Non-Diegetic Sound In John Williams The Attack On The House

Saturday, January 29, 2022 8:34:01 PM

Non-Diegetic Sound In John Williams The Attack On The House

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Star Wars - Attack of the MODELS!

The feature enables a widely used technique of embedding still photographs in motion pictures, displayed with slow zooming and panning effects, and fading transitions between frames. The technique is principally used in historical documentaries where film or video material is not available. Action is given to still photographs by slowly zooming in on subjects of interest and panning from one subject to another. For example, in a photograph of a baseball team, one might slowly pan across the faces of the players and come to a rest on the player the narrator is discussing.

The effect can be used as a transition between clips as well. For example, to segue from one person in the story to another, a clip might open with a close-up of one person in a photo, and then zoom out so that another person in the photo becomes visible. The zooming and panning across photographs gives the feeling of motion, and keeps the viewer visually entertained. While the Ken Burns effect is obviously effective and the staple of many PBS films, with the advent of After Effects and other tools, there are many more ways to dynamically include stills in movies.

Using Photoshop and After Effects, you can achieve amazing results by removing elements from still photos and compositing them in a 3D space. These moves can be as simple as a pan or dolly with a little depth, to full blown camera fly-throughs of entire composited scenes. Here are 2 examples of how this is used. This is a technique that would work really well if you have access to a bunch of raw negatives. Or you could even shoot a film in this style with a still camera and audio recorder.

The entire Stories from the Gulf series were done this way. For Marwencol, the images themselves are a part of the story told in the film. American Greed and some of those other true-crime shows on american TV do a great job of using stills and documents from the story and creating a dramatically lit scene with them, which they then shoot the crap out of and get tons of b-roll. Who says you have to hold on a still for a few seconds? Got tons? Throw them all in, 1 frame each. The film below uses them to act as transitions and inter-cut with archival footage, giving it a really dynamic feel. We can process images a lot faster than we think. Labels: Establishing shots , footage , logos , movie logos , still images , visual effects. Production Techniques. In a post production, sound designers will take a raw footage from a principle shooting, This is the actual filming of individual scenes, without any special effects or musical background, and turn it into a finished motion picture adding the sound effects and musical backgrounds to create an emotional effect whether it be dramatic or comical.

In film and TV, the audio portion of a project is recorded separately from the video. Unlike your home video camera, the film or video cameras used in professional productions don't have built-in microphones. Instead, all dialogue is recorded with either a boom or a tiny, wireless lavalier mic that can be hidden in an actor's clothing. Most other audio, like ambient background noise and music is added in post-production. Post production refers to all the editing, assembling and finalizing of a project once all the scenes have been shot. Audio post production begins once the editors have assembled a locked cut of the project. A locked cut of a film contains all of the visual elements, selected takes, special effects, transitions, graphics that'll appear in a film's final cut.

With the locked cut in hand, the audio post-production staff can start spotting the film for sound. Different members of the post production team look for different things:. If the dialogue editor needs to replace or re-record unusable pieces of dialogue, he'll ask the actors to come in for an automated dialogue replacement ADR session. Here, the actors and editors synchronize the newly recorded dialogue with the lip movements on the screen and mix the audio smoothly into the existing recording.

Foley artists, named after the pioneering audio and effects man Jack Foley, use an eclectic bag of tricks to reproduce common sounds a wooden chair for a creaky floor, cellophane for a crackling fire, a pile of audio tape for a field of grass, e. Sound designers and effects editors spend much of their time collecting libraries of ambient natural sounds.

They record the sound of Monday morning traffic and save it as a digital file for later use. They record washing machines running, children playing and crowds cheering. You can also buy ready-made libraries with all of these sounds. But some of the best sound designers like to create entirely original effects. Film and TV editing is an entirely digital world. No one sits around splicing film stock anymore. Even if a project is shot on film, it'll be digitized for editing and laid back onto film for distribution. The same is true for audio post production. The nice thing about digital audio editing technology is that there's a product and system for every budget and skill level.

For the home studio, everything can be done on a single computer without fancy control panels or consoles. You can buy a basic version of Pro Tools, Adobe Audition or a similar digital audio workstation and do all your recording, editing, mixing and exporting using the software's built-in functionality. Professional audio post production studios add another level of control by using large digital editing consoles. For many editors, it's faster and easier to manipulate knobs and faders by hand than to constantly be reaching for the mouse and keyboard.

Here are some features of DAW software for audio post production work:. Sequencing is putting all part of a song together, in this case for sound designers working in post production sequencing will be putting all the sound effects, Foley effects and background noise and music together and time it with whats going on in the footage, By sequencing these sounds you move them around within the realm of the footage to arrange the sounds in a way you want them to come across. First, I will begin with a Synthesizer, Synths can come in a s a hardware device or software plug-in on your DAW, these days people usually just go for the software as it does not take up any space and is easily accessible. Synths are used in music to create and manipulate sounds, it can also be used to create sound effects for TV and movies as you can create any type of sound you want using a synthesizer if you know how to work it.

A synthesizer consist of three main sections an Oscillator - this is what creates the sound, here you have a choice of what sound wave to use. Filter - this is where you can alter the frequencies of the sound and experiment on creating weird effects Amplifier - this controls the volume of the sound. There is also the envelope section and ADSR section which you can use to also manipulate the sound as well as the effects section where you can add a chorus or delay effect to create the sound you want.

