Rhetorical Analysis Of Speech By Fredrick Douglass

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Rhetorical Analysis Of Speech By Fredrick Douglass



Dental Cleaning Research Paper must Insanity In Shakespeares Hamlet which groups of the population to focus on distribution Rhetorical Analysis Of Speech By Fredrick Douglass, and which period of time to prioritize dynamics. Uruppattur Rangan Academic Division: Management. But the human development and capability approach asks additional questions. This, however, did not Insanity In Shakespeares Hamlet the purpose. Josh Staveley-O'Carroll. The expanded field of Space Weather Study Essay and the intersection of Generative Principle and Insanity In Shakespeares Hamlet.

Rhetorical Analysis Essay (Definition, Thesis, Outline) - EssayPro

And wear the yoke of tyranny Like brutes no more. God speed the day when human blood Shall cease to flow! In every clime be understood, The claims of human brotherhood, And each return for evil, good, Not blow for blow; That day will come all feuds to end. And change into a faithful friend Each foe. That hour will come, to each, to all, And from his prison-house, the thrall Go forth. Expansion and Sectionalism. House Approves Seventeen Amendments August 24, Letter to Mrs. Orville Browning April 01, State of the Union Address December 03, Letter to John Johnston January 12, Letter to John D. Johnston November 4, Letter to John Johnston November 9, Letter to John Johnston November 25, Eulogy of Henry Clay July 06, Means of Elevation A Glance at Ourselves — Conclusion Things As They Are State of the Union Address December 04, Letter to Owen Lovejoy August 11, Letter to Jesse W.

Fell December 20, Slavery and Abolition. The Constitution and the Union March 07, Conquest of Mexico Disquisition on Government National Disfranchisement of Colored People Letter on the Mexican-American War July 01, Missouri Compromise March 06, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo February 02, Number of Slaves in the Territory Enumerated, US Census Bureau. Chapter 3: Labor, Servitude and Slavery. Chapter War with Mexico. Tallmadge in the Congressional Globe February 15, Speech to Congress February 15, Letter to John Holmes April 22, The Webster-Hayne Debates January, To The Public January 01, Truisms January 08, Religion and the Pure Principles of Morality: The October, Lecture Delivered at Franklin Hall September 21, December 06, Appeal to the Christian Women of the South Appeal to Christian Women of the South Slavery a Positive Good February 06, Speech on Abolition Petitions February 06, Protest in Illinois Legislature on Slavery March 03, First Inaugural Address March 04, Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condi Lyceum Address January 27, June 16, Declaration of Sentiments Adopted by the Peace Con September 28, State of the Union Address December 05, Address to the Slaves of the United States June 02, Letter to Richard Pakenham, British Minister to th April 18, The American Union January 10, Annexation July, Letter to Williamson Durley October 03, Wilmot Proviso August 12, Speech on the Mexican War December 16, American Slavery October 22, January 12, Speech on the Oregon Bill June 27, July 14, September 29, Annual Message to Congress December 5, The Address of Southern Delegates in Congress to t February 09, June 08, Uses and Abuses of the Bible November 04, Civil Disobedience Compromise of January 29, Compromise of State of the Union Address December 02, Colored people of Boston Emigration of the Colored People of the United Sta Our Elevation in the United States Letter to Harriet Beecher Stowe March 08, Appeal of the Independent Democrats January 19, Appeal of the Independent Democrats in Congress to January 19, Nebraska Territory January 30, February 24, Fragments on Slavery April 01, Kansas-Nebraska Act May 30, Speech on the Repeal of the Missouri Compromise October 16, October 16, November 22, Broadside Advertisement for Runaway Slave Disunion June 15, The Doom of the Black Power July 27, Letter to George Robertson August 15, Letter to Joshua F.

Speed August 24, The Last Flogging State of the Union Address December 31, Democratic Party Platforms June 18, Dred Scott v. Sandford March 06, Speech on the Dred Scott Decision May, Speech on the Dred Scott Decision June 26, Reply to the Dred Scott Decision June 26, State of the Union Address December 08, Cotton is King March 04, Dred Scott and Disunion March 12, House Divided Speech June 16, Homecoming Speech at Chicago July 09, Speech at Chicago, Illinois July 10, Speech at Springfield, Illinois July 17, Speech in Reply to Douglas at Springfield, Illinoi July 17, Fragment on Slavery August 1, Letter to J.

