Susan B Anthony Research Paper

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Susan B Anthony Research Paper



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Logos in Susan B. Anthony's Suffrage Speech

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Regional Employment May Growing Earnings Inequality in U. May Urban Areas May Area December Anthony and Stanton initiated the project of writing a history of the women's suffrage movement in Anthony had for years saved letters, newspaper clippings, and other materials of historical value to the women's movement. In , she moved into the Stanton household in New Jersey along with several trunks and boxes of these materials to begin working with Stanton on the History of Woman Suffrage. Anthony hated this type of work.

In her letters, she said the project "makes me feel growly all the time No warhorse ever panted for the rush of battle more than I for outside work. I love to make history but hate to write it. She acted as her own publisher, which presented several problems, including finding space for the inventory. She was forced to limit the number of books she was storing in the attic of her sister's house because the weight was threatening to collapse the structure. Originally envisioned as a modest publication that could be produced quickly, the history evolved into a six-volume work of more than pages written over a period of 41 years. The first three volumes, which cover the movement up to , were published between and and were produced by Stanton, Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage.

Anthony handled the production details and the extensive correspondence with contributors. Anthony published Volume 4, which covers the period from to , in , after Stanton's death, with the help of Ida Husted Harper , Anthony's designated biographer. The last two volumes, which bring the history up to , were completed in by Harper after Anthony's death. The History of Woman Suffrage preserves an enormous amount of material that might have been lost forever.

Written by leaders of one wing of the divided women's movement Lucy Stone, their main rival, refused to have anything to do with the project , it does not, however, give a balanced view of events where their rivals are concerned. It overstates the role of Anthony and Stanton, and it understates or ignores the roles of Stone and other activists who did not fit into the historical narrative that Anthony and Stanton developed.

Because it was for years the main source of documentation about the suffrage movement, historians have had to uncover other sources to provide a more balanced view. Anthony traveled to Europe in for a nine-month stay, linking up with Stanton, who had arrived a few months earlier. Together they met with leaders of European women's movements and began the process of creating an international women's organization. Delegates from fifty-three women's organizations in nine countries met in Washington in to form the new association, which was called the International Council of Women ICW.

The delegates represented a wide variety of organizations, including suffrage associations, professional groups, literary clubs, temperance unions, labor leagues and missionary societies. Anthony opened the first session of the ICW and presided over most events. The ICW commanded respect at the highest levels. President Cleveland and his wife sponsored a reception at the White House for delegates to the ICW's founding congress. Anthony played a prominent role on all four occasions. It hosted several world congresses, each dealing with a specialized topic, such as religion, medicine and science. At almost the last moment, the U. Congress decided that the Exposition should also recognize the role of women. After it was over, one of the organizers of the Exposition's congress of women revealed that Anthony had played a pivotal but hidden role in that last-minute decision.

Fearing that a public campaign would rouse opposition, Anthony had worked quietly to organize support for this project among women of the political elite. Anthony increased the pressure by covertly initiating a petition that was signed by wives and daughters of Supreme Court judges, senators, cabinet members and other dignitaries. A large structure called the Woman's Building, designed by Sophia Hayden Bennett , was constructed to provide meeting and exhibition spaces for women at the Exposition.

Two of Anthony's closest associates were appointed to organize the women's congress. They arranged for the International Council of Women to make its upcoming meeting part of the Exposition by expanding its scope and calling itself the World's Congress of Representative Women. Its 81 sessions, many held simultaneously, were attended by over , people, and women's suffrage was discussed at almost every session. According to a co-worker, Anthony, "for the moment as enthusiastic as a girl, waved her handkerchief at him, while the big audience, catching the spirit of the scene, wildly applauded.

After Anthony retired as president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association , Carrie Chapman Catt , her chosen successor, began working toward an international women's suffrage association, one of Anthony's long-time goals. The existing International Council of Women could not be expected to support a campaign for women's suffrage because it was a broad alliance whose more conservative members would object. In , Catt organized a preparatory meeting in Washington, with Anthony as chair, that was attended by delegates from several countries.

The founding meeting was chaired by Anthony, who was declared to be the new organization's honorary president and first member. Later renamed the International Alliance of Women , the organization is still active and is affiliated with the United Nations. Anthony and Stanton worked together in a close and productive relationship. From to , they were together almost every day working on the History of Woman Suffrage. When Stanton arrived at an important meeting in with her speech not yet written, Anthony insisted that Stanton stay in her hotel room until she had written it, and she placed a younger colleague outside her door to make sure she did so.

