Buddhism In China Summary

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Buddhism In China Summary



In the process, they may have prohibited certain practices of non-Buddhist, indigenous religions, and Daisys Relationship In The Great Gatsby persecuted those who follow them, but these rare heavy-handed moves Why Dogs Should Be Allowed To Work Rhetorical Analysis Of Speech By Fredrick Douglass politically motivated. Teiser, Stephen F. This situation continued to Daisys Relationship In The Great Gatsby end of the Buddhism In China Summary Dynasty. Nichiren's emphasis Buddhism In China Summary "self-power" Jpn. Kawanami, Hiroko. In the Personal Narrative: My Personal Debt century BCE, for example, Buddhism spread Daisys Relationship In The Great Gatsby northern India as a result of the personal endorsement of King Ashoka. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chinese Buddhism 中国佛教 (with English subtitle)

The Shang Dynasty's capital was Yin Anyang and its territory stretched between the lower reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. After the Shang era, the larger Zhou era territory was divided by a network of feudal states and was ruled over by kings. The king of Zhou only had direct control over a small portion of the realm and received tributes from the feudal states. It was a fairly peaceful time but, after BC, the Zhou king lost his authority and seven prominent states emerged. It marked the transition from tribal society to feudal society. Major philosophies and religions emerged that were the basis of Chinese beliefs in later eras, such as Confucianism and Daoism. From the first centralized feudal empire, the Qin Dynasty, which was established in BC, until the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in , this period is known as the imperial era of China.

The imperial China period makes up the bulk of Chinese history. With the cyclical rise and fall of dynasties, Chinese civilization was cultivated and prospered in times of peace, then reformed after rebellions and conquests. The Qin and Han dynasties were the initial period of the Chinese empire. During this period, a number of institutions were established that laid the foundation of the basic political system for the next 2, years. The short-lived Qin Dynasty was the first to unite China as a country under an emperor instead of a ruling clan.

A bureaucratic government was introduced, and was continued by the less extreme Han Dynasty. He and his Qin state united China by conquering the other warring states, and he ruled with an iron fist. Qin Shi Huang centralized the power of the empire after he took the throne and set up a system of laws. He standardized units of weight and measurements, as well as the writing system. The Qin Dynasty was the first and shortest imperial dynasty in China. It was famous for great building projects, such as the Great Wall and the Terracotta Army, which guarded the First Emperor's burial objects and was to protect him in his afterlife.

During the later period of the Qin Dynasty, Liu Bang , a peasant leader, overthrew the unpopular Qin regime and established the Han Dynasty. In the Han Dynasty, a bureaucratic system in which promotion was based on merit was established and Confucianism was adopted by the state for national governance. What's more, agriculture, handicrafts, and commerce developed rapidly. During the reign of Emperor Wudi r. The multiethnic country became more united during the Han regime. The Han Dynasty was one of the most powerful and important dynasties in China's history. It had far-reaching impacts for every dynasty that followed it. Its hold on power was tenuous, however, and China again fractured, this time into the Southern and Northern Dynasties — During this messy time, many religions emerged and Buddhism was popular among the barbarian kingdoms in North China.

China went from having four warring kingdoms to being the most culturally sophisticated and technologically developed nation. Finally, it was consumed by the rise and fall of the phenomenal Mongol Empire, which stretched to Europe. It was a short, intense dynasty, with great conquests and achievements , such as the Grand Canal and the rebuilding of the Great Wall. One of Emperor Wen's most prominent achievements was to create the imperial examination system to select talented individuals for bureaucratic positions.

Most of this dynasty's government institutions were adopted by later dynasties. It's considered, along with the following Tang Dynasty, to be a great Chinese era. After the short-lived Sui Dynasty, the powerful and prosperous Tang Dynasty unified China once again. The Tang Dynasty continued with the Sui's imperial examination system and optimized it. It ruled for three centuries, and it was also the golden age for poetry, painting, tricolored glazed pottery, and woodblock printing. In the middle of the Tang Dynasty, an immense rebellion appeared and some regions refused to follow the state's authority. This situation continued to the end of the Tang Dynasty.

