Irish Rebellion In 1641
The Producers Roles In The Film Industry He passed his command onto Henry Ireton. The Irish Parliament was subservient to Minimum Wage Limit Analysis English Parliament under a lateth century statute known as Poynings' Irish Rebellion In 1641and during the early 17th century, Irish constituencies were changed to allow the election of English and Scottish Irish Rebellion In 1641 representatives, Minimum Wage Limit Analysis resulted in a Protestant majority can dogs eat tinned tuna the Irish Parliament. War in Margaret Diddam Research Paper, Leinster can dogs eat tinned tuna Munster ». In earlysome Scots and English Parliamentarians even proposed invading Ireland and subduing Catholics there, to ensure that no Essay On Poverty In The United States Irish Catholic army would land in England or Scotland.
The 1641 Massacre of Irish Protestants
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more about page archiving. Other articles in this section. English and Scottish planters 16th Century Colonisation plans for Ulster Flight of the Earls Plans and implementation London companies Reaction of the natives Economic background of the settlers Economic and social conditions Women and the plantation Religion rebellion Long term consequences. Explore the BBC. The Plantation. Ireland before the Plantation. London Companies. American connection. Tully Castle. Religious legacy. Ulster Scots. Settlement map. Bardic poetry. Audio gallery. Go further. Encouraged by the example of Scotland's defiance of the English government in the Bishops' Wars , Rory O'More, Lord Conor Maguire and Hugh MacMahon plotted with other disaffected Irish Catholics to start a rebellion in defence of their interests and to recover the lands they had lost.
Sir Phelim O'Neill was drawn into the plot in September The conspirators planned to seize a number of key towns and strongholds and to then negotiate for redress of their grievances from a position of strength. Lord Maguire and Hugh MacMahon with a force of insurgents from Ulster and Leinster were to infiltrate the key city of Dublin and take the castle by surprise on 22 October On the same day, Sir Phelim O'Neill and small groups of accomplices were to seize a number of poorly-defended government forts in Ulster.
On the appointed day, O'Neill and the Ulster insurgents moved in on their targets. The typical method was for a small group to gain entrance on a pretext and to then overpower the guards and take key officials hostage. In this way, the insurgents successfully seized Charlemont, Mountjoy, Dungannon and other strongholds. The plot against Dublin faltered, however, when only eighty of the expected two hundred insurgents appeared. Lord Maguire postponed the attack until the following day. That evening, Hugh MacMahon tried to recruit his foster brother, Owen O'Connolly, who promptly reported the conspiracy to the Dublin authorities. Amid wild rumours of an imminent uprising, the Lord Justices ordered all non-residents to leave Dublin even though 23 October was a market day.
Rory O'More and other conspirators took the opportunity to escape. MacMahon and Maguire were transferred to London. They were eventually executed as traitors at Tyburn in T he failure to capture Dublin turned what was intended to be a swift, bloodless coup into full-scale war. Sir Phelim O'Neill issued a proclamation declaring that the insurgents had taken up arms only for the defence and liberty of themselves and the native Irish; the insurgency was not intended to harm the King or any of his subjects. This decline may have been a consequence of the Little Ice Age event of the mid 17th Century. The Irish economy had hit a recession and the harvest of was poor. The leaders of the rebellion like Phelim O'Neill and Rory O'Moore were heavily in debt and risked losing their lands to creditors.
What was more, the Irish peasantry were hard hit by the bad harvest and were faced with rising rents. This aggravated their desire to remove the settlers and contributed to the widespread attacks on them at the start of the rebellion. The planners of the rebellion were a small group of Catholic landed gentry and military officers, mainly Gaelic Irish and from the heavily planted province of Ulster. The rising was to take place on Saturday 23 October Armed men led by Connor Maguire and Rory O'Moore were to seize Dublin Castle and its arsenal and hold it until help came from insurgents in neighbouring County Wicklow.
Meanwhile, Felim O'Neill and his allies were to take several forts in Ulster. Meanwhile, Felim O'Neill and his allies captured several forts and small towns in Ulster. Within two days, the rebels had captured most of counties Armagh , Tyrone , Fermanagh and Monaghan. On 24 October, O'Neill issued the Proclamation of Dungannon , saying they were not in arms against the king, but only in defence of their freedoms, and that they meant no harm to the king's subjects. By early November, organized rebellion had begun outside Ulster: in County Louth , where Dundalk was captured and the Anglo-Irish Catholic gentry joined the rebellion,  as well as counties Leitrim and Longford.
On 21 November, rebels under Brian McMahon began to besiege the important town of Drogheda from the north. Another rebel force under the O'Reilleys advanced through County Meath , capturing towns, before blockading Drogheda from the south. On 29 November, they defeated an English relief force sent from Dublin in the battle of Julianstown , killing English soldiers. The English authorities in Dublin over-reacted to the rebellion, calling it "a most disloyal and detestable conspiracy" by "some evil affected Irish Papists", which was aimed at "a general massacre of all English and Protestant inhabitants".
