Essay On Total Institution
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Total Institution by Eraving Goffman - Sociology
Human health and welfare have improved markedly, and the global population has increased from 1 billion in to almost 8 billion today. The fossil fuel energy system is the lifeblood of the modern economy. Fossil fuels powered the industrial revolution, pulled millions out of poverty, and shaped the modern world. The first big energy transition was from wood and charcoal to coal, beginning in the iron industry in the early s. Coal has three times the energy density by weight of dry wood and is widely distributed throughout the world. Coal became the preferred fuel for ships and locomotives, allowing them to dedicate less space to fuel storage. Oil was the next major energy source to emerge.
Americans date the beginning of the oil era to the first commercial U. Oil entered the market as a replacement for whale oil for lighting, with gasoline produced as a by-product of kerosene production. However, oil found its true calling in the transportation sector. The oil era really took off with the introduction of the Ford Model-T in and the boom in personal transportation after World War II. Oil resources are not as extensively distributed worldwide as coal, but oil has crucial advantages.
Fuels produced from oil are nearly ideal for transportation. They are energy-dense, averaging twice the energy content of coal, by weight. But more importantly, they are liquid rather than solid, allowing the development of the internal combustion engine that drives transportation today. Oil changed the course of history. For example, the British and American navies switched from coal to oil prior to World War I, allowing their ships to go further than coal-fired German ships before refueling.
Oil also allowed greater speed at sea and could be moved to boilers by pipe instead of manpower, both clear advantages. Natural gas, a fossil fuel that occurs in gaseous form, can be found in underground deposits on its own, but is often present underground with oil. Gas produced with oil was often wasted in the early days of the oil industry, and an old industry saying was that looking for oil and finding gas instead was a quick way to get fired.
In more recent times, natural gas has become valued for its clean, even combustion and its usefulness as a feedstock for industrial processes. A final key development in world energy use was the emergence of electricity in the 20th century. Electricity is not an energy source like coal or oil, but a method for delivering and using energy. Electricity is very efficient, flexible, clean, and quiet at the point of use. Over the 20th century, the energy system transformed from one in which fossil energy was used directly into one in which an important portion of fossil fuels are used to generate electricity. The proportion used in electricity generation varies by fuel.
In sum, the story of energy transitions through history has not just been about moving away from current solar flows and toward fossil fuels. It has also been a constant move toward fuels that are more energy-dense and convenient to use than the fuels they replaced. Greater energy density means that a smaller weight or volume of fuel is needed to do the job. Liquid fuels made from oil combine energy density with the ability to flow or be moved by pumps, an advantage that opened up new technologies, especially in transportation. And electricity is a very flexible way of consuming energy, useful for many applications. Before we could make efficient use of solar flows, this seemed like a great idea. However, the advantages of fossil fuels come with a devastating downside.
We now understand that the release of carbon dioxide CO 2 from burning fossil fuels is warming our planet faster than anything we have seen in the geological record. One of the greatest challenges facing humanity today is slowing this warming before it changes our world beyond recognition. Now that there are almost eight billion of us, we clearly see the impact of rising CO 2 concentrations.
Going back to the old days of relying mostly on biomass for our energy needs is clearly not a solution. Nonetheless, we need to find a way to get back to reliance on real-time solar flows and perhaps nuclear energy to meet our needs. There are so many more of us now, interacting via a vastly larger and more integrated global economy, and using much more energy. But we also have technologies today that are much more efficient than photosynthesis at transforming solar flows to useful energy.
The earth gets plenty of energy from the sun for all of us, even for our modern energy-intensive lives. The amount of solar energy that reaches habitable land is more than 1, times the amount of fossil fuel energy extracted globally per year. The problem is that this energy is diffuse. The sun that warms your face is definitely providing energy, but you need to concentrate that energy to heat your home or move a vehicle. This is where modern technology comes in. Wind turbines and solar photovoltaic PV cells convert solar energy flows into electricity, in a process much more efficient than burning biomass, the pre-industrial way of capturing solar energy. Costs for wind and solar PV have been dropping rapidly and they are now mainstream, cost-effective technologies.
Combining new renewables with these existing sources represents an opportunity to decarbonize — or eliminate CO 2 emissions from — the electricity sector. However, unlike fossil fuels, wind and solar can only generate electricity when the wind is blowing or the sun is shining. This is an engineering challenge, since the power grid operates in real time: Power is generated and consumed simultaneously, with generation varying to keep the system in balance. Engineering challenges beget engineering solutions, and a number of solutions can help. Power storage technologies can save excess electricity to be used later. Hydroelectric dams can serve this function now, and declining costs will make batteries more economic for power storage on the grid.
Storage solutions work well over a timeframe of hours — storing solar power to use in the evening, for example. But longer-term storage poses a greater challenge. Perhaps excess electricity can be used to create hydrogen or other fuels that can be stored and used at a later time. Finally, fossil fuel generation often fills in the gaps in renewable generation today, especially natural gas generation, which can be efficiently ramped up and down to meet demand.
Transforming solar energy flow into electricity is a clear place to start in creating a decarbonized energy system. A simple formula is to decarbonize the electricity sector and electrify all the energy uses we can. Many important processes can be electrified — especially stationary uses, like in buildings and many industrial processes. To deal with climate change, this formula is the low-hanging fruit.
The two parts of this formula must proceed together. A shiny new electric vehicle in the driveway signals your concern about the environment to your neighbors, but achieving its full potential benefit also requires a greener power system. Achieving the full potential benefit of electric vehicles would require a grid that supplies all renewable or zero-carbon power, something that no area in the United States consistently achieves today. Certain qualities of fossil fuels are difficult to replicate, such as their energy density and their ability to provide very high heat. This is a complete guide on writing cause and effect essays. Find a link to our essay sample at the end. Let's get started!
