Comparing Anger In The Aeneid And The Iliad

Monday, April 11, 2022 2:19:39 AM

Comparing Anger In The Aeneid And The Iliad



Such Eassy On Happiness structure is fairly common in Gray's verse. He spells Brave New World Archetypal Analysis same word without e in l. Oxford: Oxford UP, [1st ed. Pros and cons of fox hunting chariot The Fashion Industry In The 1920s pulled by a pair of her sacred deer. The story begins with the onset Elements Of Fantasy Literature Circe's life, and then flows through her different life stages using the Alpha Gamma Sigma Reflection Essay mesmerizing Elements Of Fantasy Literature, allowing us Alpha Gamma Sigma Reflection Essay Silent Film Analysis through Brave New World Archetypal Analysis her experiences. The Hekatonkheires.

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Mencken tells us why TV couldn't replace newspapers [literature, books, technological change, Gresham's Law] The Prisoners' Dilemma -- and our own moral dilemma [philosophy, psychology, ethics] In which we rebuild the Ise Shrine for the 60th time [Japan, Japanese, Shinto, architecture, religion] Of mentors and servants: Will books survive the electronic communications media? Taylor] Will digital clocks win out over clocks with hands and faces?

Lewis gives us an object lesson in medieval history [Tolkien, religion, philosophy, literature, teaching] Socrates, and the technologies of democracy, in the Agora [Greece, Athens, random selection, Acropolis, Parthenon, philosophy, Rockefeller] In which power and gold shape California [Sutter, Lienhard, Marshall, water wheel, Pelton wheel, metallurgy, Watt, Boulton, Boswell] Paper and CD-ROM encyclopedias shoot it out. Who wins? But physics remembers. Bill draws a whole generation back into the mainstream of American life [education, government spending, military, handicaps] The Library of Congress: how just over volumes shaped America in [books, printing, librarianship, cataloging, Jefferson, Madison, government] Watching microwave transmission towers forming a new metaphor for the communications age [electricity, antennas, AM radio, FM radio, television] John Forbes Nash Jr.

Powell seeks racial equity in the skies [Black, transportation, race, flying, airplanes, flight, war, military, Tuskegee Airmen, Coleman] The remarkable tale of Bessie Coleman, first Black woman to fly [Black women, flight, flying airplanes, race, Texas] Was there once a first language? Washington and its safe old cog railway [meteorology, sport, mountain climbing, weather, risk] The invention of eyeglasses ca.

Thoughts on creativity and timelessness [water clocks, Jesuit missionaries, China, psychology] Discovering Neptune: whom, if anyone, should we credit? Army, U. Navy, arctic] Matthew Boulton makes Sheffield silver plate -- and steam engines [Watt, metalurgy, manufacturing, art] Redating paleolithic technologies backward in time [archaeology, paleontology, cloth, fabric, weaving, ceramics, clay, anthropology, toolmaking] In which Don Quixote says, "Facts are the enemy of truth. Augustine, theology] A surprising answer to the question, "How much risk is really acceptable to us?

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Wells, Orson Wells, public radio, radio tubes, Hindenburg, communication, media] Flora Haines Loughead, social change and airplanes [women, airplanes, aeroplanes, flight, St. Washington cog railway, thermodynamics, treadmill, penology, punishment, industrial energy consumption] What did the ancients eat? Kennedy, Republican, Feminist, women, birth control, suffrage] Thoughts on blowing hot and cold [blowing hot and cold, thermodynamics, gas dynamics, folklore, consistency, Wright Brothers, Bible, adiabatic depressurization] Summer, Bohr, Planck, Einstein, Brooke, and Duchamps [Duchamps, bohr, Einstein, Planck's quantum mechanics, modern painting, impressionists, Nude Descending a Staircase, Rupert Brooke, Grantchester, summer of , art, physics, cubism, artists, reality] Mind Reading: An exclusively human ability [psychology, a theory of the mind, mind reading, human attributes, self-awareness] Miriam Leslie: like Gloria Steinem, Clare Boothe Luce, and Elizabeth Taylor all rolled into one [feminists, women's suffrage, Frank Leslie, Miriam F.

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Kelley, General William H. WordStar word processors, jets] I didn't have a choice -- or did I? Messerschmitt Michelson, charge on an electron, Planck's constant, League of Nations, Nobel Prize in physics] The screwdriver: archetype of subtle obviousness [screwdriver, obvious, screwheads, invention] Reflections upon the tyranny of twentieth-century time [time, clocks, rhythm of life, American industry, industrialization, Mick Jagger] Alexander W. Brandon's, and my father's, old surveying book [Civil War, Alexander W. Thomas Aquinas, St. Albert the Great, economics, St. The last word in AD Wells, Ray Bradbury, The Lake House , The Time Traveler's Wife , determinism, free will, time paradoxes, the butterfly effect] Are we really happy when we're young and sad when we're old?

Arts and Crafts: The perfect marriage of opposite [industrial arts, arts and crafts movement, crastsmanship, education, manufacturing] Revolution: rewriting all things, rewriting time itself [Fabre d'Eglantine, French Revolution, Saint Just, St. Cooper, Fred Noonan conspiracy theories] Henry Selby Hele-Shaw, and the many faces of yesterday's engineer [Henry Selby Hele-Shaw, engineer, Tay Bridge disaster, engineering education, fluid mechanics, Hele-Shaw flow, viscosity, potential flow, boundary layer, clutch, early automobiles, Benz, clutch design, drag reduction, shark porpoise skin] Trucks, the important quiet cousins of our fancy automobiles [GMC CCKW ton truck, Carl Benz, Cugnot's steam dray, hauling goods, John Mack, Komatsu dump truck, wheelers] John Fitch, a steamboat builder surrunded by the early makers of America [John Fitch, early America, Thomas Paine, steamboat, jet propolusion, Benjamin Franklin, John Hall, James Rumsey, George Washington, iron bridges, 18th-century revolution] Proof and Belief: Are they related?