Their interests began to diverge somewhat as they grew older. As the drive for women's suffrage gained momentum, Anthony began to form alliances with more conservative groups, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union , the nation's largest women's organization and a supporter of women's suffrage. It became a highly controversial best-seller. The NAWSA voted to disavow any connection with it despite Anthony's strong objection that such a move was unnecessary and hurtful. When Stanton died in , Anthony wrote to a friend: "Oh, this awful hush! It seems impossible that voice is stilled which I have loved to hear for fifty years. Always I have felt I must have Mrs. Stanton's opinion of things before I knew where I stood myself. I am all at sea Having lived for years in hotels and with friends and relatives, Anthony agreed to settle into her sister Mary Stafford Anthony 's house in Rochester in , at the age of At age 75, she toured Yosemite National Park on the back of a mule.

She also engaged in local projects. She played a key role in raising the funds required by the University of Rochester before they would admit women students, pledging her life insurance policy to close the final funding gap. In , she spent eight months on the California suffrage campaign, speaking as many as three times per day in more than 30 localities. During the six remaining years of her life, Anthony spoke at six more NAWSA conventions and four congressional hearings, completed the fourth volume of the History of Woman Suffrage , and traveled to eighteen states and to Europe.

Her seventieth birthday was celebrated at a national event in Washington with prominent members of the House and Senate in attendance. Anthony died at the age of 86 of heart failure and pneumonia in her home in Rochester, New York , on March 13, Anthony did not live to see the achievement of women's suffrage at the national level, but she still expressed pride in the progress the women's movement had made. At the time of her death, women had achieved suffrage in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and Idaho, and several larger states followed soon after. Legal rights for married women had been established in most states, and most professions had at least a few women members. Part of the revolution, in Anthony's view, was in ways of thinking. In a speech in , she noted that women had always been taught that their purpose was to serve men, but "Now, after 40 years of agitation, the idea is beginning to prevail that women were created for themselves, for their own happiness, and for the welfare of the world.

We shall someday be heeded, and when we shall have our amendment to the Constitution of the United States, everybody will think it was always so, just exactly as many young people think that all the privileges, all the freedom, all the enjoyments which woman now possesses always were hers. They have no idea of how every single inch of ground that she stands upon today has been gained by the hard work of some little handful of women of the past. Anthony, []. Anthony's death was widely mourned.

Clara Barton , founder of the American Red Cross , said just before Anthony's death, "A few days ago someone said to me that every woman should stand with bared head before Susan B. For ages he has been trying to carry the burden of life's responsibilities alone Just now it is new and strange and men cannot comprehend what it would mean but the change is not far away. In her history of the women's suffrage movement, Eleanor Flexner wrote, "If Lucretia Mott typified the moral force of the movement, if Lucy Stone was its most gifted orator and Mrs.

Stanton its most outstanding philosopher, Susan Anthony was its incomparable organizer, who gave it force and direction for half a century. The Nineteenth Amendment , which prohibited the denial of suffrage because of sex, was colloquially known as the Susan B. Anthony's papers are held in library collections of Harvard University [] and its Radcliffe Institute , [] Rutgers University , [] the Library of Congress , [] and Smith College. Anthony was raised a Quaker , but her religious heritage was mixed. On her mother's side, her grandmother was a Baptist and her grandfather was a Universalist. When the Quakers split in the late s into Orthodox and Hicksites , her family sided with the Hicksites, which Anthony described as "the radical side, the Unitarian".

In , three years after the Anthony family moved to Rochester, a group of about Quakers withdrew from the Hicksite organization in western New York, partly because they wanted to work in social reform movements without interference from that organization. When Susan B. Anthony returned home from teaching in , she joined her family in attending services there, and she remained with the Rochester Unitarians for the rest of her life. Anthony, proud of her Quaker roots, continued to describe herself as a Quaker, however. She maintained her membership in the local Hicksite body but did not attend its meetings.

