Compare And Contrast New England And Chesapeake

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Compare And Contrast New England And Chesapeake



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13 Colonies: Comparing Regions New England, Middle, and Southern

Which in turn allowed American settlers and conquistadors to ignore most everything that they didn't agree with. So, in short, Spain was never able to consolidate its possessions in the New World with complete control. Thousands of Spanish immigrants flooded newly established cities in the Americas as people looked to the New World as a great opportunity for individual success and prosperity. As Native Indian slaves died off, African slaves were imported and their mulatto babies as well. As interracial procreation ensued due to the fact that Spanish women scarcely traveled to the New World, the local government officials created a hierarchy known as the castas that enforced racial discrimination amongst the various inhabitants of New Spain and helped to manage the colonists social pecking order.

Spain's most lucrative possessions in the New World shifted from the Caribbean and Hispaniola regions to the central American cities of Mexico and Peru due to their denser populations and more abundant minerals. The Spanish crown also established administrative regions known as viceroyalities which were governed by an appointed viceroy. Gold and silver constituted the main purpose of oversees exploitation and conquests. It was the money that Spain sought, and the other European countries alike. Violent and barbaric acts were undertaken in the hopes of finding gold and silver.

Eventually, Spain, by way of its direct possessions in the New World, attained vast amounts of precious metals. France, England, and the Dutch also reaped the good of New World exploitation by stealing it from the Spanish. While Spain's influx of precious metals actually in the end damaged its economy by inflating its money supply and consequently raising prices, other European nations prospered from increased trade. Northern expansion stagnated due mainly to the parasitic nature of the Spanish conquistadors.

Because they relied on the horticulture of central America for sustenance, the northern nomadic tribes who failed to develop such practices failed to be viable prey. Therefore, it wasn't until the abandoned Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca that interest grew in the northern parts—now labeled North America. After eight years among native tribes in and around Florida, de Vaca became renowned for a certain extraterrestrial medical healing power that led to his eventual freedom and reconciliation.

After being reunited with his fellow Spanish conquistadors, he grieved his past atrocities towards the people who had given him refuge, and from then on preached pacifistic methods of winning over the natives. His testimony after his return also sparked the exploration of the north including Florida, as he hinted to prosperous tribes reminiscent of the Mayan and Aztec civilizations. This initial interest subsided, however, because conquistadors found nothing of value in the northern parts.

Although, soon another revival of northern interest took place as the Spanish were dealt serious blows by the French and English raiders in the Gulf between Florida and Cuba. The Spanish began to build fortresses as well as missions along Florida as a way of protecting the riches of Central America, and thus Florida became the central focus. Onate was the adelantado who pushed north along the Rio Grande Valley seeking riches. What was supposed to be a pacification mission turned into a ravaging of native pride. As a way of instilling fear amongst the thousands of natives who surrounded him, Onate massacred and mutilated many villagers in Acoma—a Pueblo village.

Onate continued a fruitless conquest and eventually the colonists and Franciscans caught on, as did the Viceroy who eventually ended Onate's service to Spain. The missions proved to be quite effective in converting natives to Christianity, and most Franciscans were welcomed as they were true to their doctrine for the most part , and set good examples unlike their conquistador counterpart.

However, many Franciscans lost favor as the natives questioned the spiritual power of the Spanish doctrine and death lingered due to continuing epidemics. The Franciscans asked a lot of the natives by destroying their vast cultural practices and introducing their own culture and religious practices abruptly and without consultation. And although many were baptized and converted, true success is debatable as it is believed that many Native Indians retained much of their beliefs and simply added the new ideas to their own by compartmentalizing the two. There were two revolts by the Pueblo people, the first occurring in and the second in As death from disease ensued, it discredited Christian spiritual dominance among the natives.

Friction between the Hispanics and friars led to unification of the Pueblos and nomadic tribes. The Hispanic and governing colonists hit the last nerve of the Pueblos after demanding large sums of tribute and harsh labor during a cataclysmic drought that took the lives of thousands of Pueblo workers. Hungry, disease-ridden, restless, and grieved the Pueblo peoples revolted. Led by Pope, the Pueblos pushed back the colonists, burning crosses, rejecting Christian teachings, and reinstituting their own culture.

