What Does The New Jim Crow Mean
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An Introduction to Michelle Alexander's The New Jim Crow - A Macat Sociology Analysis
Apartheid also sparked huge forced migrations of the African population to designated areas that the government set up so they would be far away from the white population. Violence during Apartheid as a police truck looks on. Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance and violence as well as a long arms and trade embargo against South Africa. Since the s, a series of popular uprisings and protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti-apartheid leaders.
As unrest spread and became more effective and militarized, state organisations responded with repression and violence. This, along with the sanctions placed on South Africa by the West made it increasingly difficult for the government to maintain the regime. Eventually, in the s, talks from the ruling majority were in place to end Apartheid culminating in the first multi-racial elections of , that Mandela won and it was here that Apartheid was finally abolished. Like America, whites enjoyed privileges unfounded by their black counterparts. Most people that have not lived in South Africa will likely only think there is white and black here. I certainly did. There is much more than that. In fact, the diversity of races here rivals that of America and its first world counterparts to my huge surprise.
There is a large Indian population here that were brought here hundreds of years ago into indentured servitude. Asians from China, and South East Asia came here for similar reasons and unlike America, where they deported Chinese railroad workers after their service was done, these populations stayed. South Africa may be the only third world country with this much racial diversity. There are four races in this country; White, Black, Indian, and Colored.
For all the Americans out there, that last one probably stands out. Colored is such a derogatory term in America that when I heard it for the first time here, I had that look of awkwardness and worried. Colored, in fact, is just the racial classification that was used for mixed raced individuals. Not necessarily from each other, but just from the white population. Black Africans, being the vast majority, had it the worst and walking around the museum really highlighted some of these facts.
Both countries openly discriminated against its black population and made it a point to exclude them from the happenings of the country. Nevertheless, there are some noticeable differences between the two. Without a doubt, one of the key differences was that Apartheid was setup as a national policy of racism and segregation passed down from the highest levels of government with writing in the countries constitution.
Jim Crow laws in America were set up as largely informal laws that everyone in the South accepted following the abolishing of slavery. Further, in efforts to prevent Blacks from moving out of the homelands, the government enacted pass laws, which required all Blacks to carry identification documents and also prohibited unemployed Blacks from entering the main cities of South Africa. In fact, one of the main reasons this damn city is so big and a car is necessary is because they designed the cities to be so spread out to keep blacks from easily accessing the areas where whites lived.
Many countries around world rallied against Apartheid like this picture from the UK. In America, it was the majority discriminating against the minority and in South Africa, it is the minority discriminating against the majority. The black population of America were all slaves at one point brought over to the new world hundreds of years ago. South Africa was a completely different situation. All of Africa was colonized except Ethiopia but after WW2, all these countries achieved their independence from their European occupiers.
Those same occupiers largely left their former feudal states. South Africa, on the other hand, was home to many Dutch and British settlers that came to the country in search of a new life similar to that of America in the s. They never left as South Africa became their new adopted home. The local languages endured and so did its culture.
While the Civil Rights movement called on all Blacks and Whites to embrace each other on the basis that everyone was American, it was made a little easier because everyone spoke the same language, practiced the same religion, and shared the similar history of settling a new land. Even amongst the blacks in SA, there are multiple languages spoken making it hard for the country to rally around one unifying message of togetherness. I really believe that this is the main difference between Apartheid and Jim Crow.
Blacks may have been seen as below whites in America, but it was harder to deny them as being Americans. In South Africa, there was less patriotic rallying around one flag. Not sure where this picture is from, but I saw it all over the museum depicting how violent this era was. MLK seemed to fully advocate peaceful protests during the civil rights movement. There were some events that turned violent like Birmingham, Alabama where many Black protesters were beaten police and sprayed with high pressure fire hoses. South Africa seemed to have many more violent events in its Apartheid history. Two that stood out to me were the Sharpeville Massacre in the 60s and the Soweto school uprisings in the 70s where cops literally opened fire on people protesting peacefully killing hundreds, not unlike the Tienanmen massacre of students in China in So after that little history lesson, how is South Africa now??
The crazy thing about going to the Apartheid museum was remembering just how recent all this stuff was. Apartheid did not end until ! Meaning everyone that I know grew up during a time when Apartheid practices were still in place. I do live in Johannesburg, the cosmopolitan, new age, global center of Africa. The younger generation have fewer recollections as the worst of Apartheid was long gone as the 90s approached. Fast forward 20 years to the present day and how is it now? However, the fact remains that the people here are all very different to each other that you still see much separation based on races. A perfect example would be heading to the News Cafe and the Baron, two bars in Sandton. These bars are no more than meters from each other.
Post Apartheid, the SA government instituted Employment Equity laws, giving priority for education and jobs to the less represented groups of people, ultimately to counter-act the effects of Apartheid. This is very similar to America as well with one big difference. Although not common to see a child beggar, it is quite common to see mothers with their young children begging.