Sampling, the art of triggering a sound clip to a backing beat or tempo, can be implemented in many ways during the songwriting process. It can be used to create drum kits or digital instruments or insert pieces of another recording into your song, or it can be used to destroy a clip altogether for the sake of creating an original noise. Synthesizers are almost always used in Sci-Fi and horror films because they can produce otherworldly sounds. But for straightforward emotion, horns are used too. These are associated with pageantry, the military, and the hunt, so they are used to suggest heroism.

Movies featuring death-defying heroes such as Star Wars and RoboCop use a lot of horns. Sound sampling is a way of converting real sounds into a form that a computer can store, and replay. Natural sound is in analogue form. Analogue means that something is continually changing, or to put another way, that it has no definite value. Sound waves are a subject on their own, but you should know that sound has a frequency. This frequency dictates the pitch of the sound we hear. This frequency is measured in Hertz Hz. If the sound oscillates at 50 times a second, then its frequency is 50Hz, and so on. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch of the sound. In the same way that a sampler has much in common with a synthesizer, software samplers are in many ways similar to software synthesizers and there is great deal of overlap between the two, but whereas a software synthesizer generates sounds algorithmically from mathematically-described tones or short-term wave forms, a software sampler always reproduces samples, often much longer than a second, as the first step of its algorithm.

An electronic device or piece of software that alters sound waves is known as a signal processor. One very common signal processor is an audio equalizer. An audio equalizer raises and lowers the strength of a sound wave. The goal of equalization EQ is to help achieve a good mix of sound that allows all instruments and vocals to sound good together. Equalization can target part of a sound based on the frequency amplitude, or height, of the sound wave. For example, if the bass drum is drowning out the cymbals in an audio mix, an audio equalizer can make the cymbals sound louder. The engineer may also choose to decrease the gain of the very low frequencies in the bass drum track.

Removing sound is another equalization goal. A bass drum microphone may also pick up and record sounds from the cymbals. The problem of recording unwanted sounds is known as bleeding or leakage. To get a cleaner bass drum track, an engineer can use an audio equalizer to lower the high frequencies on the bass drum track. This effectively removes the cymbal leakage. An audio equalizer can be part of an audio mixer, a stand-alone piece of electronic hardware, or a software application. Audio equalizers inside a mixer usually have controls for three bands of frequencies including high, mid-range, and low. These equalizers make it easy to use EQ during the recording process.

Several varieties of stand-alone audio equalizers can be used that target sounds based on different characteristics. A sound is generally made up of a range of frequencies known as the bandwidth. The centre frequency is in the middle of the bandwidth. A graphic equalizer usually includes several controls, or sliders, to manipulate several frequency ranges. These equalizers also illustrate sounds levels with a row of lights for each frequency range.

These lights make it easier for an engineer to see which frequencies need to be adjusted to get a good sound mix. Specialty software applications, often called plug-ins, that perform EQ are also widely available. Usually, the EQ software works with, or plugs in to, a larger sound recording application. The engineer can use an audio equalizer plug-in on a certain track, part of track, or all of the tracks in a recorded song. All signal processing adds noise, or unwanted sound, to an audio track. For this reason, engineers may want to limit the amount of equalization needed during the mixing process. In place of EQ, an engineer can try to achieve a better mix of sound during the recording process by using different microphones, moving microphones, or recording various instruments during separate recording sessions.

In a happy comedy, lower frequencies are rolled off, and it's EQ'd and mixed to be "brighter. Film sound is "sweetened" by manipulating room tone, premixing audio levels, and carefully considering dialog, music, and effects for their proper audio EQ. Film sound expects post-production sweetening, which makes film audio sound so different from audio for video. Video sound can be sweetened, but Indies use it pretty much as it is recorded. Use EQ to replace missing bass or treble by using the high and low shelving controls , reduce excessive bass or treble, boost room ambience high frequency shelf , improve tone quality using all the controls , and help a track stand out in the mix by using the parametrics.

An instrument's sound is made up of a fundamental frequency the musical note and harmonics, even when playing only a single note, and it is these harmonics that give the note its unique character. If you use EQ to boost the fundamental frequency, you simply make the instrument louder, and don't bring it out in the mix. It should be noted that a particular frequency on the EQ say Hz corresponds directly to a musical note on the scale in the case of Hz, to the A above middle C - hence the expression A tuning reference.

Boosting the harmonic frequencies, on the other hand, boosts the instrument's tone qualities, and can therefore give it its own space in the mix. Below are listed useful frequencies for several instruments:. The thing to remember about EQ is not to get carried away be specific and use it only when you need it, where you need it. If you get the mic placement correct and use good pre-amps on a good sounding instrument, you shouldn't need much.

Posted by james haskew at 1 comment: Email This BlogThis! Labels: Production techniques synthesizers samplers sequencers. Saturday, 6 October Sound Designers. Most Sound Designers are experienced Supervising Sound Editors who carry out a managerial role, steering the work of the entire sound post production process, combined with the specialist role of creating the sound concept for films. As well as creating the sounds for giant explosions or car crashes, Sound design is also the art of creating subtle sounds that enrich the language and feeling of a film.

Sound effects are added after filming, during the editing process, to give the film its sonic identity, e. Creating, manipulating and positioning these sound effects are the responsibilities of Sound Designers. They may be employed by Audio Post Production Houses, or work on a freelance basis and dry-hire a room close to the picture Editor providing their own Digital Audio Workstations. They are also likely to own their own recording equipment, e.

