Who Were Loyalists
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Who Were the Black Loyalists? - The Black Loyalist Heritage Centre
The war on the frontier was bitter. On the frontier, Tories were very harshly treated, and they reacted in many instances by joining Tory military units, knowing that they could never return to their homes unless the British prevailed. A number of influential Tories in northern New York quickly set to work building military forces. John Butler recruited the famous or infamous force called Butler's Rangers. Burgoyne started south from Canada at the end of June, , with a force of nearly eight thousand British regulars, German mercenaries, French Canadians, Tories and Indians. The British besieged the fort. On August 6, , a Patriot force of eight hundred men, commanded by Colonel Nicholas Herkimer, set out to relieve the Patriot garrison at the fort.
The Patriots were devastated by the firing, and Herkimer severely wounded. The dying Herkimer propped himself against a tree and oversaw a battle which saw very heavy casualties on both sides. At one point, a column of Tories turned their green jackets inside out as a ruse, and got very close to Herkimer's men; this was followed by savage hand-to-hand fighting. The Indians finally fled, and the Tories retreated. Their mission was to seize supplies. In the ensuing battle, many of the Tory, French Canadian and Indian positions were quickly overrun, and the defenders fled or were captured. Burgoyne's invasion was now in serious trouble. His supplies were low, Tories were not rallying to the colors in the numbers expected, and a huge force of Patriots was gathering against him.
At Saratoga, in a decisive battle, Tories, Indians and French Canadians acted as scouts and sharpshooters for the British, but the fighting ended with a shattering defeat for the royal cause—the surrender of Burgoyne and his army on October 17, The British general Guy Carleton , impressed by the ambush at Oriskany, authorized John Butler to raise eight more companies of Tory Rangers, "to serve with the Indians, as occasion shall require".
This gave the Tories access to the river valleys of northern New York. The destruction of Burgoyne's force seems to have persuaded the British that raids upon frontier settlements were the correct path to follow. An early raid was made in May, , on Cobleskill, New York, where three hundred Tories and Indians, led by Brant, defeated a small Patriot force of militia and Continental regulars, then burned homes, crops and barns. The raiders were resisted by a force of inexperienced Patriot militia. These were badly defeated.
The Tories and Indians devastated the whole area. Reports indicated that some prisoners and fleeing Patriots were tortured and murdered. One historian has said, "The Tories usually neither gave nor expected any quarter, and when this vengeful spirit was augmented by the Indian propensity for total war, the results were almost invariably grim. Now Tories and Indians swept through the Mohawk Valley in "endless raids". The Tory commander this time was Walter Butler , son of John. Again, there was enormous devastation, and innocent people were murdered. A contemporary account depicts the Mohawk chief Joseph Brant whom the Patriots called a "savage" stopping some of Butler's men from murdering a woman and child with the words " In retaliation for all this, George Washington ordered a full-scale attack by regular troops of the Continental Army.
Generals John Sullivan and James Clinton and Colonel Daniel Brodhead , at the head of forty-six hundred men, advanced on the Indians, their objective "the total destruction and devastation" of the Iroquois settlements. Astoundingly, after this huge effort, the Tory and Indian raids went on. Indeed, as hopes for a British victory waned, the Tory raids in New York became more and more relentless, as will be narrated below. Throughout Lord Howe's campaigning in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, many uniformed Tory troops had continued to be used for guard duties, keeping order and foraging.
Many saw action too. At Brandywine , the Queen's American Rangers fought throughout the day, and sustained heavy casualties. But things were about to change. Howe resigned, after his victories and capture of Philadelphia failed to knock Washington and his army out of the war. The British were beginning to realize that victory in America, if it came at all, would be a hard, drawn-out affair. They were planning a new strategy. The Tory soldiers from the North who had been chafing to get into battle, and the downtrodden Tories of the South who had also long wanted to fight for their King, were about to get their wish. The British were being told that large numbers of Tories eagerly awaited their arrival in the South. It was decided to tap this supposed loyal sentiment.