Augustine [Liszt, Petrarch, St. Miller, Aerostat, airplane, aeroplane] Who were the Irish long ago? Tambora killed 70, people and gave rise to the novel Frankenstein [volcanoes, Mt. Ruiz, Mt. Helens, Vesuvius, Joseph Smith, Mt. Thomson, electron, neutron, proton, orbitals, Neils Bohr, teaching] Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin and the Golden Apples of the Sun [Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Ray Bradbury, Golden Apples of the Sun, spectroscopy, composition of the sun, iron, hydrogen, helium, Harlow Shapely, Arthur Eddington, astrophysics, Harvard, women] Last places on Earth -- a new way to look at things [last places on Earth, Niger, quality of life, Dongba language, pictographs, Aral Sea, environment, ecology, land management, dinosaur extinctions, meteor, Ludlow, CO, Swains Island, ham radio, Tofa language] Fighting the home-vido format wars: Who will win?

Coade's remarkable stones [Margaret Culbertson, artificial stone, Mrs. Ferry and the persistence of illumination [Ervin S. Ferry, Ferry-Porter Law of critical fusion, optics, ophthalmology, optometry, vision, persistence of sight, intrumentation, measurement, laboratory, Purdue University, Uppsala, engineering, automobile torpedo, Gyrodynamics, gyroscopic control, gyroscope, quantum mechanics] Revisiting the Commons in a rapidly changing world [ The Tragedy of the Commons, Crediton, Garrett Hardin, socialism, ownership, jefferson, Morrill Act, public education lending libraries, copyleft, copyright, Internet, Wikipedia] Prussian Blue and the House of Berger [Prussian Blue green, Thomas Lewis Berger, Louis Steinberger, lapis lazuli, Dippel, M.

Woodward, J. Hume and history being forgotten [The Mary D. Hume, Gold Beach, Oregon coast, ships, cargo boats, steamers, feral cat rescue, Rogue River jet boats, sea lions, fishing, seagulls, preservation and decay] Timbuktu: The romance and reality of a Renaissance intellectual center [Africa, Black, books, manuscripts, science, caravans, commerce, education] In which the Cairo's ghost rises from the Yazoo mud [Civil War, ship, steamboat, gunboat, war, anthropology, archaeology, war, army, navy, Union, Confederate, domestic technology, James Eads, St.

Vickers Vimy, flying the Atlantic, Turnabout, movie scripts, WW-I, torpedo boats, literature] The rise and demolition of New York's first skyscraper [Ditherington Flax Mill, Tower Building, Montgomery Schuyler, skyscrapers, Chicago, New York City, Flatiron Building, Monadnock Building, Bradford Gilbert, Daniel Burnham, architecture, Home Insurance Building, demolition, preservation] The Platonic "regular" solids: mathematics and divinty [Solid geometry, Platonic regular solids, Euclidean geometry, Johannas Kepler, cosmology, solar system, religion] It's moving day for a hundred thousand bees [honey bees, University of Houston campus, apiary, beekeeprs, environment, pollination, ecology, agriculture, insects, entymology] Music, creativity, and anarchy: accomplishment arising from the ground up [chamber music, anarchy, creativity, invention, organization, leadership, jazz, St.

It is not probable that Gray was steadily working at it all these years, even if he did begin it in For interesting conjectures as to causes that inspired the poem, see Gosse , Life of Gray , pp. Gray was in no more haste to publish the poem than he had apparently been to complete it. After June, , it was circulated in manuscript among his firends, and only an accident hastened its publication.

An editor of the Magazine of Magazines , a cheap periodical, sent word to Gray that he was about to print it, and naturally the author did not care to have a poem of this nature make its entrance into the world by so obscure a by-path. He therefore had it published anonymously on February 16, , by the great London publisher, Dodsley. The Elegy leaped immediately into enormous popularity.

Edition followed edition in rapid succession; it was translated into living and dead languages; and - a sure evidence of popularity - it was repeatedly parodied. The facts as to its publication, etc. Gosse curiously contradicts himself on pp. Bradshaw, [1st ed. In the winter of , after the death of his aunt, Mary Antrobus, Gray resumed it at Cambridge, and finished it at Stoke early in June, ; and on the 12th of that month he sent a copy of it in MS.

On the 10th of February, , Gray received a letter from the editors of the ''Magazine of Magazines,'' asking permission to publish it. He thereupon wrote next day to Walpole, as follows: - ''Cambridge, Feb. Yesterday I had the misfortune of receiving a letter from certain gentlemen as their bookseller expresses it , who have taken the 'Magazine of Magazines' into their hands. They tell me that an ingenious Poem, called 'Reflections in a Country Church-yard,' has been communicated to them, which they are printing forthwith; that they are informed that the excellent author of it is I by name, and that they beg not only his indulgence , but the honour of his correspondence, etc.

As I am not at all disposed to be either so indulgent, or so correspondent as they desire, I have but one bad way left to escape the honour they would inflict upon me; and therefore am obliged to desire you would make Dodsley print it immediately which may be done in less than a week's time , from your copy, but without my name, in what form is most convenient for him, but on his best paper and character; he must correct the press himself, and print it without any interval between the stanzas, because the sense is in some places continued beyond them; and the title must be, - 'Elegy, written in a Country Church-yard.

If you behold the 'Magazine of Magazines' in the light that I do, you will not refuse to give yourself this trouble on my account, which you have taken of your own accord before now. If Dodsley do not do this immediately, he may as well let it alone. It was anonymous, and contained these prefatory remarks by Walpole: - Advertisement. It is this Approbation which makes it unnecessary for me to make any Apology but to the Author: As he cannot but feel some Satisfaction in having pleas'd so many Readers already, I flatter myself he will forgive my communicating that Pleasure to many more. The poem was at once reproduced in the magazines; it appeared in the ''Magazine of Magazines'' on the 28th of February, in the ''London Magazine'' and in the ''Scots' Magazine,'' on the 31st of March, and in the ''Grand Magazine of Magazines'' on the 30th of April.