Sound Designers work long hours to meet a demanding schedule of deadlines. He is also a film editor and director, screenwriter, and voice actor. He is most notable for creating many of the iconic sound effects heard in the Star Wars film franchise, including the "voice" of R2-D2, the lightsaber hum, the sound of the blaster guns, and the heavy-breathing sound of Darth Vader. Burtt pioneered modern sound design, especially in the science fiction and fantasy film genres.

Burtt sought a more natural sound, blending in "found sounds" to create the effects. The lightsaber hum, for instance, was derived from a film projector idling combined with feedback from a broken television set, and the blaster effect started with the sound acquired from hitting a guy wire on a radio tower with a hammer. Walter Scott Murch. Water Murch is an American film editor and sound designer. He is most famous for his sound designing work on Apocalypse Now, for which he won his first Academy Award in Notice the sound of the rotor blades from the helicopters panning from left to right as they fly past especially effective on headphones , and the combination of the sound from the blades combined with the image of the ceiling fan.

In , he won an Oscar for the sound mix of Apocalypse Now as well as a nomination for picture editing. Murch is widely acknowledged as the person who coined the term Sound Designer, and along with colleagues developed the current standard film sound format, the 5. Apocalypse Now was the first multi-channel film to be mixed using a computerized mixing board. Unlike most film editors today, Murch works standing up, comparing the process of film editing to "conducting, brain surgery and short-order cooking", since all conductors, cooks and surgeons stand when they work.

In contrast, when writing, he does so lying down. His reason for this is that where editing film is an editorial process, the creation process of writing is opposite that, and so he lies down rather than sit or stand up, to separate his editing mind from his creating mind. Bernard Herrmann. Bernard Herrmann born was an American composer noted for his work in motion pictures. Muir, Cape Fear, and Taxi Driver. Verbal Vigilante. Jode Steele and David Wainwright, A. Richard King. Richard King is an American sound designer and editor who has worked on over 70 films. There were a couple of big set-pieces that required a lot of effort, a lot of sound-effects recording, and a lot of trial and error.

There was constant mixing and remixing of the sound as well as constant re-editing and redesigning of the sound effects. By the time we got to the temp dub, there were no huge surprises. The long non-stop action sequence was designed to play without score. So he put in as many interesting sounds and frequencies as he could to keep the track alive. He tried to find high-end elements, not just the low-end roar of the truck engines, and had fun adding abstract sounds, such as animal roars, to accentuate accelerations.

Labels: Sound designers composers sound effects. Thursday, 4 October The role of sound effects and musical elements in the moving image. Sound and music, or the absence of it has a profound impact on film and TV. It is used to enhance drama and to help illustrate the emotional content in the story. It is also used to manipulate the feelings and sentiments of viewers. This is universal.

Whether you watch domestic or foreign content, music is used to this effect. Rarely do you see a film or TV program that doesn't employ music and sound. Sound effects and sound libraries are used all over films and it is pretty much guaranteed that there will be at least one instance of this in every film and TV show you watch. Jack Foley is widely known as the initial founder of adding post-production sound effects to film. The reason this process takes place is because some sound effects could be hard to record on-set and need to be more distinguished, need to be taken from the sound of something else or need to be edited to achieve the desired sound.

People who record sound effects separately from the film are known as "Foley artists". You can see that they are experimenting with many different objects to achieve a fitting sound for the movie, whilst watching the film to keep it in time. An example of a sound being taken from somewhere else is the process used to create the laser blast sound from George Lucas' "Star Wars" movies. David Farmer sound designer on the LotR project came up with the original template for the Balrog, he wanted it to sound like it was something that would live in the very bowels of the world, sort of like a big flaming turd with a sword and a whip. Or a giant horned tapeworm, if you will.

To that end, the Balrog's voice, and some of its movement, wound up being something ingenious in its simplicity: a cinder block scraping along a wooden floor at different speeds. That delightfully cracky, grinding sound that accompanies the demon is made of a mixture of rocks grinding together and the cinder block tearing over someone's parquet. Ben Burtt, who is the sound designer for the Star Wars movies, used a very interesting method for creating the famous sounds of the lightsabers in the films, as explained in the following video. The sound of the lightsaber moving when a microphone is waved past the sound source is created by the scientific principal known as the "Doppler Effect".

This is the apparent change in the frequency of a wave caused by motion between the sound source and the observer. For example, if you were to stand at the side of a road and a car drove past you, the sound waves given off by the car as it approaches are compressed against the front of the car making it appear to be higher pitched. Then when the car passes, the sound waves at the back of the car are flowing off of it and are spaced further apart, making the sound appear to be lower in pitch. Music in Movies: Since the dawn of motion pictures, music has played an integral part of the cinematic experience. Before the advent of "talkies," music quickly became a necessary tool to aid the narrative. These conventions have become movie-making standards and are still used today.

Music can help express character emotion. In the days of silent film, the only methods to express how a character felt were the dialog cards, the actor's face, and the music score, all of which worked together to convey the necessary emotion. In a silent film, if a character delivers what appears to be a tense or dramatic speech, tense and dramatic music is sure to accompany it. In modern film-making, the same can be said to be true. Music score is a basic and effective way to heighten the drama of a given scene in a film. Regardless of the genre drama, comedy, romance , a film score can add to nearly any scene.

In an action set-piece, the music will match the action in terms of power and intensity. In a comedy scene, the score can be expected to be as light or silly as the action taking place within the scene. Music can establish a mood. At the beginning of a movie or scene, music is often used along with establishing shots to help set a tone, before any dramatic action takes place. In the beginning of a horror film, shots of a desolate, empty street may have ominous, foreboding music accompanying them, to establish that the action about to transpire is very scary.