Brown October 18, Fragment on Slavery December 1, State of the Union Address December 06, African Civilization Society February, Address before the Wisconsin State Agricultural So September 30, Correspondence October, John Brown and the Principle of Nonresistance December 16, State of the Union Address December 19, Republican Party Platform May 17, Republican Party Platform of May, Democratic Party Platform of June 18, Southern Desperation December 16, December 24, Distribution of the Slave Population by State Fragment on the Constitution and Union January, Inaugural Address February 18, Defense of Lincoln May 20, The Folly of Colonization January 09, Social Change and Reform.

Chapter The Nullification Crisis. Temperance Address February 22, Inaugural Address March 04, December, July 10, A Plea for the West The Laboring Classes Record of the Organization and Proceedings of The Massachusetts Lawmakers Investigate Working Condit Declaration of Sentiments July 19, Time Table for Lowell Mills Marriage Protest May 02, Proclamation June 09, Consistent Democracy Address at Cooper Institute February 27, The Significance of the Frontier in American Histo Speech on Preserving the Union Force Bill of March 02, Excerpts from Ratification Documents of Virginia a June 26, An Address…Celebrating the Declaration of Independ July 04, December 19, State of the Union December 08, Remarks in Congress on the "Tariff of Abominations January 25, On the Nullifying Doctrine April 03, State of the Union December 06, Worcester v.

Georgia March 23, Proclamation Regarding Nullification December 10, Epitaph for the Constitution Lyrics to Jackson and the Nullifiers Second Inaugural Address March 04, State of the Union Address December 01, Farewell Address March 04, Spot Resolutions December 12, State of the Union Address December 07, Fragment on Government July 1, An Act to Organize the Territories of Nebraska and Letter to Henry L. Letter to Henry Pierce and Others April 06, September, Sandford March 6, Speech on the Mexican-American War Missouri Compromise Act March 06, Veto Message of the Bill on the Bank of the United Debate on the National Bank Filibuster June, Voter Qualification Law November 16, Message to the Senate Protesting the Censure Resol April 15, Balloting for President Speech on Assuming Office of the President April 09, Religious Views: Letter to the Editor of the Illin August 11, Great Speech of Clay The Seven Stages of the Office Seeker Autobiography Speech at a Republican Banquet December 10, Letter to Lyman Trumbull December 28, Republican Party Platform of May 17, Democratic Party Platform Breckinridge Facti November 06, Commercial Republic.

Address to the Wisconsin State Agricultural Societ The Commercial Greatness of the United States Constitution September 26, Special Message to Congress Proclaiming the Tyler December 30, Estranged Labour and The Communist Manifesto September 14, What a Revival of Religion Is Religious Experience Baconianism and the Bible August 11, Mormonism and Jesuitism October 14, Democratic Party Platform of June, State of the Union Address December 12, State of the Union Address November 16, Speeches on the Removal Power March 07, Speech on the War with Mexico January 12, A test key with the TEKS and Depth of Knowledge for each item to guide interpretation and response to student performance is available. Finally, the materials provide a rubric or scoring guide through a digital link to evaluate their work.

My Captain! The death of President Abraham Lincoln inspired the poem. Similarly, students write a poem in which they pay tribute to someone they respect or admire, either real or imaginary. During the reading, students annotate rhetorical devices in the Notice and Note activity. Identify where similar language is repeated later in his speech. What is the effect of this repetition? The materials also provide a test key that contains TEKS and depth of knowledge for each question. They provide differentiated instructions to meet the needs of a range of learners to ensure grade-level success. Comprehensive plans are included for teachers to engage students in multiple grouping and other structures. The Teacher Edition materials include annotations and support for engaging students in the materials and support for implementing ancillary and resource materials and supporting student progress components.

Annotations and ancillary materials provide support for student learning and assistance for teachers. The lessons throughout the units develop gradually from easy to complicated and offer differentiated opportunities to engage students in multiple grouping structures. The materials provide a summary and adapted text version. The publisher provides annotations through signposts to engage students while reading and assist teachers in their teaching. The materials provide an adapted version of the text that contains background information, a summary, and chunk and highlight specific parts of the reader.

The materials include implementation support for both teachers and administrators. The materials divide the Scope and Sequence into the following categories: Analyze and Apply, Collaborate, and Compare. It also provides the teacher with a clear instructional process aligned with the mastery of skills required by the state of Texas. The objectives are arranged based on their arrangements in the units and lesson. Finally, this Scope and Sequence document shows how the knowledge and skills spiral and connect across each grade level. The Administrator report shows overall results for each grade level, broken down by performance level, as well as at-a-glance comparisons between data from the Beginning-of-Year, Middle-of-Year, and End-of-Year tests.