This ended when one of the northern kingdoms defeated its neighbors and established the Song Dynasty. However, the territory under the Northern Song Dynasty's — control was smaller than the Tang Dynasty's. The modern-day northern Hebei Province was occupied by the Khitan and was under the control of the Liao Dynasty — In the northwest, the Western Xia Dynasty — — ruled by the Tanguts — controlled the modern-day Gansu and northwestern Shaanxi. Until the first half of the 12th century, the Jurchens ancestors of modern-day Manchus annihilated the Liao Dynasty and invaded the Northern Song's capital. Then the Song government moved and reestablished the capital in Hangzhou , establishing the Southern Song Dynasty — The Song era was a period of technological advances and prosperity.

During the Song Dynasty, the handicraft industry as well as domestic and foreign trade boomed. Many merchants and travelers came from abroad. The " four great inventions " of the Chinese people in ancient times paper, printing, the compass, and gunpowder were further developed in the Song Dynasty. In , Genghis Khan unified all the tribes in Mongolia, founded the Mongol khanate, and conquered an unprecedented swathe of Asia.

At the end of the 12 th century, Mongolian rule grew steadily. With Genghis Khan and his descendants expanding their territory, the Mongol Empire extended all the way to Eastern Europe. The part of the Mongolian khanate that ruled China was known as the Yuan Dynasty — He made Dadu modern-day Beijing the capital of the first foreign-led dynasty in China. Trade, technological development, and China's introduction to foreign countries continued under Mongol rule.

Marco Polo from Venice traveled extensively in China, and later described China's culture and marvels in his book, Travels. However, they became increasingly inadequate in the ages of exploration, colonization, and industrialization. After a series of natural disasters and rebellion movements led by the Han people, a new native dynasty was established in It was the last ethnic Chinese dynasty , sandwiched between two foreign ones. The Ming Dynasty represented a long period of stability.

When his son and successor, Zhu Di, ascended the throne, he started to build the Forbidden City in Beijing. In , he officially made Beijing his capital. He was very supportive of international trade and sponsored several voyages to the West. It was an era of native Chinese strength and prosperity , which faltered due to natural disasters and greedy leadership, as had so many dynasties before it. This process also occurred with Buddhism in the oasis states along the Silk Route in Central Asia, during the two centuries before and after the common era. Another organic method was through the slow cultural assimilation of a conquering people, such as the Greeks into the Buddhist society of Gandhara in present-day central Pakistan, during the centuries following the 2nd century BCE.

Often, the dissemination was due primarily to the influence of a powerful monarch who had adopted and supported Buddhism himself. In the mid-3rd century BCE, for example, Buddhism spread throughout northern India as a result of the personal endorsement of King Ashoka. King Ashoka also actively proselytized outside his kingdom by sending missions to distant lands, sometimes acting upon the invitation of foreign rulers, such as King Devanampiya Tissa of Sri Lanka. Other times he would send monks as envoys at his own initiative. This is evidenced by the fact that in such places as South India and southern Burma, Buddhism soon took root, while in places such as the Greek colonies in Central Asia, there is no record of any immediate impact. Other religious kings, such as the 16th century Mongol potentate Altan Khan, invited Buddhist teachers to their realm and proclaimed Buddhism the official creed of the land, in order to help unify their people and consolidate their rule.

In the process, they may have prohibited certain practices of non-Buddhist, indigenous religions, and even persecuted those who follow them, but these rare heavy-handed moves were largely politically motivated. Such ambitious rulers still never forced subjects to adopt Buddhist forms of belief or worship. This is absolutely not part of the religious creed. Shakyamuni Buddha told people not to follow his teachings out of blind faith, but to only do so after examining them carefully. In the early 17th century, Neiji Toyin tried to bribe eastern Mongol nomads into following Buddhism by offering livestock for each verse they memorized.

The nomads complained to the authorities, and the overbearing teacher was punished and exiled. In various ways, Buddhism managed to peacefully spread throughout much of Asia, carrying its message of love, compassion and wisdom, while fitting in to the needs and dispositions of different people. Spread of Buddhism in Asia Dr. Alexander Berzin. Sometimes rulers adopted Buddhism to help bring ethics to their people, but no one was forced to convert.

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