This group soon ceased to operate as a religious body, however, and changed its name to the Friends of Human Progress, organizing annual meetings in support of social reform that welcomed everyone, including "Christians, Jews, Mahammedans, and Pagans". In , during a period when Rochester Unitarians were gravely impaired by factionalism, [] Anthony unsuccessfully attempted to start a "Free church in Rochester After Anthony reduced her arduous travel schedule and made her home in Rochester in , she resumed regular attendance at First Unitarian and also worked with the Gannetts on local reform projects. Her sister Mary Stafford Anthony, whose home had provided a resting place for Anthony during her years of frequent travel, had long played an active role in this church.

Her first public speech, delivered at a temperance meeting as a young woman, contained frequent references to God. While in Europe in , Anthony helped a desperately poor Irish mother of six children. Noting that "the evidences were that 'God' was about to add a No. Elizabeth Cady Stanton said that Anthony was an agnostic , adding, "To her, work is worship Her belief is not orthodox, but it is religious. I can not imagine a God of the universe made happy by my getting down on my knees and calling him 'great. When an organization offered to sponsor a women's rights convention on the condition that "no speaker should say anything which would seem like an attack on Christianity", Anthony wrote to a friend, "I wonder if they'll be as particular to warn all other speakers not to say anything which shall sound like an attack on liberal religion.

They never seem to think we have any feelings to be hurt when we have to sit under their reiteration of orthodox cant and dogma. As a teen, Anthony went to parties, and she had offers of marriage when she was older, but there is no record of her ever having a serious romance. A child one loves is a constant benediction to the soul, whether or not it helps to the accomplishment of great intellectual feats. As a young worker in the women's rights movement, Anthony expressed frustration when some of her co-workers began to marry and have children, sharply curtailing their ability to work for the understaffed movement.

When Lucy Stone abandoned her pledge to stay single, Anthony's scolding remarks caused a temporary rupture in their friendship. She answered one by saying, "It always happened that the men I wanted were those I could not get, and those who wanted me I wouldn't have. I was very well as I was. When I was young, if a girl married poor, she became a housekeeper and a drudge. If she married wealth she became a pet and a doll. Just think, had I married at twenty, I would have been a drudge or a doll for fifty-nine years.

Think of it! Anthony fiercely opposed laws that gave husbands complete control over the marriage. Blackstone's Commentaries , the basis for the legal systems in most states at that time, stated that, "By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage". In a speech in , Anthony predicted " an epoch of single women. If women will not accept marriage with subjugation , nor men proffer it without , there is, there can be, no alternative.

The woman who will not be ruled must live without marriage. Anthony showed little interest in the topic of abortion. Ann D. Anthony Papers project, an undertaking to collect and document materials written by those two co-workers, said that Anthony "never voiced an opinion about the sanctity of fetal life A dispute over Anthony's views on abortion developed after when some members of the anti-abortion movement began to portray Anthony as "an outspoken critic of abortion", [] citing various statements they said she had made.

The anti-abortion advocacy group Susan B. Anthony List named itself after her on this basis. Gordon, Sherr and others contested this portrayal, saying these statements either were not made by Anthony, were not about abortion, or had been taken out of context. The first memorial to Anthony was established by African Americans. In , a year after Anthony's death, a stained-glass window was installed at the African Methodist Episcopal Zion church in Rochester that featured her portrait and the words "Failure is Impossible", a quote from her that had become a watchword for the women's suffrage movement. It was installed through the efforts of Hester C.

Jeffrey , the president of the Susan B. Anthony Club, an organization of African American women in Rochester. Originally kept on display in the crypt of the US Capitol, the sculpture was moved to its current location and more prominently displayed in the rotunda in In , sculptor Leila Usher donated a bas-relief of Susan B. The US Post Office issued its first postage stamp honoring Anthony in on the 16th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment , which ensured women's right to vote. In , she was inducted into the Hall of Fame for Great Americans ; a bust of her was placed there in that had been sculpted by Brenda Putnam.

New York Radical Feminists , founded in , was organized into small cells or "brigades" named after notable feminists of the past; Anne Koedt and Shulamith Firestone led the Stanton -Anthony Brigade. Since , the Susan B. Anthony Award is given annually by the NYC chapter of the National Organization for Women to honor "grassroots activists dedicated to improving the lives of women and girls in New York City. In , Zsuzsanna Budapest founded the Susan B. Anthony Coven 1 — the first feminist, women-only, witches' coven.