The materials divide the school year into six units with lessons each. The materials include appropriate white space and design that supports and does not distract from student learning. The materials use simple color schemes, such as shades of yellow, blue, and red. Students can highlight text to draw attention to words or phrases; they highlight yellow, which is not overwhelming to students. The visual design is neither distracting nor chaotic. Charts and tables use light borders that separate them from the text but do not distract. Pictures are clear with neat lines and sharp colors. Below the title is a visual of science-fiction-looking scenery with jagged mountains against multiple giant moons. A beige band follows with author information and a headshot.

Caduto and Joseph Bruchac, there is a photo of a man fishing in a mountain stream, a photo of the co-authors, a photo of salmon jumping upstream, an etching of a salmon, and a mother holding her baby in her lap. The image is black and white on a yellow background. The title is written in big, bold white font against a blue background on top of the page, providing immediate visibility. Below the title is a photo of Harriet Tubman.

These activities also provide some digital response boxes and charts to support student learning. The last photo is one of a frustrated mom looking at her daughter on her cellphone. The technology components included are appropriate for grade level students and provide support for learning. This overview provides opportunities for teachers to see the full range of resources included in the Into Literature product, the formats in which they are available, and where to find them online in HMH Ed.

The teacher and student editions promote and enhance student participation through the interactive activities and digital response components embedded in the lessons. Students are given opportunities throughout lessons to type in or select answers and get immediate feedback. The technological design of the platform is uniform across the lessons, units, and grade levels, thereby giving students the same routine to navigate e. Students easily navigate page to page with a side arrow and click on underlined words to view glossary entries.

In the Notice and Note sections, students jot their thinking for various tasks and questions. Information that might need more explanation includes a blue hyperlink that navigates students to supplementary materials such as Writing Studio for further teaching and examples. The option to print notes is a feature offered by the materials. The publisher offers both a hard copy and an electronic copy of the text Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, by Frederick Douglass in Unit 4. Read the Full Report for Technology pdf, Read the Full Report for Pricing pdf, Site Support Help.

Download the Rubric Rubric pdf Download the Full Review Review pdf Quality Review The quality review is the result of extensive evidence gathering and analysis by Texas educators of how well instructional materials satisfy the criteria for quality in the subject-specific rubric. Our Process. Overview Section 1. Texts The sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade materials include high-quality texts across a variety of text types and genres as required by the TEKS. The materials describe their approach to text complexity as a blend of quantitative and qualitative analyses resulting in a grade-band categorization of texts.

The sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade materials include a variety of text types and genres across content as required by the TEKS. Texts are appropriately challenging and are at an appropriate level of complexity to support students at their grade level. Section 3. Literacy Practices and Text Interactions The materials provide students the opportunity to analyze and integrate knowledge, ideas, themes, and connections within and across texts using clear and concise information and well-defended text-supported claims through coherently sequenced questions and activities.

The materials provide students the opportunity to analyze the language, key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts. The materials provide opportunities for students to build their academic vocabulary across the course of the year. The materials include a plan to support and hold students accountable in independent reading. The materials provide students the opportunity to develop composition skills across multiple text types for varied purposes and audiences. The materials provide opportunities for students to apply composition convention skills in increasingly complex contexts throughout the year. The materials provide opportunities for students to engage in both short-term and sustained inquiry processes throughout the year.

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Section 6. The materials include annotations and support for engaging students in the materials as well as annotations and ancillary materials that provide support for student learning and assistance for teachers and administrators. Section 7. Additional Information The publisher submitted the technology, cost, professional learning, and additional language supports worksheets. Evaluation for 2. Materials provide questions and tasks for students to both develop and deepen comprehension of texts and topics. Students demonstrate grade- level literacy skills through reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking opportunities that require use of text evidence for response.

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Section 7 Additional Information Additional information including technology components; cost worksheet; professional learning opportunities; and additional language supports. Mrs Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was elected President, becoming the first ever democratically elected female president in Africa see also Chapter In many circumstances this is true, but not always and not necessarily. Empirical evidence shows no automatic connection between a high GDP per capita and the ability of people to flourish. Table 1. Yet people live longer. Women are more literate. Fewer children die prematurely, and basic political rights and civil liberties such as the right to vote and the freedom of expression and association are fully respected. The contrast between the Russian Federation and Costa Rica yields similar conclusions: Russia is wealthier, but its inhabitants live much shorter lives in a much more constrained political environment.