Music can establish a time or setting. In many period pieces, film score or music from the era is used to help establish and reinforce the specific time period which the move is set in. Example: A film set in medieval times, will often use source or score music from the very era that it is trying to recreate, thus further embedding the viewer within a particular time and place. Music can help advance the story. The music montage is a popular way to condense a large amount of information into a short amount of time. The use of a pop song or score selection, accompanied by thematically related shots the lead character is sad, people falling in love, hero in training advances the story without spending the days, months, or years it would take in real life for the actual events to transpire.

Music also can mislead the viewer. Musical misdirection is most often employed in, but not limited to, thriller and horror movies; usually to lull the viewer into a sense of complacency before a big scare. Example: The heroine babysitter walks into the upstairs bedroom as calm music plays, only to discover a killer behind the door, immediately cued by pierced, shocking music. In an opposite example, the babysitter walks upstairs, with tense and scary music underneath the scene, expecting to find a killer, when it turns out only to be the house cat.

The music for Raiders of the Lost Ark played a key role in this film, and John Williams provided an excellent score for this film, also earning a nomination for an Oscar for best score. The spirit of Williams' style for Raiders of the Lost Ark is finely tuned to the adventuresome tone of the film's story, matching the exuberance of each of its scenes with the same precision of theme and emotion. The title march attracts the most obvious attention when the masses recall Raiders of the Lost Ark, but in reality the extremely effective and even catchy subthemes for the score are equally vital to the score's success. Still, it's the title march you hear in stadiums and in trailers for the following entries in the franchise; just as Monty Norman's theme for James Bond and Williams' theme for Darth Vader are engrained in pop culture as the most obvious musical representations of one serial movie character, the march for Indy Jones is worthy of the same distinction.

The score is a rare occasion in which the entire package, with only a few small detriments in lesser cues, is better than the brightest moments of almost any other score. Williams so thoroughly nails the pulse of this picture, from the melodramatic awe of the Ark to the gritty rhythms of Jones resilience as he battles a convey of trucks, that Raiders of the Lost Ark is a cinematic experience much greater in both intensity and entertainment value because of Williams' contribution. Three major themes exist in the score, and the purpose of each is so clear that the composer would work all of them into sequels in the franchise.

A variety of lesser motifs, including secondary phrases of these major themes, occupy significant roles in the work. There has long been speculation about additional motifs in Raiders of the Lost Ark, though while Williams does definitely conjure auxiliary ideas throughout the score, their direct application remains open for debate. What isn't contested is the harmonic beauty of the score. Even the film's major action sequences offer exhilarating tonal structures and readily enjoyable rhythms, producing a consistently fluid experience.

Soundtracks of the Lord of the Rings film trilogy music was composed and conducted by Howard Shore. The scores use a technique called leitmotif, which is a musical phrase associated with a character, a feeling, an event, etc. Below is one of the theme music for Lord of the Rings called "Concerning Hobbits", this is the theme for the Shire. On the soundtrack, it starts by a solo flute playing the theme, followed by a solo violin and then the complete orchestra repeating this theme. The track then quiets down and the solo flute plays a second melody, followed by the orchestra.

The track ends with the violin and then the flute repeating the first melody. Music can be broadly appealing and direct in its storytelling like in Shrek or Spiderman or subtle and minimalist in films like Spider or Memento. Music is not all that is used. Ambient sound in film is just as important. Animal sounds, flushing toilets, throwing objects together, crushing paper, dropping things on surfaces or rubbing things together all these techniques will get interesting sounds that can fit the scenes in a film or show.

These sounds can be used to surprising and unexpected ways. The only limit is the creativity of the team doing the work. Sound, whether from ADR, film music, modern music or soundscapes is not accidental. Some of the sounds you hear in films come from making accidental noises but they are kept and used because of some certain quality that can be used to enhance the film. Sounds are recorded from nature or from urban settings. The point is that sound is designed, not simply recorded and thrown into the mix. Like white space in graphic design, silence is also used to dramatic effect. Too much music can grate on the nerves. Beats of silence can be put in to a scene or silence can be used as an element to underscore something or someone and it can be just as dramatic and effective as music.

Sometimes sound has to be pulled out in order to be heard properly. It, like music, can overwhelm viewers and may have to be pulled back, which can make it more impactful, more visceral. In this, I show you film techniques that I pick out throughout watching the film, how to analyze them, and also then go on to show you how they are used in A-plus essays. If you're curious about what's inside the study guide and want to see if it's right for you, head on over and read a free sample to see it for yourself. I hope it gives you something to launch off. If you have any questions, feel free to leave them in the description box below.

I have plenty of resources for you guys down there as well if you needed help for your SAC and exams and I'll catch you guys next time. Frears incorporates these clips to help provide viewers insight on the politics, media culture, and public reaction in Moments of her kissing on a boat are revealed to the world without any respect for her privacy. Likewise, Malouf uses parts of The Iliad as foundations for his novel. By offering a retrospective of this historical story, Malouf invites readers to better understand the Trojan War and Greek mythology, and the impact the gods had on Trojans and Greeks. I've dropped some sample essay topics below for you to try at home yourselves:. Ransom Study Guide. The following resources are no longer on the study design; however, you might still pick up a few valuable tips nonetheless:.