Nevertheless, even with these affirmative action type policies, the effects of Apartheid will be felt for generations to come. Although now equal in terms of political representation, there is still widespread poverty and a clear income divide between races. I also think being in Joburg gives me a skewed sample of life post Apartheid. I better forget this when I move back to the states. In the very broad and grand scheme of things, I think each race keeps to themselves.
Located in the southern part of Johannesburg, the Apartheid museum was established in to illustrate the hardships faced during the Apartheid era and a general history of 20th century South Africa. About a minute drive from the northern suburbs, the museum is easily accessed via car by going on the M1 highway and taking exit 5 just south of Joburg. There are also plenty of day tours that bundle the Apartheid museum in the morning, followed by a tour of Soweto in the afternoon. Another way to get here is via the hop on hop off, CitySightseeing bus. This bus makes numerous stops within Joburg and Soweto, with buses coming and going every 30 minutes giving you enough time to explore every stop at your own pace.
Cost of admission is 65R. Chafe says "protective socialization by black people themselves" was created inside the community in order to accommodate white-imposed sanctions while subtly encouraging challenges to those sanctions. Known as "walking the tightrope," such efforts at bringing about change were only slightly effective before the s. However, this did build the foundation for later generations to advance racial equality and de-segregation. Chafe argued that the places essential for change to begin were institutions, particularly black churches, which functioned as centers for community-building and discussion of politics. Additionally, some all-black communities, such as Mound Bayou, Mississippi and Ruthville, Virginia served as sources of pride and inspiration for black society as a whole.
Over time, pushback and open defiance of the oppressive existing laws grew, until it reached a boiling point in the aggressive, large-scale activism of the s civil rights movement. Board of Education of Topeka , U. The decision had far-reaching social ramifications. Racial integration of all-white collegiate sports teams was high on the Southern agenda in the s and s. Involved were issues of equality, racism, and the alumni demand for the top players needed to win high-profile games.
First they started to schedule integrated teams from the North. Finally, ACC schools — typically under pressure from boosters and civil rights groups — integrated their teams. In , Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama. This was not the first time this happened — for example, Parks was inspired by year-old Claudette Colvin doing the same thing nine months earlier  — but the Parks act of civil disobedience was chosen, symbolically, as an important catalyst in the growth of the Civil Rights Movement ; activists built the Montgomery bus boycott around it, which lasted more than a year and resulted in desegregation of the privately run buses in the city.
Civil rights protests and actions, together with legal challenges, resulted in a series of legislative and court decisions which contributed to undermining the Jim Crow system. The decisive action ending segregation came when Congress in bipartisan fashion overcame Southern filibusters to pass the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of A complex interaction of factors came together unexpectedly in the period — to make the momentous changes possible. The Supreme Court had taken the first initiative in Brown v.
Board of Education making segregation of public schools unconstitutional. Enforcement was rapid in the North and border states, but was deliberately stopped in the South by the movement called Massive Resistance , sponsored by rural segregationists who largely controlled the state legislatures. Southern liberals, who counseled moderation, were shouted down by both sides and had limited impact. King organized massive demonstrations, that seized massive media attention in an era when network television news was an innovative and universally watched phenomenon.
National attention focused on Birmingham, Alabama, where protesters deliberately provoked Bull Connor and his police forces by using young teenagers as demonstrators — and Connor arrested on one day alone. The next day Connor unleashed billy clubs, police dogs, and high-pressure water hoses to disperse and punish the young demonstrators with a brutality that horrified the nation. It was very bad for business, and for the image of a modernizing progressive urban South. President John F. Kennedy, who had been calling for moderation, threatened to use federal troops to restore order in Birmingham. The result in Birmingham was compromise by which the new mayor opened the library, golf courses, and other city facilities to both races, against the backdrop of church bombings and assassinations.
In Alabama in June Governor George Wallace escalated the crisis by defying court orders to admit the first two black students to the University of Alabama. Doctor King launched a massive march on Washington in August , bringing out , demonstrators in front of the Lincoln Memorial, the largest political assembly in the nation's history.
The Kennedy administration now gave full-fledged support to the civil rights movement, but powerful southern congressmen blocked any legislation. Johnson formed a coalition with Northern Republicans that led to passage in the House, and with the help of Republican Senate leader Everett Dirksen with passage in the Senate early in For the first time in history, the southern filibuster was broken and The Senate finally passed its version on June 19 by vote of 73 to It guaranteed access to public accommodations such as restaurants and places of amusement, authorized the Justice Department to bring suits to desegregate facilities in schools, gave new powers to the Civil Rights Commission ; and allowed federal funds to be cut off in cases of discrimination.
Furthermore, racial, religious and gender discrimination was outlawed for businesses with 25 or more employees, as well as apartment houses. The South resisted until the last moment, but as soon as the new law was signed by President Johnson on July 2, , it was widely accepted across the nation. There was only a scattering of diehard opposition, typified by restaurant owner Lester Maddox in Georgia. In January , President Lyndon Johnson met with civil rights leaders. On January 8, during his first State of the Union address , Johnson asked Congress to "let this session of Congress be known as the session which did more for civil rights than the last hundred sessions combined.