While Morocco has a higher GDP per capita than Vietnam, its illiteracy and infant mortality rates are much higher. The discrimination against women, as measured by the difference between the adult literacy and adult female literacy rate, is also much higher. When countries are arranged according to the Human Development Index — a composite index which measures progress in economic conditions, life expectancy and literacy — the wealthier countries in terms of GDP per capita are not necessarily better off when human dimensions such as health and education are taken into account. Saudi Arabia and Russia, the two richest countries of Table 1. Another widespread assumption is that not being poor in terms of income means not suffering from a lack in other matters too, such as health and education.

However, empirical data often tell another story. In a pioneering study comparing different conceptualizations of poverty in Peru and India, Ruggieri, Saith and Stewart concluded that those who were poor in terms of income were not necessarily the same people who were poor in terms of education or nutrition. They obtained the following results: in India, 65 per cent of children who belonged to households below the monetary poverty line were not educationally poor that is, were enrolled at primary school. In Peru, 93 per cent of children belonging to monetary poor households were not educationally poor, and 66 per cent were not nutritionally poor.

However, 43 per cent of children in India who did not belong to monetary poor households were not enrolled at school. And 53 per cent of children from non-monetary poor families suffered malnutrition. In recent years, India and China have been celebrated as economic successes. It has therefore been assumed that sustained, high economic growth rates have had a tremendous impact on other kinds of poverty. The rather counter-intuitive and disconcerting truth is that, at present, the expected spill-overs have been fairly scarce with respect to several key variables.

Consider child malnutrition, which is one of the most critical indications of how well a country is doing. India has experienced 15 years of boundless economic growth. Yet, in —, 47 per cent of children under the age of 3 were undernourished weight for height was used as an indicator of malnutrition. In —, that number remained resiliently and unacceptably high, at 46 per cent of all children under 3 remaining malnourished. Similarly, in —, 58 per cent of children under 3 years of age had not received complete vaccinations; by —, that number had barely decreased at all — 56 per cent of children were still not fully vaccinated.

And anaemia had risen from 75 to 79 per cent in those same years. Critics of non-monetary indicators of development argue that income and expenditure data are the most reliable indicators of development. But, in fact, income and consumption or expenditure data are subject to a number of serious and widely-recognized difficulties. Income data in developing countries are often considered less accurate than consumption data, and are also more volatile hence, less reflective of sustained living standards Deaton, Also, both consumption and income data have to be gathered item by item with varying recall periods, leading to potential errors. In addition, much consumption may be from non-market sources public services, NGOs and community-based groups, home-grown food, home-made clothes, fire wood or dung collected, etc.

Another assumption is that non-monetary indicators are of weak quality. However, the coverage and quality of non-monetary data has in fact improved tremendously in the last two decades. Regularized household surveys in developing countries have increased steadily since the s, and the international pressure of meeting the MDGs has further accelerated this trend. Furthermore, a number of efforts to strengthen the capacities of national statistical offices have led to an increase in sample and data quality. Granted, the data are far from perfectly accurate, but analyses of poverty and deprivation increasingly draw on non-income variables as well as assets, consumption or income see Chapter 6.

Economic growth has been the focus of considerable study, policy prescriptions, strategies and political attention. But it has proven to be far more difficult to realize than most anticipated. In —98, median per capita income growth in developing countries was 0. Developing country growth should have increased instead of decreased, according to the standard growth regression determinants of growth. Easterly, , p In other words, although some economic growth policies had been implemented, they did not necessarily result in growth or economic development.

Indeed, some South and East Asian countries had achieved growth through very different mechanisms. Although many country experiences and insights were involved in the study, several central themes emerged. One was that the s and s had overlooked one determinant of growth of central importance: institutions see Chapter 7. The Commission on Growth and Development examined the countries that achieved high and sustained growth to establish what had caused it, and found considerable diversity in strategies.

Indeed, one of the advantages of human development achievements is that, as section 1 suggested, they can be sustained even by countries with relatively low incomes, and during economic downturns. This assumption has been challenged by a study by Ranis, Stewart and Ramirez , who demonstrated that countries that have experienced economic growth but whose population continue to suffer from low levels of education and health were not able to sustain that growth in the long term. Conversely, some countries with low levels of income per capita have been able to provide an environment in which their inhabitants could attain good educational and health standards.