Slowly, British sentiment shifted toward a major Southern effort. To begin with, Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell , in command of a British regiment, two Hessian regiments, four Tory battalions and artillery, was dispatched to Georgia. On December 29, , the Patriots were badly defeated near Savannah, with New York Tories proving invaluable in the victory. Savannah was soon in British hands. The British Southern strategy called for the wholescale enlistment of Southern Tories, who had suffered much since the war began.
This imaginative policy showed that the British had learned from their experiences farther north: that simply defeating the Continental Army in the field would not win the war. That they had frequently done, but the victories availed them little when most of the countryside remained dominated by Patriot sentiment. The British thought that in the South, they could reverse this. Local Tories would be widely enlisted. With the aid of the northern Tory regiments now arriving in the South, it was hoped that the local Tories could maintain control over their neighborhoods, slowly enlarging the scope of British domination, while the regulars concentrated on wiping out the Continental Army. The policy was energetically pursued, and its eventual failure has much to do with the Patriot victory in the Revolution.
An early setback for the policy lay in the fate of the eight hundred North and South Carolina Tories who gathered at the Broad River under Captain Boyd. These Tories marched toward the Savannah, inflicting a great deal of devastation. On February 14, , at Kettle Creek, Georgia, a vengeful Patriot force caught up with them, and after vicious fighting, the Tories were defeated. Five of their leaders were hanged for treason. But the recruitment of Tories proceeded. The British position in the South was strengthened when British and Tory forces repelled a French and Patriot siege of Savannah in the fall of , with great loss of life to the besiegers.
A much more shattering British victory followed with the siege and surrender of Charleston, in the spring of This was one of the most agonizingly fought engagements of the war. Some of the British combatants were Tories, under the command of a remarkable British officer, Patrick Ferguson. Now the civil war in the South turned into an inferno. Part of it was stoked by the Englishman Banastre Tarleton. Tarleton commanded the Loyal Legion, later known as the British Legion , at first a force consisting mostly of Pennsylvanians, but which was quickly augmented by Tory volunteers from the South.
At one point, the British Legion grew to nearly two thousand men. It—and Tarleton—were hated and feared by Patriots, and this feeling grew when Tarleton and his men defeated a Patriot force at Waxhaws, South Carolina, on May 29, An almost incredible seventy to seventy-five per cent of the Patriot force were killed or wounded, and the Tories were reputed to have killed many of the wounded or those trying to surrender.
After that, Patriots who captured Tories gave them what they called "Tarleton's quarter"—meaning none. The murderous fighting in the South between Patriots and Tories came close to equaling in ferocity anything that had been done by the Tories and Indians to the frontier settlers of the North, or to the Indians by Washington's Continentals. Both sides resorted to the burning of farms and homes, torture, and summary execution on a huge scale. The self-consuming hatred and ferocity of both sides was clearly seen in the Battle of Ramsour's Mill, North Carolina, on June 20, The combatants on both sides were untrained militia, few if any in uniform.
The battle was fought with incredible ferocity between neighbors, close relations and personal friends. More than half the Patriots in the battle were killed or wounded, and Tory casualties were very high. After the butchery, the Tories retreated and left the Patriots in possession of the field. A prominent historian called this " British fortunes reached their high point in August, , when Lord Charles Cornwallis 's force of British regulars and Tories inflicted a shattering defeat on Patriot forces at the Battle of Camden.
This was one of the most spectacular British victories of the war. A substantial number of Cornwallis's three thousand men were Tories—North Carolina Tory regulars and militia, a unit called the Volunteers of Ireland , and the infantry and cavalry of the British Legion. It might have been expected that Lord Cornwallis would oppose his Tories to the Patriot militia, and send his regulars against the Continental regulars. Instead, the Tories faced the Patriot regulars, and the redcoats attacked the inexperienced Patriot militia, routing them, exposing the Patriot flank, and causing the collapse and total rout of the whole Patriot army.
The entire Patriot strength in the South now seemed to be spent. It appeared to the British, and to many Americans on both sides, that the British had decisively conquered the South. Despite Washington's huge retaliation, the Tory and Indian raids on the frontier intensified. The first order of business for the British was to destroy the Oneidas, the one tribe in New York which supported the Patriot cause. Supported by British regulars and Tories, the Mohawks, Senecas and Cayugas destroyed the Oneida settlements, driving the Oneidas away and destroying their usefulness as an early warning line to alert defenders that the Indian and Tory raiders were coming.