A cause and effect essay is the type of paper that the author is using to analyze the causes and effects of a particular action or event. A curriculum usually includes this type of exercise to test your ability to understand the logic of certain events or actions. If you can see the logic behind cause and effect in the world around you, you will encounter fewer problems when writing. In this article, the Handmade Writing team will find out how to create an outline for your cause and effect essay — the key to successful essay writing. Before writing this kind of essay, you need to draft the structure. If you are still unsure about the definition of an essay, you can take a look at our guide: What is an Essay?
Generally speaking, there are three types of cause and effect essays. We usually differentiate them by the number of and relationships between the different causes and the effects. This kind of essay illustrates how different causes can lead to one effect. The idea here is to try and examine a variety of causes, preferably ones that come from different fields, and prove how they contributed to a particular effect. If you are writing about World War I, for example, mention the political, cultural, and historical factors that led to the great war. By examining a range of fundamental causes, you will be able to demonstrate your knowledge about the topic. This type of cause and effect essay is constructed to show the various effects of a particular event, problem, or decision.
Once again, you will have to demonstrate your comprehensive knowledge and analytical mastery of the field. There is no need to persuade the reader or present your argument. If you know why it happened, it will be much easier to write about its effects. This is the most challenging type. You need to maintain a chain of logic that demonstrates a sequence of actions and consequences, leading to the end of the chain.
Although this is usually the most interesting kind of cause and effect essay, it can also be the most difficult to write. As you can see, we used a blended strategy here. When writing about the ever-increasing consumption of unhealthy food, it is logical to talk about the marketing strategies that encourage people to buy fast food. If you are discussing fitness trainers, it is important to mention that people need to be checked by a doctor more often, etc.
In case you face some issues with writing your Cause and Effect essay, you can always count on our Essay Writers! If you start by structuring each paragraph and collecting suitable examples, the writing process will be much simpler. The final essay might not come up as a classic five paragraph essay — it all depends on the cause-effect chain and the number of statements of your essay. Some colleges will actually tell you that exceeding the word limit by words is fine. However, I advise against exceeding the word limit unless it's explicitly allowed for a few reasons:. First, you might not be able to. If you have to copy-paste it into a text box, your essay might get cut off and you'll have to trim down anyways.
If you exceed the word limit in a noticeable way, the admissions counselor may just stop reading your essay past that point. This is not good for you. Following directions is actually a very important part of the college application process. You need to follow directions to get your letters of recommendation, upload your essays, send supplemental materials, get your test scores sent, and so on and so forth.
So it's just a good general rule to follow whatever instructions you've been given by the institution. Better safe than sorry! If you can truly get your point across well beneath the word limit, it's probably fine. Brevity is not necessarily a bad thing in writing just so long as you are clear, cogent, and communicate what you want to. However, most college essays have pretty tight word limits anyways. So if you're writing words for an essay with a word essay ask yourself: is there anything more you could say to elaborate on or support your points?
Consult with a parent, friend, or teacher on where you could elaborate with more detail or expand your points. Also, if the college gives you a word range, you absolutely need to at least hit the bottom end of the range. So if you get a range from the institution like words, you need to write at least words. If you write less, it will come across like you have nothing to say, which is not an impression you want to give. Don't let this sinister hand stop you from writing everything you have to say! Some colleges don't give you a word limit for one or more of your essay prompts. This can be a little stressful, but the prompts generally fall into a few categories:.
Some colleges don't provide a hard-and-fast word limit because they want a writing sample from one of your classes. In this case, a word limit would be very limiting to you in terms of which assignments you could select from. For an example of this kind of prompt, check out essay Option B at Amherst :. We are particularly interested in your ability to construct a tightly reasoned, persuasive argument that calls upon literary, sociological or historical evidence.
You should NOT submit a laboratory report, journal entry, creative writing sample or in-class essay. While there is usually no word limit per se, colleges sometimes provide a general page guideline for a writing samples. Typically, we anticipate a paper of pages will provide adequate length to demonstrate your analytical abilities. Somewhat longer papers can also be submitted, but in most cases should not exceed pages. So even though there's no word limit, they'd like somewhere in the pages range. High school students are not usually writing papers that are longer than 10 pages anyways, so that isn't very limiting.
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Sometimes, while there's no word or even page limit, there's still an implicit length guideline. What do I mean by this? See, for example, this Wellesley supplemental essay prompt :. Generations of inspiring women have thrived in the Wellesley community, and we want to know what aspects of this community inspire you to consider Wellesley. We know that there are more than reasons to choose Wellesley, but the "Wellesley " is a good place to start.Ex: capturing wind using turbines or sunlight using solar cells does not change the Sout Carolina Case Study of The Power Of Situations Rhetorical Analysis or sunlight that is available for future use. If Symbols In The Cask Of Amontillado deadline is just around Theme Of Duality In Jekyll And Hyde corner and Essay On Total Institution have tons of coursework Essay On Total Institution up, contact us and we will ease your academic burden. And such a wall will be irrelevant Symbols In The Cask Of Amontillado those people who Theme Of Duality In Jekyll And Hyde undocumented immigrants by overstaying Theme Of Friendship In Romeo And Juliet visas—who for many years have Symbols In The Cask Of Amontillado those Brutus As A Tragic Hero Analysis become undocumented immigrants by crossing the U. Engineering challenges beget Theme Of Duality In Jekyll And Hyde solutions, Theme Of Duality In Jekyll And Hyde a number of solutions can help. Retrieved 24 Theme Of Duality In Jekyll And Hyde The Symbols In The Cask Of Amontillado Fellowship is only available to U. Topic D Personal interaction with objects, images and spaces can be so powerful as to change the way one thinks about particular issues or topics.