Depression brought about an international surge of social unrest. According to historian Philip Morgan, "the onset of the Great Depression In Germany, it contributed to the rise of the National Socialist German Workers' Party , which resulted in the demise of the Weimar Republic and the establishment of the fascist regime, Nazi Germany , under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. With the rise of Hitler and the Nazis to power in , liberal democracy was dissolved in Germany and the Nazis mobilized the country for war, with expansionist territorial aims against several countries.
In the s, the Nazis implemented racial laws that deliberately discriminated against, disenfranchised and persecuted Jews and other racial and minority groups. Fascist movements grew in strength elsewhere in Europe. He created an eight-hour work day and a forty-eight-hour work week in industry; sought to entrench a corporatist economy; and pursued irredentist claims on Hungary's neighbors. During the Great Depression, Mussolini promoted active state intervention in the economy. He denounced the contemporary " supercapitalism " that he claimed began in as a failure because of its alleged decadence , its support for unlimited consumerism , and its intention to create the "standardization of humankind.
The Institute for Industrial Reconstruction, a state-operated holding company in charge of bankrupt banks and companies, reported in early that they held assets of " In Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, both Mussolini and Hitler pursued territorial expansionist and interventionist foreign policy agendas from the s through the s culminating in World War II. Mussolini called for irredentist Italian claims to be reclaimed, establishing Italian domination of the Mediterranean Sea and securing Italian access to the Atlantic Ocean and the creation of Italian spazio vitale "vital space" in the Mediterranean and Red Sea regions. From to , Germany and Italy escalated their demands for territorial claims and greater influence in world affairs.
Italy invaded Ethiopia in resulting in its condemnation by the League of Nations and its widespread diplomatic isolation. In , Germany remilitarized the industrial Rhineland , a region that had been ordered demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles. In , Germany annexed Austria and Italy assisted Germany in resolving the diplomatic crisis between Germany versus Britain and France over claims on Czechoslovakia by arranging the Munich Agreement that gave Germany the Sudetenland and was perceived at the time to have averted a European war. These hopes faded when Czechoslovakia was dissolved by the proclamation of the German client state of Slovakia , followed by the next day of the occupation of the remaining Czech Lands and the proclamation of the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
At the same time from to , Italy was demanding territorial and colonial concessions from France and Britain. The invasion of Poland by Germany was deemed unacceptable by Britain, France and their allies, resulting in their mutual declaration of war against Germany that was deemed the aggressor in the war in Poland, resulting in the outbreak of World War II. Mussolini was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity to carry out a long war with France or the United Kingdom and waited until France was on the verge of imminent collapse and surrender from the German invasion before declaring war on France and the United Kingdom on 10 June on the assumption that the war would be short-lived following France's collapse. Axis forces at the height of their power controlled almost all of continental Europe.
The war became prolonged—contrary to Mussolini's plans—resulting in Italy losing battles on multiple fronts and requiring German assistance. After , Axis forces began to falter. In , after Italy faced multiple military failures, the complete reliance and subordination of Italy to Germany, the Allied invasion of Italy and the corresponding international humiliation, Mussolini was removed as head of government and arrested on the order of King Victor Emmanuel III, who proceeded to dismantle the Fascist state and declared Italy's switching of allegiance to the Allied side.
Mussolini was rescued from arrest by German forces and led the German client state, the Italian Social Republic from to Nazi Germany faced multiple losses and steady Soviet and Western Allied offensives from to On 28 April , Mussolini was captured and executed by Italian communist partisans. On 30 April , Hitler committed suicide. Shortly afterwards, Germany surrendered and the Nazi regime was systematically dismantled by the occupying Allied powers. An International Military Tribunal was subsequently convened in Nuremberg. Beginning in November and lasting through , numerous Nazi political, military and economic leaders were tried and convicted of war crimes , with many of the worst offenders being sentenced to death and executed.
The Nuremberg Trials convicted several Nazi leaders of crimes against humanity involving the Holocaust. However, there remained several movements and governments that were ideologically related to fascism. The first years were characterized by a repression against the anti-fascist ideologies, deep censorship and the suppression of democratic institutions elected Parliament, Spanish Constitution of , Regional Statutes of Autonomy. After World War II and a period of international isolation, Franco's regime normalized relations with the Western powers during the Cold War, until Franco's death in and the transformation of Spain into a liberal democracy. Historian Robert Paxton observes that one of the main problems in defining fascism is that it was widely mimicked.