Ransom and Invictus. Ransom and Invictus Prompts. However, keep in mind that annotating texts is a powerful step in getting to know your text and optimising your essay responses. To annotate means to add notes to a text where you provide extra comments or explanations usually in the margins of the book. It is very much an activity for yourself, because it allows you to become an active reader — where you are engaged in thinking about the plot, themes, characters etc.

As a result, active readers are more likely to become immersed in the story, absorb the ideas better, be more open-minded and therefore usually develop their own unique interpretation of the text. While annotating may not come so naturally to some of you, this guide below should definitely equip you with a good starting ground! Think of your text as a colouring book. Use different coloured highlighters for different themes. Think of it as creating a trail for you to follow throughout the book. Creating a legend at the start of the book for example, in the contents page can help you keep track of which colour stands for which theme. Circle new vocabulary. Look it up and then write their definitions next to the word.

Write notes in the margins. Here you can summarise the significant points of a passage without needing to re-read the whole thing again. Use a pencil rather than pen. However, avoid writing full comprehensive notes in the margins. Use a separate workbook or a word document for that! Be open to different interpretations. Remember that you can be ambiguous with your ideas, understanding a certain character or theme from multiple perspectives offers you a variety of ideas that can be applied in your essay. All texts are complex works of art with a wealth of opportunity for exploration. Got burning questions that pop up? Put down a question mark and do some research. The better you understand your text now, the greater understanding you will have of events that occur later in the text.

Mark literary devices. Symbols, metaphors, alliteration, assonance — the list goes on. Use shapes such as circles, triangles, squares and create a legend in order to keep track of the different literary devices that present themselves throughout the text. Dog-ear important passages. Some key passages can be lengthy spreading over several pages , and it can be a pain to highlight pages and pages of a book it might too much for your eyes to handle too — ouch! To stand out, you should try to find those quotes that are equally powerful but are somewhat overlooked or underrated. Annotate study notes and study guides.

Draw smiley faces or frowns in areas where you agree or disagree. This can be the basis of an interesting discussion in your own essay. Show that you know the in and outs of the text so well that if someone else were to pick it up, they would have no idea where to even begin! Having proper notes in the right places and annotations will make the biggest difference. Keep in mind that annotating does not equal skimming where you briefly speed-read through your text.

Take it slow and easy! Because he is aware from an early age that he is out of step with the world, he tends to be more reasonable in his way of dealing with conflict. His final response to his inner conflict is to stand strongly by what he believes. The Lieutenant at its core is a journey of self-discovery as Daniel Rooke navigates the immoral waters of British imperialism and its impact on the indigenous Australians.

Becoming closer to Tagaran, Rooke attempts to bridge cultural barriers through the transformative power of language. Rooke observes the scissions created by violence and the perhaps misplaced Western superiority and is perpetually torn between his moral intuitions and his obligations and duty as a Lieutenant. Language dictates commonality and communication, yet to Rooke he discovers that central to the power of language is the willingness to cooperate, patience and respect. It is through our language itself that reveals our biases. The hierarchical nature of British Society stands in diametric opposition to the community-oriented system employed by the Indigenous Australians.

This notion is elucidated through the exploitation of the natives and the nations reliance on oppression and servitude to maintain its imperial status, put simply: their strength is an accident arising from the weakness of others. It is on this foundation that Grenville explores the violent treatment of the natives by the British and even their treatment of their own people.

The morality that is ingrained in Rooke from the onset aligns quite naturally with our own moral standards. Yet Grenville encourages readers to explore the difficult choice between morals and disobedience. Rooke faces such a choice. Violence is central to the operation of imperialists as the British tightens its grip on the Indigenous Australians. Grenville emphasises that the power sought out by the British empire will always come at the expense of the natives. Violence and force are used to assert power, confirm boundaries around usurped land, promulgate fear and discourage resistance. The gun becomes a symbol of the violence and force of the settle and they show little intention of relinquishing the dominant position that the gun affords them.

Conforming to the pressures of the British Empire, Rooke joins the marines and complicitly serves without attempting to question the morality behind his actions. Importantly, he joins the marines not out of patriotic pride, but because he believes it will aid him to pursue his academic curiosities and steer away from violence. Yet it only brings him closer to the reality that lurks behind the ostensibly moral quest of British imperialism. VOCAB: microcosm - a situation or event that encapsulates in miniature the characteristics of something much larger. How does the setting that Rooke finds himself in mirror or parallel the emotions that he experiences?

TIP: Just like the minor characters I mentioned before, meaning and themes come from all aspects of a novel not just plot points and major characters. By including niche examples such as the setting or the narrative perspective, you can demonstrate that you have a really thorough understanding of the text! The extra quote with the prompt can seem superfluous, but often, they can provide hints about how to tackle or challenge the essay topic. It is there for a reason, and if you are familiar with the quote, I would recommend that you try to incorporate it into your essay!

The ability for two individuals from completely different worlds to transcend their differences in order to share cherished moments and understandings together is exemplified in The Lieutenant , alongside the rife external and internal conflicts which threaten such relationship. Start off with focusing on the keywords in this prompt, especially the phrases that resonate with you for Steps 1 and 2 of brainstorming which I have previously covered in other essay topic breakdowns.

This means that in your discussion, the relevance to the prompt is crucial to keep in mind to ensure you are actually answering the question! Hence, this quote refers to the conflict of conscience he experiences and provides us with an insight into not only his character but also conflict itself. Why was this realisation important for Rooke, especially for his character and development? These are the kinds of questions coming to mind upon seeing that quote alone, which all provide hints as to how I might tackle this prompt.