Mason says that Gray ''originally gave it only the simple title of 'Stanzas written in a Country Church-yard,' '' but that he ''persuaded him first to call it an Elegy, because the subject authorized him so to do, and the alternate measure seemed particularly fit for that species of composition; also so capital a poem written in this measure, would as it were appropriate it in the future to writings of this sort. Peter's College, Cambridge, and a friend of Gray's , who, at his death in , left the greater portion to Pembroke College, and the remainder to his friend Mr.

Bright, - each set containing a copy of the ''Elegy. The collection left to Mr. Bright was sold by auction in ; the MS. Rolfe calls this the ''Fraser MS. Gosse refers to it as the ''Mason MS. As this MS. Tovey, [1st ed. Though I am aware that, as it stands at present, the conclusion is of a later date; how that was originally, I have shown in my notes on the poem. Of the MS. The MS. Gray added his after-thoughts without effacing the lines for which he meant to substitute them: this is characteristic of him, for he had a great aversion to erasure. That he could not have intended the second and fourth of these stanzas to remain is clear, because they are remodelled in ll.

When Gray sent the poem to Walpole in , he could congratulate himself that the 'thing' had really an end to it, both as compared with its previous state and with the fragmentary Agrippina. Walpole did not at first accept the account of the date of the poem, submitted to him by Mason before the Memoirs of Gray went to press. He writes, Dec. Walpole was surely complaisant , if Mason induced him, against his better memory, to admit that the Elegy could have been concluded, in any sense, in What evidence could Mason have adduced that it was even begun in this year? Not certainly the testimony of Gray himself, for if Mason could have relied upon that he would have let us know it. He must, I think, have persuaded Walpole that the three or four opening stanzas were not, as Walpole supposed, written shortly before he saw them, but, like the fragment of Agrippina , had long been laid aside.

But would not Gray have told Walpole this, and would not Walpole, whose own impressions receive much confirmation from Gray's hints to Wharton in , have recollected it? If, as seems probable, Gray gave Walpole these opening stanzas not by letter, but when the reconciled friends were together, whether in '45 or in the summer of '46, when he was at Stoke and 'seeing Walpole a great deal' to Wharton Aug. And that Mason's notions of the date of the Elegy were in no way modified by what Walpole told him, leads one to mistrust those notions altogether. However this may be, there can be no doubt that a goodly part of the Elegy was composed at intervals between August 13, , and June 12, Lastly, Gray's heading to the Pembroke MS.

Of the Elegy there are three copies in Gray's handwriting extant; the one mentioned already, which may be considered as the rough draft; this was purchased in by Sir Wm. I have never seen it, for when I consulted the Wharton Letters there, the Elegy had been taken out for exhibition. Of the third, the MS. Many therefore of the Various Readings here recorded are given on the faith of previous editors.

Walpole was so delighted with the Elegy that he showed it about in manuscript with the result that it got into the hands of the enterprising publisher. Accordingly Gray wrote to Walpole from Cambridge, Feb. Yesterday I had the misfortune of receiving a letter from certain gentlemen as their bookseller expresses it who have taken the Magazine of Magazines into their hands. As I am not at all disposed to be either so indulgent, or so correspondent, as they desire, I have but one bad way left to escape the honour they would inflict upon me; and therefore am obliged to desire you would make Dodsley print it immediately which may be done in less than a week's time from your copy, but without my name, in what form is most convenient for him, but on his best paper and character; he must correct the press himself, and print it without any interval between the stanzas, because the sense is in some places continued beyond them; and the title must be, - Elegy, written in a Country Churchyard.

If he would add a line or two to say it came into his hands by accident, I should like it better. If you behold the Magazine of Magazines in the light that I do, you will not refuse to give yourself this trouble on my account, which you have taken of your own accord before now. Dodsley in Pall-Mall; And sold by M. Cooper in Pater-noster-Row. Anstey Esq. Once more from Stoke, on June 12, , Gray writes to Walpole, ''I have been here a few days where I shall continue a good part of the summer and having put an end to a thing, whose beginning you have seen long ago, I immediately send it to you.

You will I hope look upon it in the light of a thing with an end to it; a merit which most of my writings have wanted, and are likely to want. Walpole could not have seen the 'beginning' of it at an earlier date than Nov. The following Poem [ The following Poem came into my hands by Accident, if the general Approbation with which this little Piece has spread, may be call'd by so slight a Term as Accident. The Editor. He pretends to have been one of many readers into whose hands the poem accidentally fell, and to have taken the same unwarrantable liberty with it, which had in fact been taken by the Magazine of Magazines.

The plain truth might easily have been told as to the circumstances which led to its publication by Dodsley, without any sacrifice of the anonymity which Gray desired. And how does a poet indifferent to fame and money prevent the surreptitious publication of his works, by making the public believe that the offence has been twice committed with no remonstrance on his part? His real injury is the issue of a bad text; his only remedy the issue of a text revised by himself.

Such remedy Macaulay took when an unauthorized edition of his speeches, deformed by ridiculous blunders, was published by Vizetelly. Such remedy Gray did not take; with a consequence of which he could not reasonably complain. He writes to Walpole from Cambridge on Ash Wednesday, ''You have indeed conducted with great decency my little misfortune ; you have taken a paternal care of it, and expressed much more kindness than could have been expressed [? But we are all frail; and I hope to do as much for you another time. Nurse Dodsley has given it a pinch or two in the cradle, that I doubt it will bear the marks of as long as it lives. But no matter; we have ourselves suffered under her hands before now; and besides, it will only look the more careless and by accident as it were.

I thank you for your advertisement, which saves my honour, and in a manner bien flatteuse pour moi , who should be put to it even to make myself a compliment in good English. But the worst of an affectation pushed as far as he pushed it, is that it leads to much bewilderment, and a good deal of superfluous lying. The 'pinches' were more severe than I supposed. See Gray to Walpole, Mar. There is no interval between the stanzas, but the first line of every stanza is indented.