Paxton says: "In fascism's heyday, in the s, many regimes that were not functionally fascist borrowed elements of fascist decor in order to lend themselves an aura of force, vitality, and mass mobilization. Salazar preferred to control his population through such 'organic' institutions traditionally powerful in Portugal as the Church. Salazar's regime was not only non-fascist, but 'voluntarily non-totalitarian,' preferring to let those of its citizens who kept out of politics 'live by habit. Historians tend to view the Estado Novo as para-fascist in nature,  possessing minimal fascist tendencies. The term neo-fascism refers to fascist movements after World War II. In Italy, the Italian Social Movement led by Giorgio Almirante was a major neo-fascist movement that transformed itself into a self-described "post-fascist" movement called the National Alliance AN , which has been an ally of Silvio Berlusconi 's Forza Italia for a decade.
In Germany, various neo-Nazi movements have been formed and banned in accordance with Germany's constitutional law which forbids Nazism. After the onset of the Great Recession and economic crisis in Greece, a movement known as the Golden Dawn , widely considered a neo-Nazi party, soared in support out of obscurity and won seats in Greece's parliament, espousing a staunch hostility towards minorities, illegal immigrants and refugees. In , after the murder of an anti-fascist musician by a person with links to Golden Dawn, the Greek government ordered the arrest of Golden Dawn's leader Nikolaos Michaloliakos and other Golden Dawn members on charges related to being associated with a criminal organization.
Nikolaos Michaloliakos and six other prominent members and former MPs, were found guilty of running a criminal organization. Robert O. Paxton finds that even though fascism "maintained the existing regime of property and social hierarchy," it cannot be considered "simply a more muscular form of conservatism" because "fascism in power did carry out some changes profound enough to be called 'revolutionary. It changed the practice of citizenship from the enjoyment of constitutional rights and duties to participation in mass ceremonies of affirmation and conformity.
It reconfigured relations between the individual and the collectivity, so that an individual had no rights outside community interest. It expanded the powers of the executive—party and state—in a bid for total control. Finally, it unleashed aggressive emotions hitherto known in Europe only during war or social revolution. Ultranationalism, combined with the myth of national rebirth, is a key foundation of fascism. The fascist view of a nation is of a single organic entity that binds people together by their ancestry and is a natural unifying force of people. Falangism in Spain envisioned the worldwide unification of Spanish-speaking peoples Hispanidad.
British Fascism was non-interventionist , though it did embrace the British Empire. Fascism promotes the establishment of a totalitarian state. Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people. Fascist states pursued policies of social indoctrination through propaganda in education and the media, and regulation of the production of educational and media materials. It attempted to purge ideas that were not consistent with the beliefs of the fascist movement and to teach students to be obedient to the state. Fascism presented itself as an alternative to both international socialism and free-market capitalism.
Fascist governments advocated resolution of domestic class conflict within a nation in order to secure national solidarity. While fascism denounced the mainstream internationalist and Marxist socialisms, it claimed to economically represent a type of nationalist productivist socialism that while condemning parasitical capitalism, it was willing to accommodate productivist capitalism within it. Fascist economics supported a state-controlled economy that accepted a mix of private and public ownership over the means of production.
While fascism accepted the importance of material wealth and power, it condemned materialism which identified as being present in both communism and capitalism and criticized materialism for lacking acknowledgement of the role of the spirit. In discussing the spread of fascism beyond Italy, historian Philip Morgan states: "Since the Depression was a crisis of laissez-faire capitalism and its political counterpart, parliamentary democracy, fascism could pose as the 'third-way' alternative between capitalism and Bolshevism, the model of a new European 'civilization.
The dominant forces of the 19th century, democracy, socialism, [and] liberalism have been exhausted Fascists criticized egalitarianism as preserving the weak, and they instead promoted social Darwinist views and policies. It provided support only to those who were "racially sound, capable of and willing to work, politically reliable, and willing and able to reproduce. Fascism emphasizes direct action , including supporting the legitimacy of political violence, as a core part of its politics. The basis of fascism's support of violent action in politics is connected to social Darwinism.
Fascism emphasizes youth both in a physical sense of age and in a spiritual sense as related to virility and commitment to action. Italian Fascism pursued what it called "moral hygiene" of youth, particularly regarding sexuality. Mussolini perceived women's primary role as primarily child bearers, while that of men as warriors, once saying: "War is to man what maternity is to the woman. The German Nazi government strongly encouraged women to stay at home to bear children and keep house.