A second revolt the revolt of was an attempt to hold New Mexico, but the colonists prevailed and once again claimed dominance. The two major Indian cultures of northeastern North America were the Algonquian and Iroquoian peoples. Aside from separate locations, they differed in many ways including unique languages. Additionally, the Algonquians were not horticulturalists and distinctly relied on fishing and mobile hunting, whereas the Iroquoian employed both hunting and horticultural measures to ensure an adequacy.

The fur trade was a great source of profit for the French colonists, and unlike gold, silver, and other precious metals it was easily transportable. Additionally, the fur trade bypassed violent conflicts with the Indians due to the fact that fur trading was a mutually agreeable transaction that relied on no forced labor or violent coercion that was necessary in the production of gold and silver. Trade developed as trade always develops: as a result of differing products, a mutually growing interest, and perceived beneficial outcome by both parties. In this case, it was the French interest in Furs due to its highly attractive resell value, and the natives interest in the high yielding manitou or spiritual French objects that fueled the development of a vast trading market between the two peoples.

Fundamentally speaking, the fur trade really mimicked much of how businesses and business partners act and interact with each other today. Just like how businesses fight for control of regions as a way of accessing a larger range of consumers, European traders sought more trading opportunities through widening their reach. In like manner, the natives acting as consumers worked towards expanding their communication and trading opportunities with the Europeans as a way increasing their number of possible suppliers, which in turn lowers the prices of goods—this is reminiscent of how people nowadays will compare multiple businesses hoping to find the cheapest prices. There are, however, many differences between how modern trade and primitive forms of trade operate. For one thing, violence and physical confrontation between traders today is unheard of.

This aspect, however, is clearly evident in the way traders operated in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, during the time of European colonization of North America, as the Native Indian tribes fought their rival or neighboring tribes for contact with Europeans and the Europeans Dutch, English, and French fought amongst themselves for contact with the natives. The Five Nations Iroquois was a violent band of Iroquois tribes that united during the sixteenth century after many years of brutal conflict.

After the advent of Deganawida and peace solidified a united Iroquois, they shifted their sights to external tribes including other Iroquois-speaking tribes who refused to join. Waging war was a completely different phenomenon to the Five Nation Iroquois who's culture entertained communal killings and tribal torture. It seemed like a never ending conflict. As death rates soared due to new disease, the Five Nation Iroquois sought revenge as they falsely believed their hardships were the result of sorcery by killing and capturing men, women, and children from neighboring tribes.

In retaliation the neighboring Indians attacked the Iroquois, and the conflict grew between the Indians as each sought revenge and replacements for their grossly depopulated communities. As is evident in the Spanish sphere of influence, diseases unknown to the natives prior to European colonization devastated the Native Indian numbers. The logistics of Native Indian life were completely altered with the arrival of European weapons and tools, to the point where Indians lost their art of creating stone tools and weapons; rendering them completely reliant on European colonists—which only fueled the spread of disease as more and more natives sought the European traders.

So, it was an epidemic of the highest degree. Dutch arrival was extremely influential to both the natives and the French colonists. After establishing Fort Orange along the Hudson River, the Dutch became the French colonists' worst enemy, as they possessed superior tools and equipment constituting a better trading partner. As French fears grew, so too did the fears of southern Iroquois who new that they would lose their Dutch suppliers to the northern tribes who had access to nicer fur pelts. So, as a way of ensuring their mutual survival, both the French and Iroquois refused to make peace; hoping that with war the Dutch and northern tribes would remain separated. In one sentence: Dutch arrival to the New World created more friction and procured more violence.

No, in the end the Jesuits became simply a means to an end. Due to their increasingly complicated and, to the natives, unreasonable demands, the Jesuits became not friends but enemies to the Huron. Disease also added to Huron confusion and angst of the French colonists. Although, the Huron dared not expel the French as they had become so reliant on their practical innovations. Despite their failures, French Jesuits did convert many natives throughout their travels—although only in word and not in deed did the Indians subscribe to Christian teachings.

In conclusion, I would say that, overall, the attempt of the Jesuits to create true Christian followers was a failure. Roanoke was England's first attempt at creating a plantation colony in the Americas. However, it proved to be a failure as the soil was infertile and the prospect of an easier, quicker way of getting rich by hijacking Spanish ships drew people away. Powhatan was the most powerful Indian chief on the eastern seaboard during the seventeenth century. Commanding thirty tribes, he held the power of life and death over his subjects and was widely respected. The Native Americans in and around where the English colonists had settled held fast to a certain mobility in their lives directly related to the changing of seasons.