Gray took ample pains in the long run that the world should know what he had really written. I imagined too that so capital a Poem, written in this measure, would as it were appropriate it in future to writings of this sort; and the number of imitations which have since been made of it even to satiety seem to prove that my notion was well founded. Johnson was thinking of this sentence of Mason's when in the Life of Hammond he said, ''Why Hammond or other writers have thought the quatrain of ten syllables elegiac it is difficult to tell. The character of the Elegy is gentleness and tenuity; but this stanza has been pronounced by Dryden, whose knowledge of English verse was not inconsiderable, to be the most magnificent of all the measures which our language affords.

Take one of the three stanzas of Hammond which Johnson derides: ''Panchaia's odours be their costly feast, And all the pride of Asia's fragrant year, Give them the treasures of the farthest East, And what is still more precious, give thy tear. It cannot therefore be successfully employed on trivial themes. It was used inter alios by Davenant for his heroic poem of Gondibert; by Hobbes for his curious translation of Homer; by Dryden for his Annus Mirabilis. The suggestion that the posthumous publication of Hammond's Love Elegies in had anything to do with Gray's choice of this measure may be dismissed; it comes oddly from those who affirm that the Elegy was begun in Crofts, [1st ed.

Bentley's Designs, of which there is a second edition; and again by Dodsley in his Miscellany, vol. Roberts, and published in , and again in the same year by Rob. General Wolfe is said to have declaimed it to his officers on the eve of the battle of Quebec, and to have added: 'I would prefer being the author of that Poem to the glory of beating the French tomorrow. Gray told Dr. Gregory 'with a good deal of acrimony' that it 'owed its popularity entirely to the subject, and that the public would have received it as well if it had been written in prose.

It is evident from the swarm of imitations or unconscious echoes which it produced in contemporary poetry that it had charmed the age by its metrical splendour and verbal music quite as much as by its sentiment. Whibley, [1st ed. It was finished by June 12, On February 10, , the editors of the Magazine of Magazines asked for permission to print it. Gray refused and at once wrote to Horace Walpole asking him to publish it anonymously. On February 15 it appeared as a quarto pamphlet under the title An Elegy wrote in a Country Church Yard , together with the following preface by Walpole: 'The following Poem came into my hands by Accident, if the general Approbation with which this little Piece has been spread, may be call'd by so slight a term as Accident.

Three copies of the Elegy in Gray's handwriting are still preserved. Fraser and now at Eton College contains probably the original draft. This differs considerably from the form in which the poem was published, and for this reason it is printed below Appendix I. The variations in these two manuscripts are given in the notes. The following bibliographical note is appended to the Pembroke MS. For the history of its publication and an account of the different editions, etc. Stokes, Oxford, Eppstein, The poem was sent to Walpole, who was so delighted that he handed it round to his friends.

The publisher of the Magazine of Magazines wrote to Gray informing him he was printing the poem. Gray thereupon wrote to Dodsley asking him to print it, which he did, anonymously. The London Magazine then stole it, and others followed the bad example. It is not its brilliancy and originality, but its balanced perfection that is its chief quality. Many of its phrases have become integral parts of our language.

The form, the historic quatrain, is not new and may have been suggested by Dryden's Annus Mirabilis , but it lacks the latter's hard, metallic tone, and it is no exaggeration to say that Gray has handled the metre form with an infinite variety and charm unequalled by any other writer. Hendrickson, Some of the errors which Gray pointed out were corrected in the third edition Q3. The eighth quarto Q8 of , according to Dodsley, was corrected by Gray, although this claim makes it difficult to account for the persistence of one of the most obvious of the errors see note to line 11 which Gray had mentioned in his letter of 3 Mar. The three extant holograph MSS. Egerton MS. Although in his letter to Walpole, 11 Feb. With some editorial hesitation, the poem is printed here with the customary intervals.

E[ton College MS. Q[uarto]1 ;. Corrected by the Author. Gray sent a copy to Walpole, who appears to have circulated it rather freely. In any event, to Gray's annoyance an imperfect copy was acquired by a journal which he disliked; consequently he wrote to Walpole 11 Feb. If you behold the Mag: of Mag:s in the Light that I do, you will not refuse to give yourself this Trouble on my Account, wch you have taken of your own Accord before now. If Dodsley don't do this immediately, he may as well let it alone. Gray of Peterhouse. Walpole prefaced to the first edition this statement: Advertisement. The following POEM came into my hands by Accident, if the general Approbation with which this little Piece has been spread, may be call'd by so slight a term as Accident.

I mean not to be modest; but I mean, it is a Shame for those, who have said such superlative Things about them, that I can't repeat them. I imagined too that so capital a Poem, written in this measure, would as it were appropriate it in future to writings of this sort; and the number of imitations which have since been made of it even to satiety seem to prove that my notion was well founded' M[ason] , ii.

There have been innumerable notes designed to explain the meaning or to indicate the sources of the Elegy. It seems to the editors unnecessary to repeat them here. The editions of Mitford , Bradshaw , and Tovey are rich in material of this sort, and the bibliographies of Northup and Starr list many additional sources. Lonsdale, The earliest, the Eton MS, has already been described. The MS sent to Walpole in June from which the 1st edn was presumably printed is not extant but it was probably based on the transcript of the poem in G[ray]. The third MS, sent to Wharton on 18 Dec.

This MS appears from its text to be later than that in the Commonplace Book. The text followed here is that printed in , which contains G. Writers on other aspects of the Elegy have so often adopted a dating merely to suit a particular argument that a full statement of the relevant considerations is perhaps still desirable. The most precise single item of information that we have for the dating of the Elegy is that on 12 June G. You will, I hope, look upon it in the light of a thing with an end to it ; a merit that most of my writings have wanted, and are like to want The date at which G. From his letter to Walpole it is clear that there was a considerable interval between his beginning and completing it.

Walpole had seen the beginning 'long ago', but whether this had been at the time when G. At this point it is as well to consider the evidence offered by what is clearly the earliest extant draft of the Elegy. After various appearances in the sale-room in the nineteenth century it was bequeathed by Sir William Fraser in to Eton College. The first eighteen stanzas of this MS, in spite of many small variants, appear substantially as in the form eventually published. The four following stanzas, marked by G. Writing of the poems which G. Then, after quoting the four stanzas which G. The four 'rejected' stanzas do provide a perfectly coherent conclusion to the poem.