The disappearance of the three activists captured national attention and the ensuing outrage was used by Johnson and civil rights activists to build a coalition of northern and western Democrats and Republicans and push Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of United States US By , efforts to break the grip of state disenfranchisement by education for voter registration in southern counties had been underway for some time, but had achieved only modest success overall. In some areas of the Deep South, white resistance made these efforts almost entirely ineffectual.
The murder of the three voting-rights activists in Mississippi in and the state's refusal to prosecute the murderers, along with numerous other acts of violence and terrorism against black people, had gained national attention. Finally, the unprovoked attack on March 7, , by county and state troopers on peaceful Alabama marchers crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge en route from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery , persuaded the President and Congress to overcome Southern legislators' resistance to effective voting rights enforcement legislation. President Johnson issued a call for a strong voting rights law and hearings soon began on the bill that would become the Voting Rights Act. The Voting Rights Act of ended legally sanctioned state barriers to voting for all federal, state and local elections.
It also provided for federal oversight and monitoring of counties with historically low minority voter turnout. Years of enforcement have been needed to overcome resistance, and additional legal challenges have been made in the courts to ensure the ability of voters to elect candidates of their choice. For instance, many cities and counties introduced at-large election of council members, which resulted in many cases of diluting minority votes and preventing election of minority-supported candidates. In , the Roberts Court removed the requirement established by the Voting Rights Act that Southern states needed Federal approval for changes in voting policies.
Several states immediately made changes in their laws restricting voting access. The Jim Crow laws and the high rate of lynchings in the South were major factors that led to the Great Migration during the first half of the 20th century. Because opportunities were so limited in the South, African Americans moved in great numbers to cities in Northeastern, Midwestern, and Western states to seek better lives. Despite the hardship and prejudice of the Jim Crow era, several black entertainers and literary figures gained broad popularity with white audiences in the early 20th century. African-American athletes faced much discrimination during the Jim Crow period.
White opposition led to their exclusion from most organized sporting competitions. The boxers Jack Johnson and Joe Louis both of whom became world heavyweight boxing champions and track and field athlete Jesse Owens who won four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin earned fame during this era. In baseball, a color line instituted in the s had informally barred black people from playing in the major leagues , leading to the development of the Negro leagues , which featured many fine players. A major breakthrough occurred in , when Jackie Robinson was hired as the first African American to play in Major League Baseball; he permanently broke the color bar.
Baseball teams continued to integrate in the following years, leading to the full participation of black baseball players in the Major Leagues in the s. Although sometimes counted among "Jim Crow laws" of the South, statutes such as anti-miscegenation laws were also passed by other states. Anti-miscegenation laws were not repealed by the Civil Rights Act of , but were declared unconstitutional by the U. Supreme Court the Warren Court in a unanimous ruling Loving v.
Virginia The Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution grants criminal defendants the right to a trial by a jury of their peers. While federal law required that convictions could only be granted by a unanimous jury for federal crimes, states were free to set their own jury requirements. All but two states, Oregon and Louisiana, opted for unanimous juries for conviction. Oregon and Louisiana, however, allowed juries of at least 10—2 to decide a criminal conviction. Louisiana's law was amended in to require a unanimous jury for criminal convictions, effective in Prior to that amendment, the law had been seen as a remnant of Jim Crow laws, because it allowed minority voices on a jury to be marginalized.
In , the Supreme Court found, in Ramos v. Louisiana , that unanimous jury votes are required for criminal convictions at state levels, thereby nullifying Oregon's remaining law, and overturning previous cases in Louisiana. In , the U. Supreme Court the Burger Court , in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education , upheld desegregation busing of students to achieve integration. Interpretation of the Constitution and its application to minority rights continues to be controversial as Court membership changes.
Observers such as Ian F. Lopez believe that in the s, the Supreme Court has become more protective of the status quo. There is evidence that the government of Nazi Germany took inspiration from the Jim Crow laws when writing the Nuremberg Laws. Ferris State University in Big Rapids, Michigan , houses the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia , an extensive collection of everyday items that promoted racial segregation or presented racial stereotypes of African Americans , for the purpose of academic research and education about their cultural influence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the original character created c. For other uses, see Jim Crow disambiguation. State and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States.
General forms. Related topics. Allophilia Amatonormativity Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege Woke. Main article: Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction era.
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Williams John N. Tillman Ambrose H. Sevier, Jr. Florida Georgia Thomas E.Thomas More Satire to see here: Just Coincidental Collateral Damage. Her wide grin, hearty laugher, and loyal The 1956 Suez Crisis were offered as evidence of Elie Wiesel Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech Analysis supposed humanity of the What Does The New Jim Crow Mean fall of constantinople 1453 slavery. Category United States portal. Germans just Thomas More Satire the police out of the way at this point.