The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. Nazi propaganda sometimes promoted premarital and extramarital sexual relations, unwed motherhood and divorce, but at other times the Nazis opposed such behaviour. The Nazis decriminalized abortion in cases where fetuses had hereditary defects or were of a race the government disapproved of, while the abortion of healthy pure German, Aryan fetuses remained strictly forbidden. Their eugenics program also stemmed from the "progressive biomedical model" of Weimar Germany. The Nazis said that homosexuality was degenerate, effeminate, perverted and undermined masculinity because it did not produce children.
Fascism emphasizes both palingenesis national rebirth or re-creation and modernism. In Italy, such modernist influence was exemplified by Marinetti who advocated a palingenetic modernist society that condemned liberal-bourgeois values of tradition and psychology, while promoting a technological-martial religion of national renewal that emphasized militant nationalism.
He emphasized an "organic construction" between human and machine as a liberating and regenerative force that challenged liberal democracy, conceptions of individual autonomy, bourgeois nihilism and decadence. According to cultural critic Susan Sontag , "[f]ascist aesthetics The fascist dramaturgy centers on the orgiastic transactions between mighty forces and their puppets, uniformly garbed and shown in ever swelling numbers. Its choreography alternates between ceaseless motion and a congealed, static, 'virile' posing. Fascist art glorifies surrender, it exalts mindlessness, it glamorizes death.
But whereas official communist art "aims to expound and reinforce a utopian morality", the art of fascist countries such as Nazi Germany "displays a utopian aesthetics — that of physical perfection", in a way that is "both prurient and idealizing. According to Sontag, fascist aesthetics "is based on the containment of vital forces; movements are confined, held tight, held in. One of the most common and strongest criticisms of fascism is that it is a tyranny. Some critics of Italian fascism have said that much of the ideology was merely a by-product of unprincipled opportunism by Mussolini and that he changed his political stances merely to bolster his personal ambitions while he disguised them as being purposeful to the public. Mussolini, as I have learned to know him, is an opportunist in the sense that he believed that mankind itself must be fitted to changing conditions rather than to fixed theories, no matter how many hopes and prayers have been expended on theories and programmes.
It may have succeeded yesterday and fail to-morrow. Failed yesterday and succeed to-morrow. The machine, first of all, must run! Some have criticized Mussolini's actions during the outbreak of World War I as opportunistic for seeming to suddenly abandon Marxist egalitarian internationalism for non-egalitarian nationalism and note, to that effect, that upon Mussolini endorsing Italy's intervention in the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary, he and the new fascist movement received financial support from Italian and foreign sources, such as Ansaldo an armaments firm and other companies  as well as the British Security Service MI5. Mussolini's transformation away from Marxism into what eventually became fascism began prior to World War I, as Mussolini had grown increasingly pessimistic about Marxism and egalitarianism while becoming increasingly supportive of figures who opposed egalitarianism, such as Friedrich Nietzsche.
Fascism has been criticized for being ideologically dishonest. Major examples of ideological dishonesty have been identified in Italian fascism's changing relationship with German Nazism. After antagonism exploded between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy over the assassination of Austrian Chancellor Dollfuss in , Mussolini and Italian fascists denounced and ridiculed Nazism's racial theories, particularly by denouncing its Nordicism , while promoting Mediterraneanism. In , Mussolini declared upon Italy's adoption of antisemitic laws that Italian fascism had always been antisemitic,  In fact, Italian fascism did not endorse antisemitism until the late s when Mussolini feared alienating antisemitic Nazi Germany, whose power and influence were growing in Europe.
Prior to that period, there had been notable Jewish Italians who had been senior Italian fascist officials, including Margherita Sarfatti , who had also been Mussolini's mistress. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 October Form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism. For other uses, see Fascism disambiguation. Core tenets. Definitions Economics Fascism and ideology Fascism worldwide Symbolism. Axis powers Montreux Fascist conference. Fascists by country. Related topics.
Main article: Definitions of fascism. Main article: Fascist insult. Further information: Fascism and ideology. See also: National syndicalism. Charles Maurras. Main article: Fascist syndicalism. Main article: Neo-fascism. Core values. Autonomy National identity Patriotism Self-determination Solidarity. List of nationalist organizations. Related concepts. Main article: Economics of fascism. Further information: Anti-democratic thought. Politics portal History portal. New Viewpoints, Merriam-Webster Online. Archived from the original on 22 August Retrieved 22 August Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Kallis, Aristotle A. The Fascism Reader.
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