How Does Technology Affect Terrorism

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How Does Technology Affect Terrorism

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Tech against terrorism

This is attributable to the fact that crime is "qualitatively different from being the victim of an accident or disease, because it includes someone deliberately or recklessly harming you" Shapland and Hall, , p. For the sake of completeness, both the potential physical and psychological consequences of terrorism are highlighted here. See e. The physical consequences of terrorism-related acts and violations can include broken bones, soft tissue injuries, disability, long-term, chronic pain and sensory disturbance.

Victims may experience visceral symptoms, including cardiovascular and respiratory difficulties, intestinal and urological problems and genital complaints IRCT, a , Part C, sects. I, II and VI. They may also suffer somatic symptoms, including headaches and back pain Hoge, Where abuses have included rape or other forms of sexual violence, survivors may also experience gynaecological, rectal and internal haemorrhaging Tompkins, , p. Medical consequences can include the contraction of sexually transmitted disease including HIV and other chronic infections, cervical cancer directly linked to HPV, or Genital Human Papilloma Virus infection, see Ghoborah, Huth and Russet, pp.

At a psychological level, trauma can engender "a metamorphosis of the psyche… mental decomposition and collapse" Vinar, , p. This in turn can affect a survivor's sense of self Kira, , p. Man-made trauma, such as that associated with terrorism, can shatter core beliefs, including belief in the world as a just place 'the existential dilemma' Herlihy and Turner, , p. Survivors of terrorist acts - such as hostage taking, hijacking or kidnapping - may experience fear, shock, anxiety, shame, guilt and self-blame, anger, hostility, rage and resentment Schmid, , p. Survivors may also suffer grief for the loss of others and the self, anxiety, depression including suicidal ideation , emotional numbness and difficulties in recollection Brewin, , pp.

Some victims may also experience post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD which, in addition to depressive symptoms, may also include intrusive phenomena such as flashbacks and nightmares, and which may persist for months or years Shapland and Hall, , p. Others criticize the diagnosis because it does not reflect the political, societal or cultural context of abuse suffered by victims Herman, , pp. For others still, PTSD is the 'medicalization' of what they understand to be a natural response to a deeply traumatic experience Becker, Research conducted on the effect of terrorist attacks on victims has revealed that acts of terrorist violence often produce high proportions of significantly affected victims, i.

Similarly, a study conducted by Bleich et al. It was found that the level of exposure and objective risk of an attack were not related to stress Erez, , p. One explanation for this is that any victim of crime may suffer consequential effects as a response, which includes "changes in perceived risk of future victimisation" Shapland and Hall, , p. As Schmid has observed, "[t]he degree of terror as well as the resilience of the individual survivor play a role [in the degree of symptoms experienced as a result of terrorist attacks. Where abuse has included forms of sexual violence, survivors may also experience sexual dysfunction, fear of intimacy, self-loathing and rejection of their body, which in turn can engender self-injurious behaviour Yohani and Hagen, , pp.

In addition to the psychological impact of terrorism-related violations experienced at an individual level, affected societies may suffer collective trauma which is particularly the case where attacks are targeted against a particular group or community. See Alexander, , who explores the development of social and cultural trauma; see also Weine, , p. In such a situation, the sense of group identity and allegiance is heightened Aroche and Coello, , p. Because of that heightened allegiance, when the group, or members of it, are attacked, it may collectively experience symptoms of psychological trauma De Jong, , p.

Manifestations of trauma at a societal level can include varying forms of community dysfunction. Abuses such as torture or ethnically-targeted violence may create "an order based on imminent pervasive threat, fear, terror, and inhibition,… a state of generalized insecurity, terror, lack of confidence, and rupture of the social fabric" Lecic and Bakalic, , p. Societies that witness the perpetration of atrocities such as war rape and other forms of violence against community and family members may experience severe trauma Hagen and Yohani, , p.

Collectively, communities enter into shock, which is compounded by grief for the loss of the victim through either death, the debilitating physical and psychological impact of the violation, or, in the case of rape, familial and community rejection Yohani and Hagen, , pp. Whilst the perpetration of atrocities can generate trauma at the individual and societal levels, the respective nature of individual and collective trauma may differ. Individual and collective trauma reactions can be influenced by factors such as the specific targeting of abuse and the duration or intensity of the stressor. These factors in turn affect the degree of life threat - i. In particular, individually-targeted violations are more likely to represent a threat of imminent death than a repressive, longer-term and chronic stressor targeted at a specific community Modvig and Jaranson, , p.

Notably, while mass conflict or a prevailing threat of terrorist attack is recognized as having a widespread, psychological impact upon society, its effects will not necessarily be uniform, but will be dependent upon the extent to which specific groups were affected Aroche and Coello, , p. Far from being conceptualized discretely, however, individual and societal forms of trauma are understood as interlinked and interdependent trauma responses. Gross violations of human rights can affect the individual not only as an individual per se , but also as a member of a community or of society more generally. In particular, community or societal allegiance or affiliation, as aspects of social and cultural identity, form part of the individual's personal identity system.

Clinical literature describes a 'layering' of trauma, reflecting to some extent the 'victimization circles' referred to above, such that an individual, as a member of a particular group or of society more broadly, may experience the first phase of the traumatisation process with the onset or increase in group repression or persecution which may include elements of social and political change. The period during which the individual personally becomes a victim of serious human rights violations marks the second phase in the traumatisation process. Many terrorist fight for the certain aim and similar in view of the Freedom Fighter.