Their expeditions were characterised by what modern historian Padraig Lenihan has called, "excessive and indiscriminate brutality" against the general Catholic population there  and helped to provoke the general Catholic population into joining the rebellion. The rebellion in Munster , the last region to witness such disturbances, was driven by the severe martial law William St Leger imposed there.
Meanwhile, the breakdown of state authority prompted widespread attacks by the native Irish on the English Protestant settlers, especially in Ulster. A contemporary though hostile Catholic source tells us that O'Neill "strove to contain the raskall multitude from those frequent savage actions of stripping and killing" but that "the floodgate of rapine, once being laid open, the meaner sort of people was not to be contained". Such attacks usually involved the beating and robbing rather than the killing of Protestants. Historian Nicholas Canny writes, "most insurgents seemed anxious for a resolution of their immediate economic difficulties by seizing the property of any of the settlers.
These popular attacks did not usually result in loss of life, nor was it the purpose of the insurgents to kill their victims. They nevertheless were gruesome affairs because they involved face to face confrontations between people who had long known each other. A typical attack involved a group of Irish descending upon a Protestant family and demanding, at knifepoint, that they surrender their moveable goods. Killings usually only occurred where Protestants resisted". The motivations for the popular rebellion were complex. Among them was a desire to reverse the plantations; rebels in Ulster were reported as saying, "the land was theirs and lost by their fathers".
For example, rebels in County Cavan forbade the use of the English language and decreed that the original Irish language place names should replace English ones. The rebels consciously identified themselves as Catholics and justified the rising as a defensive measure against the Protestant threat to "extirpate the Catholic religion". Rebels in Cavan stated "we rise for our religion. They hang our priests in England". Ulster Irish ferocity against everything Protestant were fuelled by the wealth of the church in Ulster, exceptional in contemporary Ireland". The number of Protestant settlers killed in the early months of the uprising is debated.
The general pattern was that the attacks intensified the longer the rebellion went on. At first, there were beatings and robbing of settlers, then house burnings and expulsions, and finally killings, most of them concentrated in Ulster. Historian Nicholas Canny suggests that attacks on settlers escalated after a failed rebel assault on Lisnagarvey in November , after which the settlers killed several hundred captured rebels. Canny writes, "the bloody-mindedness of the settlers in taking revenge when they gained the upper hand in battle seems to have made such a deep impression on the insurgents that, as one deponent put it, 'the slaughter of the English' could be dated from this encounter". Known as the Portadown massacre , it was one of the bloodiest massacres in Ireland during the conflicts of the s.
The massacres were used to support the view that the rebellion was a Catholic conspiracy to wipe out all Protestants in Ireland. Some settlers also massacred Catholics, particularly in —43 when a Scottish Covenanter army landed in Ulster. William Lecky , the 19th-century historian of the rebellion, concluded that "it is far from clear on which side the balance of cruelty rests". They threw scores of MacDonnell women over cliffs to their deaths. The widespread killing of civilians was brought under control to some degree in , when Owen Roe O'Neill arrived in Ulster to command the Irish Catholic forces and hanged several rebels for attacks on civilians.
Thereafter, the war, though still brutal, was fought in line with the code of conduct that both O'Neill and the Scottish commander Robert Monro had learned as professional soldiers in mainland Europe. In the long term, the killings by both sides in intensified the sectarian animosity that originated in the plantations. Modern historians argue that the killings had a powerful psychological impact on the Protestant settlers especially.
Mary O'Dowd wrote that they "were very traumatic for the Protestant settler community in Ulster, and they left long-term scars within that community". Ulster Protestants commemorated the anniversary of the rebellion every 23 October for over two hundred years. King Charles , the English Parliament and the Scottish Parliament all agreed that the rebellion should be crushed. However, British intervention was stalled by the ongoing tension between the king and the parliaments. Charles received news of the rebellion while in Scotland on 28 October. He urged the Scottish Parliament to be ready to send troops to Ulster as soon as the English Parliament agreed to Scottish intervention.
In the meantime, he bought weapons and gunpowder and had them sent to Ireland at his own expense, and arranged for a small number of Scottish volunteers to be sent to Ulster. Charles "had no money to finance an expedition on his own, and had he tried to raise funds by non-parliamentary means, the Commons would have protested". He recruited three infantry regiments from among the refugees flooding into Dublin.
On 4 November, the English parliament voted to send weapons and gunpowder to the English government in Ireland, and for an army of 8, to be raised to crush the rebellion. However, neither the English nor Scottish parliaments wanted the king to have command of such an army, as they feared he would then use it against them. The rebels claimed to be doing the king's bidding, and there was suspicion he would use the rebellion to gain an army for himself. Under this act, wealthy Englishmen could fund the army to crush the rebellion, and be repaid with land confiscated from the rebels.
At the outbreak of the rebellion, the Scottish Covenanters requested funds from the English parliament for sending an army to Ulster. An army could be sent from Scotland more quickly and cheaply, and a Scottish army would not be commanded by the king nor the English parliament. The Scots then insisted they should control the three biggest ports in Ulster Carrickfergus , Coleraine and Derry , and be given Irish land for their services. This led to further delay, as there was opposition in the English parliament. Meanwhile, the rebellion in Ireland continued to spread.