Questions I might ask myself here include: why does Rooke initially try to deny the reality of his situation? What does his preference for a peaceful and accepting approach towards the Indigenous Australians suggest about his approach to conflict? This cognitive dissonance ultimately contributes to his internal conflict between the value he places in his connections with Tagaran and her community and in his duties and obligations as a lieutenant. I would then continue unpacking these changing understandings, especially ones relevant to his character which reveal his internal conflicts further.

Although the core of the essay discusses internal conflicts, highlighting the connection between internal and external conflict would add another layer of complexity to your essay. It is only through his understanding that non-committal actions also incriminate him as a perpetrator that his choice to sacrifice his Colonial obligations for taking an active stance to fulfil his moral obligations comes to light. This reveals the role that internal conflicts may have in inciting powerful change and realisations in an individual. The complexity of internal conflict can be difficult to discuss, but by using the quote provided in the prompt and asking yourself questions about the implications of the quote, we are able to delve into and construct a sophisticated understanding of The Lieutenant and of conflict itself.

This foreshadows her return to her pre-baby life - that things will not be the same. Her entire world is now Daniel, whereas everything in the office is as it used to be. Whichever is unclear and left up to interpretation. Perhaps both ring true. She struggles to switch between her identity as a mother, and her previous identity as a colleague in the workplace. The expectations others have on you as a new mother, and how you should be feeling.

In this sense, we can to feel that Liz is very much alone in her anxiety and despair and, not the other way around with Daniel. The societal expectation that Liz is happy to be back at work even extends to her husband, and heightens how Liz is very much alone in her experience. Like a House on Fire. Like a House on Fire Essay Planning. At this point in VCE, we should be feeling relatively comfortable with tackling themes and characters in our essays.

However, the danger with just discussing themes and characters is that we often fall into the trap of simply paraphrasing the novel, or retelling the story. So how do we elevate our essays to become more sophisticated and complex analyses that offer insight? An important distinction to be aware of is that the expectation of Year 11 English was geared more toward themes and characters. Move beyond talking about character and relationships. How are those characters used to explore ideas? How are they used to show readers what the author values? In other words, this means the context in which the text was written. Think about how that influenced the author, and how those views and values are reflected in the text. How does the author create social commentary on humanity?

Consider why the author chose those particular words, images or symbols? What effect did it evoke within the reader? What themes or characters are embodied within these literary devices? Metalanguage is essential in VCE essays, so ensure you are confident in this field. Comment on the mise-en-scene, camera angles, overview shots, close ups, flashbacks, soundtrack, to name a few.

This is how to create a well-substantiated essay. Instead, use worded quotes within your sentences so the transition is seamless. Do you know how to embed quotes like a boss? Test yourself with our blog post here. Begin each paragraph with a strong topic sentence, and finish each paragraph with a broader perception that links back to the topic and the next paragraph. This is also where having a wide range of vocabulary is crucial to presenting your ideas in a sophisticated manner. Also, referring to literary devices contributes to a great vocabulary, exhibiting a strong turn of phrase! What does it imply? Find the underlying message and the implications behind the prompt.

There is always tension within the topic that needs to be resolved by the conclusion of your essay. A must-know technique to ensure you actually answer the prompt is by knowing the 5 types of different essay topics, and how your essay structure changes as a result. Finally, simply enjoy writing about your text! It will help you write with a sense of personal voice and a personal engagement with the text, which the teachers and assessors will always enjoy.

Bombshells is a collection of six monologues written by Joanna Murray-Smith, each featuring one female character who is symbolic of a specific stage in life and role. Together, they are a telling account of the struggles of being a woman in a modern world, and the monologue format allows the author to emphasise how they are simultaneously unique and universally relatable. The story is narrated first-person by Penelope who resides in the underworld, but is also peppered with spoken, sung or chanted testimonies from the twelve dead maids of the story who act as a Chorus, a traditional part of ancient Greek theatre.

Prompt: How do Bombshells and The Penelopiad emphasise the subtleties of the male-female relationship dynamic? While the narratives of both Bombshells and The Penelopiad are firmly focused on the female perspective of issues relevant to them, the texts also address the male perspective and role in such issues. Like the women, the men created by the authors have instrumental roles in the way the stories play out, which interestingly are sometimes disproportionate to their actual involvement in the plot. One of the main differences between the texts, other than the literary format, is the level of dialogue and active participation afforded to the male characters. Even without forming the male characters into rich, detailed personas, she still manages to fully showcase the chaos visited upon Theresa by her ill-considered marriage.

She draws greater attention to her inner panic and desperation than we see in Penelope, whose voice retains a sense of shocked detachment even when crying or suffering. The approaches of Atwood and Murray-Smith towards the level of engagement of their male characters differ significantly, yet both show the full impact of their actions on the lives of their female counterparts. Even when the men are given only cursory mentions, their presence as an agent of change within the story is sufficient for them to dramatically alter the courses of the characters they consort with.

Maybe expand your view to more general ideas about human beings, how we live our lives and the ways we react to situations of duress. Also consider that these texts are in two different formats; how does the live performance of Bombshells change the way it is perceived? What can a monologue do better than a book in terms of transmitting an idea and vice versa? Today we're going to go through the past VCAA English Exam grab a copy of the exam here so you can analyse with me. As you probably know, if you've watched my videos before, you always want to make sure you read the background information when it comes to Analysing Argument. I'm going to use Analysing Argument and Language Analysis interchangeably by the way, but I'm talking about the same thing okay?