Now Joseph Brant's Tory Indians devastated the frontier. In May, , Sir John Johnson, commanding four hundred Tories and two hundred Indians, attacked in the Mohawk Valley, doing an immense amount of damage. Brant then led his men down the Ohio, where he ambushed a detachment of troops under the command of George Rogers Clark. In the autumn of , Johnson, commanding over a thousand Tories and Indians, launched another devastating series of raids. Revenge was soon to follow, however.
In , after renewed raids, the Patriot leader Marinus Willett inflicted two defeats on the Tories and Indians. The second one was won over a force composed of eight hundred Tories and British regulars, accompanied by a much smaller force of Indians. This Patriot victory was decisive, and in it Walter Butler was killed. This renowned Tory leader epitomizes the bitterness and violence of the civil war taking place within the Revolution.
Marinus Willett's son said that Butler "had exhibited more instances of enterprise, had done more injury, and committed more murder, than any other man on the frontiers. An example was Tarleton's vanquishing of Patriot raiders at Fishing Creek, shortly after the battle at Camden. Tarleton's and Ferguson's successes had greatly demoralized the Patriots of the South. It seemed that the strategy of using Tories, both northerners and locals, to defeat local Patriots and dominate the South, while the redcoats went about the business of destroying the Continental Army, was succeeding.
Then it all went wrong at King's Mountain, on the border of the Carolinas, on October 7, Major Patrick Ferguson commanded a Tory force which was enjoying great success in pacifying northern South Carolina for the royal cause. But a Patriot force of over one thousand "over-the-mountain men", tough pioneers from the westernmost settlements, experts in the use of the rifle, was coming after him. Augmented by several hundred Patriot militiamen from the Carolinas, this force cornered Ferguson at King's Mountain. It was ironic that Ferguson, inventor of a breech-loading rifle, found himself in a situation where his Tories were armed with muskets, and the Patriots with rifles, whose range was greater.
The fighting was ferocious. A series of fierce Tory bayonet charges drove the over-the-mountain men back several times, but eventually Tory resistance collapsed. Ferguson was killed. After the Tory force surrendered, the frontiersmen fired point-blank into a mass of defenseless Tory prisoners, killing nearly a hundred of them. Other Tories were summarily hanged. Ferguson's force was completely destroyed, a huge blow to the British. Now another catastrophe lay in store for the other seemingly invincible commander of Tories—Banastre Tarleton. Tarleton had over five hundred Tory infantry and cavalry of his British Legion, along with Tory militia and British regulars.
His eleven hundred men slightly outnumbered Morgan's force, which consisted of Continental regulars and Patriot militia. The fighting was as brutal as ever. The culminating moment of the battle occurred when the Patriot right gave way. The Tories thought that the Patriots were panicking, as they had at Camden. The Tories began to advance, and Tarleton ordered one of the impetuous charges for which the British Legion was famous. This time, it was a disaster. The Tories ran into massed Patriot fire, and then were taken on their flank by an expertly timed Patriot cavalry charge.
It was all over very quickly. Tarleton and a few others escaped, leaving behind a hundred killed, and over eight hundred captured, including two hundred and twenty-nine wounded. Another important Tory force had been nearly destroyed. Lee was in pursuit of Tarleton, who was moving around the area with a renewed force, recruiting Tories. A force of four hundred Tories under John Pyle was moving to join Tarleton.
But they made a disastrous mistake. Lee's men wore green coats, like Tories, rather than the usual Patriot blue. Pyle and his men rode up to meet what they assumed was Tarleton's Legion Tarleton himself was only a mile away. Lee actually grasped Pyle's hand, intending to demand surrender. At the last minute, a Tory officer recognized the ruse and ordered his men to open fire. Ninety Tories were then killed and many more wounded; not a single Patriot died. This was probably "Tarleton's Quarter" with a vengeance. Tarleton's cavalry was present. This pivotal battle, a tactical British victory with huge losses, made it clear that British power in the South was waning.