Ultimately, the only countries that were able to sustain growth were those that had previously invested in the health and education of their people. That education and health are instrumental in promoting economic growth is not however the sole reason for investing in these sectors, as Chapter 9 will discuss. The next chapter presents the basic concepts of this people-centred approach to development. Draw a picture of your own conception of development. What possible positions might people take on each of these issues?

How might they defend their respective positions? What information or assumptions do they rely upon? What value judgements would they implicitly be making? This could be done as a role-playing exercise, where different parties defend their position taking into account their own respective value judgements. Can you give examples from your experience where a different normative framework would have led to other policy priorities and outcomes? With kind permission of Gabriela Drinkwater, from the Peru Support Group, for reproduction of the material. The document is available at www. Crocker, D. Easterly, W. Gore, C. Preston, P. Qizilbash, M. Rist, G. Ranis, G. Cowen, M.

Deaton, A. Gasper, D. Goulet, D. Keynes, J. Ruggeri Laderchi, C. A functioning is being or doing what people value and have reason to value. Well-being cannot be reduced to income, or happiness or any single thing. Four key principles are: equity, efficiency, participation and sustainability. Public debate can be useful. Let us start with two oversimplifications. Consider first an approach to development in which the objective is to achieve and sustain high rates of economic growth. In this situation, the unit of analysis is evident: the economy. This may be the national economy or the economy of a particular region or sector. The currency of assessment is also clear: income now and in the future.

Trade-offs, such as between environment protection and employment creation, or between this generation and the next, are resolved by market prices, exchange rates and discount rates; in some cases prices may be corrected for social, environmental and distributional concerns. Now consider an approach to development in which the objective is to expand what people are able to do and be — what might be called their real freedoms. It puts people first. In this view, a healthy economy is one that enables people to enjoy a long and healthy life, a good education, a meaningful job, physical safety, democratic debate and so on.

Notice two shifts from the earlier approach: first, the analysis shifts from the economy to the person. Second, the currency of assessment shifts from money to the things people can do and be in their lives, now and in the future. In both situations, trade-offs surface. Policy must consider which groups of the population to focus on distribution , and which period of time to prioritize dynamics. While each perspective takes a fundamentally different objective, they are not totally distinct; they overlap. And those focused on sustained growth still concern themselves with healthy, educated and skilled workers, and some modicum of peace and stability. Yet as has been discussed in the previous chapter, normative frameworks and ideas about what matters have enormous practical implications.

This chapter describes the second perspective, the people-focused one, otherwise known as the human development and capability approach. Human development has been pioneered by different people under different names and at different times. It is equally applicable in developed and developing countries. Later sections will present his foundational work and its basic terms and concepts. But, before moving to these, we begin by offering an overview of the key elements of human development. The idea of human development has been circulated in policy circles and public debate for the past two decades, with various degrees of persuasiveness, incisiveness and accuracy.

The first report was published in , and all reports seek to articulate the human development perspective on one set of issues. In addition to the annual global report, roughly different countries are producing their own National and Regional Human Development Reports today, with some of these countries producing state or provincial reports as well. These reports are intended to assess the quality of life of a population and be an advocacy tool for its improvement. In assessing the state of a population from a people-centred perspective, these reports have the political purpose of raising awareness and generating debate on public issues and concerns which would otherwise not be on the political agenda.

The following quote, taken from a speech given by Robert F. Kennedy on 4 January , encapsulates the limitations of GDP as a measure of what makes life valuable:. The Gross National Product of the United States is the largest in the world, but that GNP, if we should judge our nation by that, counts air pollution and cigarette advertising and ambulances to clear the highways of carnage. It counts special locks for our doors and jails that break them. It counts the destruction of our redwoods and the loss of our natural wonder and chaotic sprawl. It counts napalm and the cost of a nuclear warhead and armoured cars that fight riots in our streets. Yet the gross national product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education or the joy of their play.

It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our wit nor our courage, neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country. It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile.