They were fishermen, hunters, gatherers, horticulturalists, warriors, shamans, and chiefs that lived very primitively, but with some degree of intellectual adeptness and basic innovative techniques for survival. Algonquian speaking natives, who, like their northern counterparts, employ a radical spectra of cultural practices; including violent and otherwise grotesque behavioral perversions. Explaining what necessitated the natives behavior outlined in the previous paragraph and the implications of those causes.

Comparing the English cultural repertoire by succinctly outlining the cultural practices of the natives. In Taylor's opinion, the English, although claiming to be superior and were superior technologically , are the true barbarians. He uses the very words of English colonials to belie their faith and Christian values. They view any culture different from their own as being groundless and amoral, while they are the uninvited, cared to guests who plot to murder their benefactors. The English, by harassing the natives, created friction between the two peoples. They demanded the Powhatan Indian's food when the natives hadn't enough for themselves.

Tobacco saved the English colonies from utter neglect as it increased interest following the many years of substandard living and death that had so destroyed popular opinion. At significant profits, tobacco products saved England's North American exploration and colonization, and introduced a new medium of wealth. In both Maryland and Virginia, tobacco constituted the priority of cultivation efforts and the single most profitable crop. Essentially, a commonwealth describes a collection of men who share an ideology and live cooperatively together.. In other words, a commonwealth is a state consisting of men who are united by law and the common interests of the collective body.

As the majority of settlers were poor, hungry beggars on the streets of England, many saw the New World as an opportunity for a better life. Labor was scarce in England, health a luxury of the rich, and profit a dream. So, settlers sought those things in the New World that they could not have in England. Farming, in general, was the main source of labor for the settlers of Chesapeake—especially of tobacco products, as they shipped millions of pounds to England annually.

However, some were artisans, shop keepers, and craftsmen. While the administrative jobs remained exclusively for the uppermost echelon of people. A rebellion ensued due to the oppressive nature of the governor, Berkeley, and his fellow elitists. By disregarding the common peoples demands for lower taxes and in denying them the right to exterminate the natives—for purely selfish reasons—the people revolted.

Nathaniel Bacon, the rebellion's leader, successfully drove out Berkeley from Jamestown, but died soon thereafter leaving the rebellion without someone to direct its path, allowing Berkeley to return. However, the King believed that Berkeley was at fault, and so he sent a contingent of men to suppress the fighting in Chesapeake. Prior to making war with the Indians, the colonists left Jamestown for the purpose of evading taxes and indebtedness.

While on the frontier the colonists struggled with the natives for land, eventually leading to a fully developed war. With war, the colonists went to Berkeley for approval of a genocidal massacre of the natives. However, due to his business relations with the Indians, he refused. So, the frontier acted as the rebellion's epicenter of development. After the rebellion, Jeffreys became governor of Virginia for a short while until the King discharged he and his men leaving the wealthy planters to take control. Over many years of displacement from their unmannerly and ruthless ancestors, successful agricultural workers began to develop a sense of cordiality while still retaining materialistic focuses. As the end of the seventeenth century approached, agriculturalists shifted their investments in indentured laborers from poor whites to African slaves.

Although more expensive, the blacks proved to be a better investment as their life-long service outweighed their negative price differential when compared to English servants mere four years of service. Additionally, England removed restrictive laws that previously inhibited certain men from participating in the slave trade. This change brought more African slave traders to Chesapeake, which in turn stabilized prices.

Prior to the massive overhaul of indentured workers in Chesapeake, African slaves made up only a small fraction of the population. Of course this changed, and with that change other reforms ensued that worked to limit free blacks and black slaves. Because the African slaves soon constituted close to half the population, white administrators and common planters began to fret a slave rebellion due to their numerical advantage and perpetual mistreatment.

The new laws included restrictions on black gatherings and movement throughout the city. Many other liberties were completely striped including the right to vote, bear arms, have legal representation in court, marry, and manage their own land. Moreover, taxes were significantly raised and blacks' livestocks were given to the poor whites. Crucial treatment of the black slaves was a direct result of white fears, and it showed the brutal extreme the colonists were willing to go in order to ensure their safety and well-being. Puritans were a radical religious sect who opposed the Church of England, and actively sought to reform it. Their mantra for ecclesiastical reform espoused a more individualized approach to everything spiritual. Instead of complicated rituals and traditions, the Puritans longed for a more simplistic and personal relationship with God by encouraging people to read the Bible and form prayer groups.