It seems clear, moreover, that, after G. In that interval the MS was folded and stained and the paper itself deteriorated slightly. I was kindly allowed to see an argument to this effect in an unpublished study of 'Gray's handwriting, and its value as evidence in the dating of his Elegy' by M. Leahy of Pennsylvania State University. That there was an interval cannot be doubted but neither the condition of the MS nor an examination of the handwriting itself throws any conclusive light on its length. Mason's tentative opinion that G. For neither suggestion is there any evidence.

Apart from Mason's opinion, the only statement about the dating of the poem which can be thought tohave any authority came in , when Horace Walpole was shown part of the Memoirs of G. On 1 Dec. At least I am sure that I had the twelve or more first lines from himself above three years after that period, and it was long before he finished it' Walpole Correspondence xxviii Unfortunately Mason's reply to this letter is not extant, but it contained his reasons for suggesting that the Elegy was begun in On 14 Dec. In the absence of more definite evidence we cannot afford to abandon Walpole's objection as easily as he himself did. Admittedly, to convince Walpole, Mason must have produced a persuasive argument that he was right in believing G.

But just how persuasive must we assume it to have been? Mason did not meet G. The very tentativeness with which he offers that opinion 'I am inclined to believe' appears to confirm its speculative character. It has not been noted, moreover, that this discussion in between Mason and Walpole as to the date of the Elegy was only incidental to a matter of much greater interest, at least to Walpole: namely, Mason's treatment in his Memoirs of Walpole's early friendship and eventual quarrel in Italy with G. Walpole was apprehensive about Mason's handling of this subject and undoubtedly offended Mason by some of his comments on it.

In his letter of 14 Dec. At the best of times Walpole was given to 'agreeing' with correspondents with whom he obviously did not agree; and in this particular instance he had good reason for allowing himself to be persuaded. In any case, Walpole retracted only the first part of his original assertion i. There is no reason to believe that he had not remembered correctly that G. This memory fits easily enough with G. This may have been the argument used by Mason against Walpole's objection to his dating. The most likely period for G.

It was also at this time that G. It may therefore be assumed that Walpole first saw the opening 12 ll. But a question at once arises. Why, if, as Mason and his adherents believe, G. Is it not more likely that G. This problem was tackled ingeniously but unconvincingly by H. Garrod pointed out that, without the four stanzas later rejected by G. Mitford's transcript of Walpole's letter of 1 Dec. In other words Walpole in fact told Mason that G. Garrod's argument is hardly tenable. It seems unlikely that G.

As far as Walpole is concerned, it is unlikely that he would use such a phrase as 'seventy-two or more first lines': 72 is a very particular number to be vague about. Similarly, Walpole was always active in pressing G. His enthusiasm for the Elegy when he was shown it in makes it hard to believe that he had already seen its most memorable stanzas and had been content for some four years not to pester G. Finally, it is worth noting the authoritative opinion of the editors of Walpole's letters as to whether he wrote '12' or '72' and as to whether Mitford is likely to have mistranscribed the number: 'We believe [Walpole] wrote 12; HW's 1's and 7's are not at all similar, and it would have been unlike HW to count out the number of lines Gray sent him, or, if he had, to remember the total for a quarter of a century' Walpole Correspondence xxviii n 4.

The inconclusive nature of the main items of evidence as to the dating of the Elegy will be readily apparent. All that seems likely at this point is that the choice of dates is confined to two: the alternative to accepting Mason's tentative suggestion that G. In support of Mason's date is the fact that he managed to persuade Walpole that he was right, although the circumstances in which he did so must be taken into account. The other main fact in support of is that that year was by far the most creative of G. It has also seemed natural to some scholars to connect the Elegy with the death of Richard West in June , but once again there is no evidence to confirm such a theory.

If West were to be involved in the poem at any point, it could only be in the description of the unhappy poet and in the epitaph at the end of the Elegy. Yet this section of the poem seems certainly to have been written in about The most elaborate of the theories involving West, Odell Shepard's 'A youth to fortune and to fame unknown', MP , xx , argued that the 'Epitaph' had originally been a separate poem about West written in , and that G.

In this way the poem as a whole became 'a lament for a friend who died of a broken heart'. Shepard's theory consisted of sheer guesswork at almost every point, attractive as parts of it may seem. There is no evidence that the 'Epitaph' was ever a separate poem and it is noteworthy that in Walpole a close friend of both G. The case for dating the beginning of the Elegy in is not strong and must, in fact, rest almost entirely on whatever one supposes Mason's unknown arguments for that date to have been and on the faith one puts in his judgement. The case for dating the beginning of the poem in the summer or autumn of is more elaborate but not perhaps much more definite. Walpole's initial conviction that the poem had been started then must perhaps be ruled out in the light of his later withdrawal of it; but there is no reason to doubt that it was at this time that he saw the opening lines, and the question posed above has still not been answered.

Why, if G. There are, moreover, two cryptic remarks by G. On 10 Aug. He made a more significant statement in another letter to Wharton on 11 Sept. There would appear to be no other poem than the Elegy to which G. One argument on behalf of dating the beginning of the Elegy in is that it is known to have been, for G. But it can be argued on the other hand that the resumption of the friendship with Walpole, which was really re-established in the summer of , marked the beginning of a renewal of G. Since the death of West he had lacked an audience, but now he began showing what he had already written to Walpole and starting new poems.

It was at least as good a period as any for G. There are also circumstantial arguments for dating the beginning of the poem at this period, which can be described as at least no worse than some of those for Apparently the first such argument was a spirited but extravagant article by W. Newman, 'When curfew tolled the knell', National Review , cxxvii , which attempted to demonstrate that the Elegy was inspired by various events in Aug. By combining with these events a quantity of meteorological information, Newman demonstrated to his own satisfaction that he possessed an 'abundance of evidence' for identifying the moment at which G. A similar, but more restrained and detailed, argument for connecting the Elegy with the trial of the Scottish lords in Aug.