The equipment which was used by the freedom fighter and terrorism. They both work for certain aim and the ways for destabilizing the administrator system are same. The Reality is that the freedom fighter and terrorist are two different things. The freedom fighter aim to free the country from foreigner while terrorist aim to be the destabilized the government and country break in many parts. So there is such difference between the freedom fighter and terrorist. The second myth is that the objective of the anti terrorism laws to secure the people of India from the terrorist activities and end up the terrorist activates. Also gave punishment to terrorist. In section 3 of Terrorist and Disruptive Activates Act, define terrorist act and set up punishment for this. Section 3 states that Whoever with intent to overawe the Government as by law established or to strike terror in the people or any section of the people or to alienate of the people or to adversely affect the harmony amongst different sections of the people does any act or thing by using bombs, dynamite or other explosive substances or inflammable substances or lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other chemicals or by any other substances of a hazardous nature in such a manner as to cause, or as is likely to cause, death of, or injuries to, any person or persons or loss.

The punishment for these activites is life imprisonment or death sentence and fine etc. Section 3 of Prevention of Terrorism Activites, states that with intent to threaten the unity, integrity, security or sovereignty of India or to strike terror in the people or any section of the people does any act or thing by using bombs, dynamite or other explosive substances or inflammable substances or firearms or other lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other chemicals or by any other substances whether biological or otherwise of a hazardous nature or by any other means whatsoever, in such a manner as to cause, or likely to cause, death of, or injuries to any person or persons or loss of, or damage to, or destruction of, property or disruption of any supplies or services essential to the life.

The Reality is that aim of the anti terrorism laws is secure the people from the terrorist activites and gave punishment to terrorist. But many times when laws made the terrorist activites increased in India. It is normally said that terrorism is a low intensity war. But the loss, which our country has suffered in the last two decades due to the rise of terrorist activities, has been on a very large scale we have lost more then people by the terrorist activites. Outside the expenditure on our armed forces, merely for maintaining the entire set up to fight insurgency, to fight cross-border terrorism, the economic cost itself has been Rs crore.

The budgetary increase itself in the last 15 years, because of terrorism or anti-insurgency activities, has been 26 times. So that after making anti terrorism legislation there is no stopping of terrorist attack. The anti terrorism legislation also failed to gave punishment to terrorist. In many times the anti terrorism laws not gave punishment due to some problem. In case of Afzal Guru, an accused in assaulted in attack on Indian parliament and gave death sentence by the supreme court but the punishment not given due to excuse application is pending before the president.

This things shows loopholes of Indian system so liberal before those criminal who attack the Temple of democracy in India. Similar in case of Ajmal Kasab , one of the terrorist who attack the mumbai on and killed the hundreds person. There is one year happened to this event but till not given punishment by anti terrorism legislation. The terroist who killed many person during attack and accused by our brave soldiger but our anti terrorism legislation unable to give punishment due to loophole in our system.

In case of Sanjay Dutt Vs. State through C. But sanjay dutt is not punished. That give example in loophole in laws. The Third myth is that the provisions of anti terrorism legislation violated the fundamental right given by the constitution. It violated the basic human right of human being. The person who is arreseted under. So this provision clearly shows violationof accused right to life and liberty and speech and expression and also violation of human right. A study of TADA and POTA would disclose that the legislature had the sole object of suppressing the voices of dissent or to deal with the political opponents so that they do not become people's movements.

These legislation's have been from time to time framed and mis-used in the beginning in one state or the other , but when the majority of the Indian citizens chose to not to raise their voice against such repressive laws, these laws were mis-used in the whole of the country. For example, TADA when it was originally introduced and passed in the Parliament, the excuse was to contain the elements who demanded a separate home land for the Sikhs and were considered by the interested parties to be a threat to national security.

In the garb to contain the movement, the Act which was introduced mainly for Punjab was by and large mis-used in all the states till it was finally allowed to lapse and die its own death in April, , but before its death, it ruined lives of thousands of innocent citizens, not only in Punjab, but also in various parts of the Indian State. Though the Act is no more in force after April, , but even today in the State of Punjab there are around fifty cases of TADA being tried in the various courts. Also the misuse the power by police officer.

In case of Kartar Singh v. In this case the accused arrested by the misuse of power by the police officer. To cite an instance, while TADA was enacted to protect the security and integrity of the country by fighting with militants in Punjab, it was applied to even Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat where there was no threat to national security nor there were similar armed groups fighting for their right to self determination, as was the situation in Punjab The Reality is that this is true that the misused of TADA and POTA in very widely.

But there is need of anti terrorism legislation in India. The usual arguments that are trotted out against an anti-terrorism law are that the law is misused, that acts of terrorism could not be prevented even when we had such a law, and that the existing laws are adequate to deal with terror. All these are specious. If a law is misused, the answer lies in punishing those who abuse its provisions and not dismantling the law itself.

The Arms Act, the Narcotics Act and a host of other laws are also misused. This also had a sunset provision of two years from 24 May It was renewed in , and before being allowed to lapse in due to increasing unpopularity after widespread allegations of abuse. The Act's third paragraph gives a very thorough definition of " terrorism ":. The law gave wide powers to law enforcement agencies for dealing with national terrorist and 'socially disruptive' activities.

Under this act police have no rights to give third degree or harassed anyone to speak as mentioned in the act. The Act was widely criticised by human rights organisations as it contained provisions violating human rights. The number of people arrested under the act had exceeded 76,, by 30 June The Supreme Court has held that mere membership of a banned organisation does not make the member liable for the punishment under this Act. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An Act to make special provisions for the prevention of, and for coping with, terrorist and disruptive activities and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Asian L.

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