In , she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. Anthony dollar coin, the first US coin to honor a female citizen. The artwork The Dinner Party , first exhibited in , features a place setting for Anthony. Anthony Papers project was an academic undertaking to collect and document all available materials written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Anthony, which began in The project has since been ended. Anthony Memorial Bridge. The place where Anthony and other women led by her voted in now has a bronze sculpture of a locked ballot box flanked by two pillars, which is called the Monument, and was dedicated in August , on the 89th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment.

Leading away from the Monument there is the Susan B. The final plan, however, calls for Alexander Hamilton , the first US Secretary of the Treasury , to retain his current position there. In , Lovely Warren , the mayor of Rochester, put a red, white and blue sign next to Anthony's grave the day after Hillary Clinton obtained the nomination at the Democratic National Convention ; the sign stated, "Dear Susan B. It took another 48 years for women to finally gain the right to vote. Thank you for paving the way. Anthony Museum and House. In , the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in Manhattan, one of the world's largest, added a sculpture honoring Anthony and three other heroes of the twentieth century: Martin Luther King Jr.

Anthony Day is a commemorative holiday to celebrate the birth of Anthony and women's suffrage in the United States. The holiday is February 15—Anthony's birthday. The Susan B. On February 15, , Google celebrated her th birthday with a Google Doodle. On August 18, , President Donald Trump pardoned Anthony for her arrest in after she voted, when it was still illegal for women to vote. The announcement was made on the th anniversary of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , giving women the right to vote. Hester C. Jeffrey , who spoke at Anthony's funeral, and arranged the creation of the first memorial to her. Leila Usher , next to the bas-relief of Susan B. Anthony she donated to the National Woman's Party.

Commemorative stamp of Susan B. Anthony issued in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony disambiguation. Adams, Massachusetts , U. Rochester, New York , U. Women's suffrage women's rights abolitionism. Main article: Trial of Susan B. On the centennial of the Boston Tea Party. See also: Susan B. Anthony abortion dispute. The World. This interview is reprinted along with extensive notes in Gordon pp. Moger, Nancy C. Sorel, Alson D. Van Wagner, Arthur J. Worrall, ed. Syracuse, N. Y: Syracuse University Press. ISBN The Anti-Slavery Impulse— This citation references the edition of a book that was first published in by the American Historical Association.

The Post Standard. Syracuse, NY. February 4, Anthony Papers collection at the Library of Congress. Quoted in McPherson , p. The proposal for more lenient divorce laws was also controversial among women activists. Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved January 21, The League was called by several variations of its name, including the Women's National Loyal League. Anthony's words here have been misquoted in increasingly elaborate ways. Alma Lutz's biography , p. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen, reported , p. And hear me swear that I will cut off this right arm of mine before I will ever work for or demand the ballot for the negro and not the woman. Quoted in Rakow and Kramarae eds. An example of its use to support their wing of the movement is on p.

Bonds," The Revolution , April 9, , p. Quoted in DuBois , p. Stone is speaking here during the final AERA convention in Support for the amendment did not necessarily mean that all AWSA members were free from the racial presumptions of that era. Henry Blackwell , Lucy Stone's husband and a prominent AWSA member, published an open letter to Southern legislatures assuring them that if they allowed both blacks and women to vote, "the political supremacy of your white race will remain unchanged" and that "the black race would gravitate by the law of nature toward the tropics". See Henry B. Blackwell January 15, An American Time Capsule. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 22, Cited in Dudden , p. The high point of Republican support was a non-committal reference to women's suffrage in the Republican platform.

Anthony and the Struggle for Equal Rights. Gordon, pp. The New York Herald. December 17, This article points out that Supreme Court rulings did not establish the connection between citizenship and voting rights until the mid-twentieth century. The New York Times. ISSN Retrieved August 18, Archived from the original on August 21, August 18, Anthony on August 18, ". The National Susan B. Tetrault says she describes the Seneca Falls story as a "myth" not to indicate that it is false but in the technical sense of "a venerated and celebrated story used to give meaning to the world.

Queen Victoria arranged for the Windsor Castle reception, but she was not present at it. International Council of Women. Retrieved January 24, The official who revealed this information was Rachel Foster Avery, an associate of Anthony who served on the organizing committee for the women's congress. The World's Congress of Representative Women. New York: Rand, McNally, pp. She appointed May Wright Sewall as chair and Rachel Foster Avery as secretary of the organizing committee for the women's congress; both were associates of Anthony. Anthony at Columbian Exposition, ".

Anthony Papers Project. Rutgers University. May

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