Moreover, they worked to eliminate the rhetoric of distant bishops, and instead focused on the teachings of local ministers. In the New England colony, Puritans believed that poor soil for farming would bring them closer to God, while nutrient rich soil corrupted the mind and body. Essentially, the Puritan doctrine worked to appease hard-working people in teaching diligence, discipline, and humility. Puritan presence also brought about a revival of strict regulations outlawing formerly common practices such as adultery, gambling, drunkenness, and blasphemy. Despite a massive restoration of Christian morals and values, the Puritans did not recognize subscribers to or devout followers of the Puritan faith to be saved. Instead, they preached of an all-powerful God who, although I suspect they would never say it this way, arbitrarily determined who was saved and who was destined for eternal damnation.

American history incorporates the English Puritans for the purpose of explaining the American colonists of that faith, and on a larger scale, the developmental stages of the thirteen colonies who eventually separated themselves from England and declared themselves a sovereign state—The United States of America. So, in analyzing the Puritans you are actually analyzing the people who would eventually constitute America. They see themselves, as followers of the faith, superior in all regards. According to the Puritan disciples, the bishops, priests, and church head the king constitute unscrupulous dictators and perverters of the doctrine, and they hated the Church of England because it was inseparable from the English monarchy and its corruption.

Colonists in the New England territory fared much better than Virginia colonists. Their more northern location distanced New England residents from many diseases that were common in Virginia. It was largely a result of Puritan connections with John Smith and his publications that enticed them, instead of others, to the New England territory. The Puritans were of the middling class and paid their own way.

Contrastingly, in the Chesapeake region, immigrants constituted the poor and homeless that the King expelled from England. The cooler climate and rapid streams found in the New England colonies resisted the dysentery and malaria that was rampant in Chesapeake, and the New England population was able to multiply much faster as a result. Additionally, New England residents enjoyed a more egalitarian male to female ratio, which also facilitated population growth. And although Chesapeake received thousands more colonists annually, New England's healthy environment allowed for the greatest population increase over time. However, New England colonists suffered from colder, longer winters.

Moreover, labor was more extreme in comparison to Chesapeake because very few servants or slaves inhabited New England. So then, it seems climate and population ratio benefited the health and progress of New Englanders, but nevertheless their lives remained strenuous. In New England, there was plenty of land and labor to go around. Almost every man had land of his own to cultivate crops and nurture livestock. Although, there were no servants or slaves to work the land. So, the larger families found in the New England area due to healthier conditions would work cooperatively to provide for themselves.

New England's social hierarchy was nothing like that of England, the Chesapeake, or the West Indies because there was no real social hierarchy to speak of. Only a slight social superiority could be found in and around the seaports and amongst the most successful farmers, but because there were no monopolies in New England and government was largely decentralized social status became an indistinguishable phenomenon. Men acted as the head of the household, and women were expected to submit. In New England, however, families were more dependent on each other as they were responsible for laboring over the land, livestock, and household duties, unlike in Chesapeake households where servants and slaves did most of the work.

This interdependency explains New Englanders genteel and caring character. A more cohesive societal structuring contributed especially to female codependency, aiding their general influence and fueling a rise in political significance—despite not being able to vote or hold positions in government. The Puritan faith also added to the success of New England families, as it compelled sexual discipline and a logistical family structure. Commerce or trade always necessitates wealth. That is how wealth is effectuated in the world, groups of people businesses turn commodities such as timber, iron, platinum, copper, and oil into valuable tools and desirable products such as houses, boats, wagons, railroads, machines, fuel, and tools of all kinds.

Today, commodities and the products that become of them are extremely more diverse and eccentric, but the laws of economics have not changed—a service industry cannot fuel an economy, their must be profitable trade. In New England, despite not having a valuable crop to cultivate and sell for a profit like that of Chesapeake's tobacco product, they improvised by making use of what they did have—timber. The New Englanders had massive amounts of timber at their disposal in the dense forests of northeastern America, and so they developed numerous shipyards.