On April 25, , another battle was fought at Hobkirk's Hill, near Camden, scene of a previous Patriot disaster. An American historian has called Lord Rawdon 's outnumbered nine-hundred-man British force "a motley collection of Loyalists stiffened by a few regulars". The "motley collection" distinguished themselves in a brutally fought engagement which eventually saw the Patriot forces driven from the field. Now the forts established by the British and manned by Tories fell to the Patriots, or were abandoned one by one.
Tories could take some comfort, though, from the heroic and successful defense of the fort at Ninety-Six, South Carolina, from May 22 to June 19, Three hundred and fifty of Cruger's men were members of regular Tory regiments; the rest were South Carolina Tory militia. The besiegers consisted of a thousand Patriots under the great general Nathanael Greene. The Patriots at Ninety-Six used classic siege warfare techniques, inching ever closer to the Tory fortifications.
Cruger ordered attack after attack on the Patriot lines, to try to disrupt the work. Exhorted to surrender, Cruger defied Greene's "promises or threats". Hearing that Lord Rawdon was marching to the relief of the fort, Greene ordered a general attack. It was a bloodbath. One hundred and eighty-five Patriot attackers were killed or wounded. In a few more days, the fort would have fallen, but Greene broke off the engagement and retreated.
The endgame was now at hand. Cornwallis's exhausted and depleted army marched into Virginia. Tory units marched with Cornwallis. But the British were soon to be defeated at the siege of Yorktown by a numerically far superior Patriot and French force, and their surrender on October 19, effectively ended the war. Tory resistance was intensified in the middle colonies and New England, even as the chances of British victory ebbed away.
Indeed, minor Tory raids continued well after the surrender at Yorktown. On July 2, , William Tryon , a former royal governor, assembled a huge force of twenty-six hundred regulars, Hessians, and a major Tory regiment, the King's American Regiment. This force attacked New Haven, Connecticut. The sacking of New Haven gave birth to a Yale legend. Napthali Daggett , a former college president, was caught firing at the royal troops.
A British officer asked him if he would fire on them again if his life was spared. But a former student of his, William Chandler, a Tory officer, saved his life. Tryon's force went on to sack and burn the nearby town of Fairfield, then the town of Norwalk. These acts were to earn the Tories the enmity and rage of the people of Connecticut. One historian has called Franklin "one of the most dangerous Tories in America". Franklin's unit, the Associated Loyalists, launched a series of bloody raids in New Jersey. The Tories wanted revenge for the death of Philip White, a Tory who had been captured by Patriots and shot while trying to escape.
The Tories hanged Huddy, leaving him swinging with a message pinned to his breast, reading in part " Up goes Huddy for Philip White". Many outspoken or militarily active Loyalists were forced to flee, especially to their stronghold of New York City. William Franklin , the royal governor of New Jersey and son of Patriot leader Benjamin Franklin , became the leader of the Loyalists after his release from a Patriot prison in He worked to build Loyalist military units to fight in the war, but the number of volunteers was much fewer than London expected. When their cause was defeated, about 15 percent of the Loyalists 65,—70, people fled to other parts of the British Empire , to Britain itself, or to British North America now Canada.
The southern Loyalists moved mostly to Florida, which had remained loyal to the Crown, and to British Caribbean possessions. They called themselves United Empire Loyalists. Most were compensated with Canadian land or British cash distributed through formal claims procedures. Loyalists who stayed in the US were generally able to retain their property and become American citizens. Families were often divided during the American Revolution, and many felt themselves to be both American and British, still owing a loyalty to the mother country.
Maryland lawyer Daniel Dulaney the Younger opposed taxation without representation but would not break his oath to the King or take up arms against him. He wrote: "There may be a time when redress may not be obtained. Till then, I shall recommend a legal, orderly, and prudent resentment". Yale historian Leonard Woods Larabee has identified eight characteristics of the Loyalists that made them essentially conservative and loyal to the King and to Britain: . In the opening months of the Revolutionary War, the Patriots laid siege to Boston , where most of the British forces were stationed.