The 'biographical problem' is, of course, whether or not such connections between the poet's life and contemporary events on the one hand, and the poem itself on the other, can or need to be made. As far as the poem is concerned, G. Nevertheless, they may be thought to add something to the argument for dating the Elegy in There is another kind of internal evidence about the dating which is perhaps slightly more conclusive, although by its nature it can be used only with caution.

In his 'Observations on English Metre', Works , ed. Gosse, i , G. Another notable use of the quatrain in the seventeenth-century was in Davenant's Gondibert ; Thomas Hobbes employed it in his translation of Homer; and it occasionally appeared in the works of early eighteenth-century poets, such as William Walsh The Retirement. Hammond's poems, largely imitations of Tibullus, were undoubtedly imitated by other poets and did much to establish the quatrain as 'elegiac'. It must of course be remembered that in the Eton MS G. Translated from the Latin pp. In addition, there is little to suggest, apart from the quatrain itself and the occasional echo, that G. The possibility that he was, however, has been explored by J. At this period they were circulating in MS and Fisher suggested that they might even have reached G.

This theory is unconvincing and it is much more probable that in revising his elegies after Shenstone imitated G. Fisher's two articles, nevertheless, are of interest in that they show that G. It is surely significant, however, that consciously or unconsciously G. The same conclusion would have to be reached if the Elegy is considered in relation to the vogue for 'graveyard' poetry and prose which emerged in the early s. The Elegy could have been quite independent, but it must appear more likely that it came after rather than preceded such contemplations as Young's Night Thoughts , Blair's The Grave and James Hervey's Meditations among the Tombs Finally it may be noted that there would appear to be some relationship between the Elegy and the unfinished fragment on Education and Government , which G.

Both poems deal with the subject of genius which circumstances have prevented from flourishing, and both may be related to Plato's discussion of education and its effect on 'virtue', which G. Once again, this evidence cannot be decisive and, although G. This discussion has tried to make clear that all of the evidence is ambiguous and nothing more confident than an assertion of likelihood can be achieved. Even if it may appear that most of the poem was written in and later, it is still possible that G.

Usually G. According to Mason, Memoirs p. The rapidity with which the poem had made its way in the fashionable world can be seen from the occasion for which, later in the summer, G. I mean not to be modest; but I mean, it is a shame for those, who have said such superlative Things about them, that I can't repeat them. Both Walpole and Dodsley responded to his demand for immediate publication and the Elegy appeared on 15 Feb. Considering the haste with which it had been printed, the first edn.

The title-page was embellished by woodcuts of skulls, cross-bones and other symbols of mortality, commonly used for bourgeois funeral elegies since the 16th century. In accordance with G. Straus, Robert Dodsley p. On 16 Feb. To be continued on the 16th of Every Month'. Another advertisement three days later listed among its contents 'Stanzas written in a Country Church-Yard. Whether the Magazine was actually published on 16 Feb.

Unless there were different issues of the Magazine, some containing later items of news, it must be assumed that the race for publication, whatever Owen's advertisements meant, was not as breathless as has been believed. The advertisement in the General Advertiser of 19 Feb. On 20 Feb. But no matter: we have ourselves suffered under her hands before now; and besides, it will only look the more careless, and by accident as it were. It was omitted once more in the 8th edn in , when other corrections were made, and thereafter. Mason duly separated the stanzas in but, oddly enough, in the 2nd edn of this work - having perhaps rediscovered G.

The Monthly Review iv , for Feb. John Hill, in the first of his series of contributions to the Daily Advertiser entitled 'The Inspector' on 5 March praised the Elegy enthusiastically, asserting that it 'comes nearer the manner of Milton than any thing that has been published since the time of that poet' and comparing it favourably with Lycidas. In 'The Inspector' No. The 4th quarto edn of G. By twelve edns based on Dodsley's quarto had appeared. Inevitably the literary periodicals felt free to publish so celebrated a poem and, apart from the Magazine of Magazines , it had appeared in the London Mag.

Rothkrug, in the article mentioned above, pointed out that the Elegy also appeared in Poems on Moral and Divine Subjects, by Several Celebrated English Poets Glasgow, ; and confirmed that, as had been suspected but not established, it had been published in the Grand Magazine of Magazines in April Apart from these two publications, the frequent appearances of the Elegy in G. Stokes in his edn of the Elegy Oxford, Stokes, Times Lit. Goadby and W. Owen, the publisher of the Magazine of Magazines. See A. Anderson, The Library , 5th series, xx , for a refutation ofStokes's argument for the importance of this text, which was probably not printed in fact until late In spite of, or perhaps because of, its popularity, G.

He made a few comments on it in a letter to Christopher Anstey, who published a Latin translation of the poem in Corresp ii but otherwise tended to be cynical about its celebrity. During a visit to Scotland in , he spoke to Dr John Gregory of the Elegy : 'which he told me, with a good deal of acrimony, owed its popularity entirely to the subject, and that the public would have received it as well if it had been written in prose' Sir William Forbes, Life of James Beattie i Mason also believed this to be G.

Soon after its publication, I remember that, sitting with Mr. Gray in his College apartment, he expressed to me his surprise at the rapidity of its sale. I replied: '' Sunt Lachrymae rerum, mentem mortalia tangunt. Young's Night Thoughts have preoccupied it. A marginal note apparently added to from time to time in the transcript of the poem in his Commonplace Book lists, with evident satisfaction, the various edns it passed through, as well as the two Latin translations by Lloyd and Anstey. And he can hardly have been unimpressed by the spate of imitations, parodies and translations into other languages which was already in full flow in his own lifetime; see Northup, Bibliography of G.

Starr's continuation pp. Jones, 'Imitations of G. This aspect of the Elegy's popularity and influence can be illustrated by John Langhorne's remarks, in his review of An Elegy, Written among the Tombs in Westminster Abbey Monthly Review xxvi , on the number of G. Johnson's brief but eloquent tribute in the Lives of the Poets was followed in more senses than one in by John Young's Criticism of the Elegy 2nd edn, , a detailed discussion of the poem in a manner deliberately imitating Johnson's. Discussion of the poem in the next century tended to be pre-occupied with such matters as G.