Building countless ships fueled another source of wealth in fishing and maritime transportation. The vastness of their shipping industry was essential because it allowed for accelerated fishing, and in turn accelerated profits as they provided food for the slaves of the West Indies and the people of the Iberian Peninsula. Meanwhile, extensive shipbuilding provided jobs and attracted more skilled artisans and craftsmen to the area.

New England's economy was propelled not by one crop and a group of aristocrats, but through their resourcefulness, social equality, and intensive labor—much like capitalist America we know and love today. Massachusetts was known as the Bible Commonwealth because it, more than any other New England colony, had incorporated scripture into society by using it as the template for laws and government. Education produced literate people, and being a spiritual community that urged personal interpretation and reading of the bible, this was highly sought after. Puritans migrated to the New World so as to disengage themselves from English religious dogma and corruption. They sought reform of the Church of England, but opted to do it from afar—i n contrast to the Separatists who wanted a complete severing of their beliefs from the Church of England.

People hadn't an understanding of science, and as a result formed flawed hypotheses based on religious ideology explaining their afflictions. In New England, witchcraft was more extensive because of the strict Puritan faith. Although they have numerous differences their characteristics resulted from one important factor, which is, the reason the settlers came to the New World. This had an impact on the settlement, economically, socially, and politically. The first English colony, Jamestown,. In The late sixteenth century and into the seventeenth century social orders moved to the New World. This two provinces were the Chesapeake and the New England colonies. Each province developed into one of a kind urban communities,or states, over so in time taking into exceptionally particular developmental direcetions, for example : geology, governmental issues, monetary, and nationalities.

Religion of the provinces varied extraordinarily also. The New Englanders were exceptionally religious and family based was set to be the based of their general public and rehearsed it with outrageous dedication. In the Chesapeake, religion. Some came for profits; others came for religious freedom. The first permanent settlements established by the English in the Americas. The first permanent settlements like the Chesapeake area colonies, the Carolinas, the Puritan New England settlements and the Mid-Atlantic colonies but better known as the northern, middle and southern colonies, all differed in politics, religion, economics and social issue.

Although they all differed in the above, they all had one thing in common, they were religious. With different beliefs but religious. I will compare and contrast the differences between the colonies and what made each colony distinct from the other. The three main reasons colonists died was environmental issues, lack of settler skills, and relations with the Powhatans. The biggest reason colonists died was because of settler skills. This evidence shows that a lot of people did not have any skills to do anything. Jamestown and Plymouth are very similar colonies, but as well have their differences.

Jamestown and Plymouth are different from religion to economic. They both gave their colonies a big impact and they perchance even created a conflict sometime in their era. Jamestown was one of the first English settlements that had settled in Virginia. Plymouth is a town in Massachusetts, which is the first Pilgrim settlement. The New England and Chesapeake colonies were established during the early s. Despite the population originating from England, the regions had distinct societies. This was due to the fact that many settlers voyaged to the New World in search of riches, to seek new lives, or for religious freedom. They differed socially, politically, economically, and geographically.

The two colonies differed politically. The New England colony was a representative democracy; they held town meetings. It placed emphasize on having poor and rich families because of the importance of an equal society with representation from all sectors of life. The New England colony believed they were called by God to start a colony. B, the emigrants were mostly families with children; the population ranged from young to old age.

This is due to the fact that these emigrants wanted religious freedom; practice their own religion without persecution. In the Chesapeake colonies, the emigrants bounded to Virginia were primarily single individuals who were entering the New World as indentured servants under oath; these people were seeking a better, new life. Majority was men, and the youngest person was 16 years old. The Enclosure Act drove many English people to become indentured servants because they had no means of survival with very little land. These colonies differed for the reason for leaving England and the emigrants who settled in these.

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Massachusetts, settled by Compare And Contrast New England And Chesapeake and Plymouth settled by Separatists were settled for the The Conquest Of Florida Essay reason of freedom from the Church of England. We are ready to develop unique papers according to your requirements, no matter how strict they are. This was the easiest and most efficient way Slavery By David N. Gellman Summary make money due My Special Day Essay the cheap labor from indentured servants. Industrial Revolution. AP Slavery By David N. Gellman Summary can find this Personal Narrative: The Man The Myth just Men Can Change The Hearts Of Men Analysis easy as you did Milkweed Research Paper you'll get points Personal Narrative: The Man The Myth or even a zero on your assignment.