In so doing, the appraisal of income growth itself is altered altogether. The limited value of income and wealth has been recognized for centuries. That people matter does not mean that income does not. Income is obviously an important instrument in enabling people to realize their full potential. A year old boy who wishes to pursue secondary education and become a doctor might have his dreams blighted by the fact that he has to work instead, in order to help pay health bills incurred by other family members. But income is not everything. The year old would not have to work if there were adequate public health services for low-income families. And, in some cases, income does not help. A girl born in a well-to-do family might have her dreams of becoming a lawyer blighted because her family and community think it improper for her to work outside the home.

In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. People often value achievements that do not show up at all, or not immediately, in income or growth figures: greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, more secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violence, satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms and a sense of participation in community activities. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives.

The human development paradigm covers all aspects of development — whether economic growth or international trade; budget deficits or fiscal policy; savings, investment or technology; basic social services or safety nets for the poor. All aspects of life — economic, political or cultural — are viewed from that perspective. Economic growth therefore becomes only one subset of the human development paradigm. On some aspects of the human development paradigm, there is fairly broad agreement:. It regards economic growth as essential, but emphasizes the need to pay attention to its quality and distribution, analyses at length its link with human lives and questions its long-term sustainability.

As these are very rich concepts, we will take time in the next section to introduce these terms with care. For the moment, let us continue with our swift tour through ideas of human development, by noting one feature: choices relate to our values and we have different values and often disagree, so human development also is, fundamentally, engaged in an ongoing conversation about what it would be most valuable for us to do next. This issue of values is critical in the human development approach. What are the valuable choices that public policy should promote? Who defines what is valuable? How are deep disagreements resolved?

What about values that seem reprehensible, ill-informed or harmful? Because of human diversity itself, our respective values tend to be somewhat heterogeneous. The UK is the fourth largest global economy but a UNICEF report on child well-being in rich countries concluded that UK children had the lowest level of well-being among industrialized nations. This type of analysis helps people clarify what their values are, and what they might wish to change. In , a British TV channel brought a group from the small Pacific island of Vanuatu to make an anthropological study of British people. They could not grasp why people would pass each other like objects and rush like bees in a busy beehive. One of the central goals of human development is enabling people to become agents in their own lives and in their communities.

People themselves decide upon what kind of development they would like for themselves. When people and social groups are recognized as agents, they can define their priorities as well as choose the best means to achieve them. Agency and the expansion of valuable freedoms go hand in hand see Box 2. In order to be agents of their own lives, people need the freedom to be educated, to speak in public without fear, to have freedom of expression and association, etc. But it is also by being agents that people can build the environment in which they can be educated and speak freely, etc.

The perspective of human development incorporates the need to remove the hindrances that people face through the efforts and initiatives of people themselves. The claim is not only that human lives can go very much better and be much richer in terms of well-being and freedom, but also that human agency can deliberately bring about radical change through improving societal organization and commitment. These are indeed the two central ideas that give cogency to the focus on human development. That focus relates, on one side, to a clearer comprehension of how — and in what ways — human lives can go much better and, on the other, to a fuller understanding of how this betterment can be brought about through a strengthening of human agency.

The human development approach is inherently multi-dimensional and plural see Box 2. While, in practice, most policies focus on one or several components of human development, the approach itself is potentially broad. It is about education as much as it is about health. It is about culture as much as it is about political participation. It deals with fiscal policy as much as health policy — higher taxes on alcohol and cigarettes could be as effective in giving people opportunities to live long and healthy lives as spending more on health services. It deals with agricultural policies as much as it deals with exchange rate policies — the devaluation of a currency may do more to promote exports and provide farmers with greater opportunities to earn a decent income than farm subsidies.

It deals with educational policy as much as gender, environmental, industrial or technological policy. It can therefore not be subsumed under one single academic discipline. It encompasses many disciplines, including economics, law, sociology, history, public policy, political science and philosophy. What does human development accounting, in fact, do? What is its special feature, its identifying characteristic? This is, at one level, an easy question to answer. It brings an inescapably pluralist conception of progress to the exercise of development evaluation. Human lives are battered and diminished in all kinds of different ways, and the first task, seen in this perspective, is to acknowledge that deprivations of very different kinds have to be accommodated within a general overarching framework.

The framework must be cogent and coherent, but must not try to overlook the pluralities that are crucially involved in the diverse nature of deprivations in a misguided search for some one measure of success and failure, some single clue to all the other disparate concerns. Now we turn to the process. Mahbub ul Haq identified four procedural concerns or principles which have been used repeatedly in applying human development.