Some recent discussions of the poem, in addition to those mentioned above, which should be consulted are: Roger Martin, Essai sur Thomas Gray Paris, pp. Hilles and H. Bloom pp. Amy L. Reed's The Background to Gray's Elegy New York, , investigates melancholy as a subject in earlier eighteenth-century poetry, but does not throw a great deal of light on the poem itself. The crucial fact about the poem, of which by no means all discussions of the Elegy take account, is that we possess two distinct versions of it: the version which originally ended with the four rejected stanzas in the Eton MS, and the familiar, revised and expanded version.

Many of the difficulties in the interpretation of the poem can be clarified if the two versions are examined in turn. As has been stated above, Mason's assertion that the first version of the poem ended with the rejected stanzas appears to be fully justified. In this form the Elegy is a well-constructed poem, in some ways more balanced and lucid than in its final version. The three opening stanzas brilliantly setting the poem and the poet in the churchyard, are followed by four balanced sections each of four stanzas, dealing in turn with the lives of the humble villagers; by contrast, with the lives of the great; with the way in which the villagers are deprived of the opportunities of greatness; and by contrast, with the crimes inextricably involved in success as the 'thoughtless world' knows it, from which the villagers are protected.

The last three stanzas, balancing the opening three, return to the poet himself in the churchyard, making clear that the whole poem has been a debate within his mind as he meditates in the darkness, at the end of which he makes his own choice about the preferability of obscure innocence to the dangers of the 'great world'. It is the personal involvement of the poet and his desire to share the obscure destiny of the villagers in this version of the poem which make Empson's ingenious remarks in Some Versions of Pastoral ultimately irrelevant and misleading.

Underlying the whole structure of the first version of the Elegy , reinforcing the poet's rejection of the great world and supplying many details of thought and phrasing, are two celebrated classical poems in praise of rural retirement from the corruption of the court and city: the passage beginning O fortunatos nimium in Virgil's Georgics ii ff and Horace's second Epode , Beatus ille For a study of the pervasive influence of these poems on English poetry in the seventeenth- and eighteenth-centuries, see Maren-Sofie Rostvig, The Happy Man 2 vols, Oslo, In the concluding 'rejected' stanzas of the first version of the Elegy the classical praise of retirement is successfully blended with the Christian consolation that this world is nothing but vanity and that comfort for the afflicted will come in the next, although G.

His tact and unobtrusiveness are all the more marked when his poem is compared with the emotional, even melodramatic, effects to which the other 'graveyard' practitioners - Young, Blair and Hervey - are prepared to resort when handling the same themes. The appendix to the poem see p. The classical or 'Augustan' restraint and balance which preserved him from such excesses is a strength which is manifested similarly in the balanced structure of the poem as a whole, as well as in the balancing effect of the basic quatrain unit. The conclusion of the first version of the Elegy ultimately failed to satisfy G. A simple identification with the innocent but uneducated villagers was mere self-deception. This theme, which runs counter to the earlier resignation to obscurity and the expectation of 'eternal peace' hereafter, leads G.

The figure of the Poet is no longer the urban, urbane, worldly, rational Augustan man among men, with his own place in society; what G. The lack of social function so apparent in English poetry of the mid- and late eighteenth-century is constantly betrayed by its search for inspiration in the past. Significantly, G. The texture of these stanzas is fanciful, consciously 'poetic', archaic in tone.

If the swain's picture of the lonely Poet is respectful but puzzled, emphasising the unique and somehow valuable sensibility which characterises him, the 'Epitaph', from a different standpoint, assesses that sensibility as the source of such social virtues as pity and benevolence see l. The central figure of The Bard himself is a not totally unpredictable development of the Poet at the end of the Elegy : more defiant in his belief that poetry and liberty in society are inseparably involved with each other and his awareness of the forces which are hostile to poetry; equally isolated and equally, if more spectacularly, doomed.

Two marginal problems associated with the Elegy may be mentioned in conclusion. The early nineteenth-century tradition that General Wolfe, on the night before the capture of Quebec from the French in , declared, 'I would rather have been the author of that piece than beat the French tomorrow', is examined in detail by F. Stokes in an appendix to his edn of the Elegy Oxford, pp. Stokes also deals in another appendix pp. Not surprisingly, no definite identification of the churchyard can be made, in spite of the number of candidates for the honour.

In his own lifetime, G. Anyone versed in the 'graveyard' poetry and prose of the mid-eighteenth-century will be satisfied that G. Heath-Stubbs, Gerrard, It was reprinted in newspapers, magazines and miscellanies, and ran through eight editions by The similarities to Joseph Warton's Ode to Evening [ The surviving Eton College MS represents the earliest known version before a major reworking took place, and it was not until 12 June that Gray sent a copy of the completed poem to Walpole, 'having put an end to a thing, whose beginning you have seen long ago' Correspondence , Gray made some corrections and further minor revisions to the Elegy for its inclusion in Designs by Mr.

Bentley [ In extending the Elegy beyond the ending he originally envisaged see note[s] to line 72 , Gray added an extra layer of irony. As in Ode on the Spring he executes a self-scrutinizing turn, which here places the poet in his own grave, with an illiterate rustic remembering him. Gray's poem is intensely allusive. In this respect it can be seen as continuing the tradition of pastoral elegy, a genre which as part of its mourning tribute interweaves earlier voices into a garland of allusion. Only a limited number of parallel passages and echoed phrases can be noted here. Lonsdale's Longman edition see above is invaluable in helping the reader appreciate the full tapestry of Gray's poem, and anyone wishing to explore this aspect further should consult his annotations.