The background information is pretty important because it gives you context for what is happening in this article. Without reading the background information, you might just head in there and possibly even come up with an entirely different context altogether, which might screw over your actual analysis and the author's intention. So, never skip the background information. Make sure that you read it and also pick out the gems that you find in it. What I've always found is background information is great for picking keywords - words I might want to use throughout my own Language Analysis.

It also has really good details about the article. In this case, you can see that there's a member of the public who has responded, which tells us a little bit about the author; it's a 'response' as well, so there's going to be two articles; it's an advertorial - an advertorial is a paid advertisement that looks like an article I'll use the word advertorial as I'm describing the article in my introduction , and, I also know where it's been published.

This is already really good information for you to start using in your introduction. Let's move into the analysis itself. By the way, this is my first time doing this analysis, so we're doing it together. What you'll find is that I come up with particular interpretations that you might not have come up with. I might miss something, you might miss something, and what you'll find is my interpretation is not the only interpretation out there. If you come up with something else, it's totally fine for you to go ahead and analyse it, as long as you can back it up.

This is what English is all about, so don't stress if I haven't matched up with you in exactly what I'm saying. You can also use my interpretation as a double interpretation. So, what you could do is go into your essay, write your interpretation and if mine compounds on top of yours pretty well, if it's a great addition to what you're saying, add it in and bam! You're showing your examiner that, you're somebody who can look at one particular technique from several different perspectives and that's kind of cool.

From what I can already see here is there's this sense of convenience already being brought up. Now, at this point in time, I don't know what the point of that convenience is, but I know for me as a shopper, if I can get something for a better experience and I can get it done faster, then hells yeah, I am all for that. Think about yourself in the reader's shoes, after all, you really are the reader reading this article. Think about how it's starting to impact you. I've done a video about the TEE rule previously that goes through T echnique, E xample and the intended E ffect on the audience. Make sure you're familiar with that because I will use a lot of that in today's analysis. The 'As you know' is pretty familiar.

It's this familiarity that this person is sharing with us the author's name is Hailey, so I'll just say Hailey. She says 'As you know, Hailey's Local Store is not your average grocery store' and repeating that familiar 'As you know' reminds the audience - us - of our long-term relationship with the store. So, in a sense, she's drawing upon our good will and our trust in the local shop, which creates this differentiation between herself as somebody who's more proactive and customer-centric and your bigger grocery stores.

At this point, we start to feel valued. We know that we are her priority. Her priority isn't about profits, which a lot of stores are about, it's about the people, and as a result, we're more inclined to look at her in a favourable way. This whole sentence is pretty good because it shows us that she is somebody who is forward-thinking and she has actually carried through with her claim that she puts her customer first. We know that because she follows it up with:.

She's got historical proof of putting customers first, which again, serves to build this rapport and relationship between Hailey and us as her customers. If I look at the first paragraph as a whole, I see that she's building this up, she's setting this up in a particular way and whatever direction she's going to head in next, we're more inclined to follow her, to believe in her and to support her because she's shown us that she has supported us first. She's helped us out, so why can't we help her out? Again, I haven't read the rest of this article yet so these are just the thoughts that are going through my mind as I'm reading this first paragraph - just to give you a little bit of insight into my brain.

In this first paragraph, I can see that she's using a pretty welcoming and warm tone. If you have a look at the photograph that's been placed at the top of this article - and remember that with particular images they're strategically placed, so if it's placed at the start of the article versus at the end, think about how that impacts your perception of the photograph - for me, the first thing I see when I look at this article is the photo and I see a smiling happy owner.

As you can see, the first paragraph serves to back up this photograph as well, with what she's talking about in terms of prioritising customers and valuing customers. You can also see products behind her, which look fresh and full and her shelves are full, so in that sense, it furthers this impression of the local and grounded nature of the store. It feels homey and this invites that comfort and trust from us. Then, as we move into our second paragraph, I'm seeing a lot of exclamation marks, which gives me the sense of this upbeat, exciting environment, or even tone you could say.

I think she's doing this because she wants us to jump on board with cashless payments as well, and to not see them as something that's a burden for us. By the way, I'm not going to write down all the language analysis, because I think there's just not enough space, but me chatting about it with you is good enough. Let's move onto the next paragraph. Not only is she highlighting the advantage. Here, she's arguing for the advantages of cashless payments by showing you the inconveniences of having cash in phrases like 'you won't need to' and 'you won't ever have to'. I also like the phrase 'rummaging through your bags for coins'.

It gives this sense of how cumbersome the nature of physical money is in comparison to cashless payments. In the next paragraph, she highlights cashless payments with the words 'Simple! She finishes off this paragraph with a 'Welcome to the twenty-first century. A lot of us like to think of ourselves as people who are open-minded, open to change and will take up things that are better for us, things that are more convenient for us. So, she's saying that this is it for twenty-first century, join us over here rather than way back when, when we had to use coins. She also highlights 'mobile phone[s]', 'smart watch', 'smart ring' - many things that a lot of people have and this just compounds that idea of, 'yeah, this is a no brainer' essentially.

Why shouldn't you move to cashless payments if you're already immersed in this tech world of having mobile phones, smart watches, smart rings, etc.? She moves into talking about the wider economic context of Australia in this next paragraph. That sense of time I was talking about, comparing the now - the twenty-first century - with a decade ago, you can see that link right here. It's very obvious now. She creates a strong impression of societal inevitability of this technological change, especially because she cites statistics - '70 per cent of household spending was in cash; now it's half of that.