They are: equity, efficiency, participation and sustainability. Of course other principles such as responsibility or respect for human rights also matter. But we will start with these four because they are often used: 8. It is related to, but different from, the concept of equality, which implies equality of all people in some space. In human development, equity draws attention to those who have unequal opportunities due to various disadvantages and may require preferential treatment or affirmative action. For example, the poor, differently-abled, women, ethnic minorities and other disadvantaged sections of the population may need special measures to enable them to have the same level of capabilities. From a human development perspective, efficiency is defined as the least cost method of reaching goals through the optimal use of human, material, environmental and institutional resources to expand capabilities for individuals and communities.

When applying this principle, one must conceive of efficiency in a dynamic context since what is efficient at one point in time may not necessarily be efficient in the long run. It is about the freedom to make decisions in matters that affect their lives; the freedom to hold others accountable for their promises, the freedom to influence development in their communities. For example in the reform of an education system, human development would consider and try to draw upon the agency of children, parents, teachers, the local community, teachers unions, NGOs, the media, the ministry of education, the finance ministry, social movements and advocacy groups for education, and so on.

Whether at the level of policy-making or implementation, this principle implies that people need to be involved at every stage, not merely as beneficiaries but as agents who are able to pursue and realize goals that they value and have reason to value. Environmental sustainability implies achieving developmental results without jeopardizing the natural resource base and biodiversity of the region and without affecting the resource base for future generations. Financial sustainability refers to the way in which development is financed without penalizing future generations or economic stability.

For example, development should not lead countries into debt traps. Social sustainability refers to the way in which social groups and other institutions are involved and support development initiatives over time, and avoid disruptive and destructive elements. Cultural liberty and respect for diversity are also important values that can contribute to socially-sustainable development. These four principles are not exhaustive, and later chapters consider the rights-based approach, and aspects of justice and responsibility, in greater detail. But these complete the swift mapping of human development. The next section focuses in further on key terms. And he outlined for the first time his conception of capabilities, which has been developed in greater detail since.

This section introduces the capability approach — its key terms, its contrast to other approaches and how various components interrelate. An essential test of development is whether people have greater freedoms today than they did in the past. They are also related to goods and income but describe what a person is able to do or be with these. Formulations of capability have two parts: functionings and opportunity freedom. We start with functionings, which are being and doing activities that people value and have reason to value. For example, being nourished, literate and employed. However, functionings are not limited, which is why the human development approach applies to rich and poor countries, and to rich and poor people.

Functionings also include playing a virtuoso drum solo, having a good reputation and a warm circle of friends. In the end he suggested that living standards encompass all valued functionings. So functionings relate to many different dimensions of life — including survival, health, work, education, relationships, empowerment, self-expression and culture. It sounds abstract but is of tremendous practical importance. First, functionings are things people value. This encourages the participation and engagement of those people whose lives are at stake, in order to ascertain whether they will value changes that might ensue. The capability approach introduces value judgements explicitly. In fact some people do value activities that are harmful, such as a psychopath who values the triumph of the kill as much as the victim would value not being killed.

The issues that will be contentious are many and include female genital mutilation, domestic violence, censorship, discrimination, air travel and so on. The capability approach raises the issue of what process, group, philosophical structure or institution has the legitimate authority to decide what people have reason to value. But while the capability approach argues that public debate and critical scrutiny are often helpful, it stops well short of proposing one particular process as relevant in all contexts, and rather depends on the agency of people acting in those contexts to address these questions themselves and build up and share their repertoire of good practices.

Capabilities are the freedom to enjoy valuable functionings. So they combine functionings with a kind of opportunity freedom. Just like a person with a pocket full of coins can buy many different combinations of things, a person with many capabilities can elect between many different functionings and pursue a variety of different life paths. For this reason, the capability set has been compared to a budget set. Capabilities are thus described as the real and actual possibilities open to a given person. Truly evil or utterly vacuous activities are not capabilities although they still exist and must be reckoned with, as we shall see.

Box 2. These people go to apartment buildings and neighbourhoods to buy used things that people no longer want. This merchandise can vary from clothing, electronic appliances and tableware to CDs and toys. The profit in this business lies in buying things at a very low price and later going to open-air markets and selling them at a higher price. So the second-hand goods dealer is a collector of useless things that he can occasionally improve, which he then sells in various markets. This was because he and his mother were left on their own. His brothers and sisters had married and no one was there to help out with the household expenses. One day, I saw Jorge through the window and I invited him in to see what merchandise he had.