The first omitted stanza, commonly referred to as "the redbreast stanza" after l. It appeared in print from the third edition of the "Elegy", but was removed by Gray in the Designs , according to Mason, "because he thought and in my own opinion very justly that it was too long a parenthesis in this place. The lines however are, in themselves, exquisitely fine, and demand preservation. The Eton MS of the "Elegy" has another omitted stanza after l. I cannot help hinting to the reader, that I think the third of these rejected stanzas equal to any in the whole Elegy. The standard History of England in Gray's time, that by Thomas Carte, describes the curfew law of William the Conqueror as ''an ordinance, that all the common people should put out their fire and candle and go to bed at seven a clock, upon the ringing of a bell, called the couvre feu bell , on pain of death; a regulation, which having been made in an assembly of the estates of Normandie at Caen , in A.

Joseph Warton's Ode to [ Joseph Warton's Ode to Evening , which contains a number of passages strikingly similar to the Elegy , although - so far as I know - the similarity has not been noticed by editors. Warton's Odes were published in One stanza in particular Gray may have had in mind when he composed the first stanza of his Elegy: ''Hail, meek-eyed maiden, clad in sober grey, Whose soft approach the weary woodman loves, As, homeward bent to kiss his prattling babes, He jocund whistles thro' the twilight groves.

Warton's , and the whole atmosphere of Collins's Ode to Evening is similar to that of the Elegy. With songs the jovial hinds return from plow, And unyok'd heifers, pacing homeward, low. The word continued to be applied to an evening bell long after the law for putting out fires ceased, but it is not now so used, and the word would have become obsolete but for Gray's use of it here, and when one speaks of the curfew one thinks of the first line of the ''Elegy. Gray quotes in original the lines from Dante which suggested this line. Cary's translation is as follows: - ''And pilgrim, newly on his road with love, Thrills if he hear the vesper bell from far, That seems to mourn for the expiring day.

In Shakespeare the sound of the Curfew is the signal to the spirit-world to be at large. Edgar in Lear feigns to recognize 'the foul fiend Flibbertigibbet: he begins at curfew and walks till the first cock' III. Milton's ' far-off curfew' reminds us of the squilla di lontano of Dante, which Gray quotes for the first line of the Elegy. The curfew tolls from Great S. Mary's, at Cambridge, at 9, from the Curfew Tower of Windsor Castle nearer the scene of the Elegy at 8, in the evening. Warton, Notes on Pope , vol. He may have felt obliged to do so publicly as a result of Norton Nicholls's discovery of the debt: see Corresp iii But Shakespeare has 'To hear the solemn curfew', Tempest V i 40 and uses the word on three other occasions.

It also occurs in Thomson, Liberty iv and n ; and in T. Pope, [ Pope, Odyssey x 'As from fresh pastures and the dewy fields After the first edition I find with winds is Stephen Jones' , and though Mitford in his edition of has wind , in the Aldine edition he has winds , and is followed - without comment - by almost all subsequent editors of Gray's ''Poems,'' and in popular reprints of the ''Elegy. Add that of Gray's cattle some are returning from the pasture, but others from the plough. Of the innumerable passages that might be quoted in illustration of this line, perhaps that given by Mitford from Petrarch [Pte I. Canzone IV. And Horace's ''Sol ubi montium mutaret umbras, et juga demeret bobus fatigatis A scholar-poet could scarcely mention the 'lowing herd' and the 'plowman' without some reminiscence of this old-world note of time.

But the return of oxen or horses from the plough, is not a natural circumstance of an English evening. In England the ploughman always quits his work at noon. Gray, therefore, with Milton, painted from books and not from the life, where in describing the departing day-light he says The subject was reopened in Notes and Queries 7th series, ix and x , ; and again in 10th series, xii , Although the usual conclusion of these discussions was that the habits of ploughmen varied in different parts of England, Warton was no doubt right in suggesting that G. Roscommon's imitation of this Ode , which G. These [ In broad daylight the scene belongs to the toiler; when he withdraws, he resigns it to the solitary poet, and to the shadows congenial to his spirit.

Munro renders this line: ''Cunctaque dat tenebris, dat potiunda mihi. The scenery as well as the meditations of the Elegy were by no means original; they simply established more firmly literary fashions which were already fast becoming popular. Dr Phelps remarks that ''the scenery as well as the meditations of the Elegy were by no means original: they simply established more firmly literary fashions which were already becoming familiar.

The spirit of gentle melancholy was in the air; and in and found in three young poets, Collins, Joseph Warton and Thomas Warton, that voice to the world at large which is found again in Gray in For in Thomas Warton published anonymously these lines, which he had written in his 17th year : ''Beneath yon ruin'd abbey's moss-grown pile Oft let me sit, at twilight hour of eve Where thro' some western window the pale moon Pours her long-levell'd rule of streaming light; While sullen sacred silence reigns around, Save the lone screech-owl's note, who builds his bow'r Amid the mould'ring caverns dark and damp, Or the calm breeze, that rustles in the leaves Of flaunting ivy, that with mantle green Invests some wasted tow'r: '' where resemblance to the Elegy is closest of all.

Between these three poets communication of ideas was probable; but at this date even Thomas Warton, with whom he afterwards corresponded, was an absolute stranger to Gray. And Gray is so far from feeling that in any of these there were 'kindred spirits' who might 'enquire his fate' that he writes, Dec. The first has but little invention, very poetical choice of Expression, and a good Ear, the second a fine fancy, model'd upon the Antique, a bad Ear, great variety of Words, and Images with no choice at all. They both deserve to last some Years, but will not. The 'silence Warton Senior, Poems p. Reeves, Gray's lines are much superior and illustrate the advantages of a common poetic diction.

William Broome, Paraphrase of [ William Broome, Paraphrase of Job 'A solemn stillness reigns o'er land and seas. Macbeth, iii, 2: ''The [ Macbeth , iii, 2: ''The shard-borne beetle with his drowsy hums. Warton's Ode to Evening: ''And with hoarse hummings of unnumber'd flies. Collins writes: ''Now air is hushed save [where the weak-eyed bat With short shrill shriek flits by on leathern wing Or] where the beetle winds His small but sullen horn As oft he rises 'midst the twilight path Against the pilgrim borne in heedless hum.

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