I like that she's bringing in Australia because it also brings in this additional sense of pride on our behalf. We're Australians, we're proud that we've been one of the biggest users of electronic payments in the world, we're the ones who are making waves, we're the ones who are putting our feet forward first. So, you could talk about appeal to patriotism here as well.

It's interesting because here she says that she's a leader, or. What do you think when you think of a leader? Typically for me, I admire leaders. They're somebody I look up to and I want to follow in their footsteps essentially. I like the word 'breeze through', or just 'breeze' because it connects again, back to this idea of convenience with a faster shopping experience, and it is juxtaposed against that cumbersomeness of 'rummaging through Something to think about is: as you analyse an article, you don't just have to analyse it chronologically or talk about it chronologically in your essay either.

If you see things that connect later on, connect them in your essay and put them together, because what you're showing your examiner is that you can see not just the minor details - i. Think about that in a two-step method. There's the zoom in where we're looking at sentence by sentence and what techniques are there, which is basically what we've been doing, but at the same time, you can zoom out and have a look at how the different techniques all come together and work as a whole.

If this is something that you're not too comfortable with just yet, just stick with the chronological order and working through the sort of minor details. And then on your next read, you can read through with the focus of, 'okay, what if I was to look at this from a more holistic perspective? I didn't even look ahead enough, there are more words and more phrases that connect to the idea of convenience and ease. There's a new appeal. It's not necessarily new, it's just a different angle you could come from. If you wanted to talk about the sense of security, that appeal to safety, then you could do that as well. I love when they do this, acknowledging the opposition essentially is what she's doing.

Some of you don't. This not only pulls along the people who are already supportive of her, but she's also trying to pull along those who are a little bit more sceptical of this idea of cashless payments. So let's see, she says,. It's interesting because she is again, building up this position of hers, where she is friendly, she is helpful, she is thoughtful and she cares about her community. Something you could also say, and this is if you're looking at things more pessimistically, is that she's doing this more so for herself.

By saying that these people have three months, there's this unspoken pressure that's happening as well. She's putting pressure on the minority and emphasising the supposed inevitability of a cash-free shopping experience. Even by just saying 'minority' that's in a way applying pressure as well, because it's saying that you are part of this smaller group, the smaller group of people who won't come with us or have not yet come with us, so join us.

There's a very clear expectation that these customers need to adapt and catch up. If you want more, I have also got a fully written up essay based on the articles that we're analysing today in my How To Write A Killer Language Analysis study guide. Plus, there's heaps of sample A-plus essays in there already and heaps of information that I think will be super helpful for you before you move into your SAC.

So please, go ahead and check that out. In year 9, I entered my first public speaking competition, and have been participating in such competitions ever since. I may not have won those, but it got me comfortable standing in front of people without shaking like someone with hypothermia. In fact, I've talked about a few of these in a 'Must Dos and Don'ts' video. If you haven't seen it yet, watch before you read on:. Always remember that practice makes perfect. Practise as much as possible; in front of anyone and everyone including yourself use a mirror. Keep practising until you can recite it. As for cue cards, use dot points. But most importantly, if you mess up, keep going.

Even if you screw up a word or suddenly forget your next point, just take a breath, correct yourself, and keep going. Do not giggle. Do not be monotone. Give it as much energy as it is appropriate for your speech. As you transition through various intense emotions such as anger, happiness and shock, your performance should reflect it. This is achieved in both your tone and your body language moving around.

Speak as if you believe in your contention — with passion. Remember, confidence is key. And also, speak so that the teacher can actually hear you. And it actually does make a huge difference. Think about real life — do you know anyone that stands completely and utterly still when talking to you? I usually just start off looking at the back wall… then as I go through the speech, I naturally turn from one back corner of the room to the other. Also, try not to look down. Take some long, deep breaths and tell yourself that you can do it!

Even though she made a couple mistakes in her speech, she kept going and captivated the attention of the UN. Take a look and be inspired!! What's next? Make sure you've got a great oral presentation topic. We've done all the hard work for you and compiled 20 of the best topics for Access it now! The most overlooked aspect of English is probably the actual reading of your English novel.

Since VCE is about strategy, you should think about how you can maximise your learning while minimising the time spent reading. Some students only read their text once, while others read up to 5 or 6 times! For some one reading may be sufficient but in most circumstances it is definitely not enough. Conversely, reading more than 5 times might be a bit excessive. After asking ex-VCE students who have excelled in English, the overall consensus is that you should read your text 3 times before the English exam.

Reading 1 : The first reading should be done in the holidays prior to your school year. You should take your time with the first reading in order to let the information soak in. Focus on exposing yourself to the characters and themes. If it is a more difficult text to understand such as Shakespeare , rather than pushing through your reading and trying to understand the plot, have a look at study guides first in order to gain a better understanding from the outset. Reading 2 : This should be done while you are studying your text at school.

Using the new information taught in class such as character, theme, context and metalanguage analysis , a second reading will help you build on the knowledge from your first reading. During the reading, you should start to take note of key passages and draw out important quotes. Reading 3 : Your third and final reading is to be completed before your English exam. An ideal time is the term 3 holidays. Since it may have been a while since you studied the text, the third reading is crucial for knowledge consolidation.

You should watch out for things that you missed during first two readings — usually small pieces of information that are unique and when used in essays, will separate you from other students. Remember that the best essays involve interesting and original discussion of the text. Reading 1 : Initial exposure to the text and an idea of what prompts may be asked in SACs and the English exam. Reading 3 : Vital for consolidation prior to the English exam and finding information that will distinguish yourself from other students.

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