Jorge: Well, yes, but there is no other way. What does this simple story illustrate? Jorge did not have the functionings required to be healthy and this restricted his possibilities of promoting his services and receiving a decent income. Not having good health is also limited by the lack of instrumental freedoms, such as financial means and social security. For instance, Jorge had no access to affordable health services. So how can he buy medicine if he gets sick?

What else could I do? Through the years, a number of common misunderstandings of the capability approach, and relatedly of human development, have emerged. This section describes misunderstandings regarding the role of choice , and the extent of individualism. The phrase has the advantage of being simple English. It is usually more important to be able to choose a career than to be able to choose between an array of rival brands of toothpaste, and human development needs to identify which choices are valuable.

Often people value having to make only a few good choices, rather than many cumbersome choices. Actually the capability approach recognizes that the goal is not to expand the number of choices — it is to expand the quality of human life. People also sometimes value making some choices together — as a family or a community — and not individually. Also, in fact many capabilities are necessarily the outcome of joint process, not individual decisions. Furthermore, most choices affect more than one person and many are often made after discussion and consultation with others.

Indeed, many capabilities can only be created and sustained by people acting together. To clarify in what sense the capability approach focuses only on individuals it is useful to distinguish three kinds of individualism, only the first of which is advanced by the capability approach Robeyns, , p; , p90 all quotes :. Many presume that the capability approach is individualistic because it focuses on what individual people not groups can do and be. Also, many choices are made by groups, not individuals.

The capability approach thus does not defend methodological or ontological individualism. The reason Sen supports ethical individualism is that if the smallest fundamental unit of moral concern is any group, such as the family, the social group or the community, then analyses will systematically overlook any existing or potential inequalities within these units. For example, the deprivations particular to women and children have regularly been overlooked by analyses that focus on the household. Only if we probe into the well-being of each person do we have the possibility of discovering the relative under-nutrition, or subordination, of women.

A disagreement remains among a group of authors within the capability approach about the sufficiency of ethical individualism. Critics have questioned whether a rejection of ontological individualism is consistent with a commitment to ethical individualism. When human beings live together, they generate something truly collective, which is more than the sum total of their individual lives and cannot be reduced to individual characteristics. Assessing states of affairs only to the extent that they have a positive or negative effect on the well-being of each individual is therefore insufficient.

According to this argument, an orchestra performance has an intrinsic value even if some members are forced to play. The architectural beauty of pyramids in Egypt and medieval cathedrals in Europe provide other examples of irreducibly social goods which are of positive value to some, even if built by oppression and with terrible human cost. That trade-off is clearly contested, with those supporting irreducibly social goods implicitly giving a greater weight to the generations that use and enjoy a good, and others arguing for a greater weight — or even for human rights, hence certain absolute protections — to be given to those whose capabilities are curtailed by the activity. While a nuanced consideration of individual capabilities seems sufficient to evaluate a state of affairs, recognizing the vital role of social norms, groups, movements and social institutions is essential for developing policies to advance capabilities.

We shall return to this point shortly when we discuss the prospective or policy role of the human development and capability approach. The focus of development and policy is then to make people free to enjoy some combination of functionings, allowing them to expand their capabilities. But, some people wonder, why should we focus on freedoms so much? Do poor people really want to have the freedom to avoid hunger and discomfort? Do they not simply want to avoid hunger and discomfort? Here are two of many reasons why freedom is important. First, if we only focus on expanding functionings, we could do so by force, coercion, domination or colonialism.

Most basic needs can be met in a prison, for example. Indeed, some countries have used force to advance functionings: for example, forced sterilization or the forced isolation of people who are HIV-positive. Focusing on freedom draws attention to social development and the value of empowerment, responsibility and informed public action. Also, reasonable people sometimes choose to be deprived in one area of life in order to enjoy another kind of goodness. A person who is fasting is in a state of under-nutrition, which may seem very similar to starvation. But, in the one case, the fasting person could eat, although she chooses not to, whereas the starving person would eat if he could.

Similarly, a student who could live well if he worked may instead endure poor and overcrowded housing conditions so that he might obtain a degree. People should be free to refrain from a functioning for good reasons if and when they so choose. Second, the notion of capability is also closely related to that of freedom. Freedom, he argues, has two aspects: opportunity and process. The notion of capability refers to the opportunity aspect of freedom, while the notion of agency, which is explained below, refers to the personal process of freedom. The third core concept of the capability approach is agency.

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