Elsewhere there were few British troops and the Patriots seized control of all levels of government, as well as supplies of arms and gunpowder. Vocal Loyalists recruited people to their side, often with the encouragement and assistance of royal governors. In the South Carolina back country, Loyalist recruitment outstripped that of Patriots. A brief siege at Ninety Six, South Carolina in the fall of was followed by a rapid rise in Patriot recruiting, and a Snow Campaign involving thousands of partisan militia resulted in the arrest or flight of most of the back country Loyalist leadership.
North Carolina back country Scots and former Regulators joined forces in early , but they were broken as a force at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge. By July 4, , the Patriots had gained control of virtually all territory in the Thirteen Colonies and expelled all royal officials. No one who openly proclaimed their loyalty to the Crown was allowed to remain, so Loyalists fled or kept quiet. Some of those who remained later gave aid to invading British armies or joined uniformed Loyalist regiments. The British were forced out of Boston by March 17, British forces seized control of other cities, including Philadelphia , Savannah, Georgia —83 , and Charleston, South Carolina — The British removed their governors from colonies where the Patriots were in control, but Loyalist civilian government was re-established in coastal Georgia  from to , despite presence of Patriot forces in the northern part of Georgia.
Essentially, the British were only able to maintain power in areas where they had a strong military presence. Historians' best estimates put the proportion of adult white male loyalists somewhere between 15 and 20 percent. Approximately half the colonists of European ancestry tried to avoid involvement in the struggle—some of them deliberate pacifists, others recent immigrants, and many more simple apolitical folk. The patriots received active support from perhaps 40 to 45 percent of the white populace, and at most no more than a bare majority. Before Calhoon's work, estimates of the Loyalist share of the population were somewhat higher, at about one-third, but these estimates are now rejected as too high by most scholars.
Historian Robert Middlekauff summarized scholarly research on the nature of Loyalist support as follows:. The largest number of loyalists were found in the middle colonies : many tenant farmers of New York supported the king , for example, as did many of the Dutch in the colony and in New Jersey. The Germans in Pennsylvania tried to stay out of the Revolution, just as many Quakers did, and when that failed, clung to the familiar connection rather than embrace the new. Highland Scots in the Carolinas , a fair number of Anglican clergy and their parishioners in Connecticut and New York , a few Presbyterians in the southern colonies , and a large number of the Iroquois stayed loyal to the king.
New York City and Long Island were the British military and political base of operations in North America from to and had a large concentration of Loyalists, many of whom were refugees from other states. According to Calhoon,  Loyalists tended to be older and wealthier, but there were also many Loyalists of humble means. Many active Church of England members became Loyalists.
Some recent arrivals from Britain, especially those from Scotland, had a high Loyalist proportion. Loyalists in the southern colonies were suppressed by the local Patriots, who controlled local and state government. Many people—including former Regulators in North Carolina — refused to join the rebellion, as they had earlier protested against corruption by local authorities who later became Revolutionary leaders. The oppression by the local Whigs during the Regulation led to many of the residents of backcountry North Carolina sitting out the Revolution or siding with the Loyalists.
In areas under Patriot control, Loyalists were subject to confiscation of property , and outspoken supporters of the king were threatened with public humiliation such as tarring and feathering , or physical attack. It is not known how many Loyalist civilians were harassed by the Patriots, but the treatment was a warning to other Loyalists not to take up arms. As a result of the looming crisis in , the Royal Governor of Virginia , Lord Dunmore , issued a proclamation that promised freedom to indentured servants and slaves who were able to bear arms and join his Loyalist Ethiopian Regiment. Many of the slaves in the South joined the Loyalists with intentions of gaining freedom and escaping the South.
About did so; some helped rout the Virginia militia at the Battle of Kemp's Landing and fought in the Battle of Great Bridge on the Elizabeth River , wearing the motto "Liberty to Slaves", but this time they were defeated. The remains of their regiment were then involved in the evacuation of Norfolk , after which they served in the Chesapeake area. Eventually the camp that they had set up there suffered an outbreak of smallpox and other diseases. This took a heavy toll, putting many of them out of action for some time. The survivors joined other Loyalist units and continued to serve throughout the war.
African-Americans were often the first to come forward to volunteer and a total of 12, African Americans served with the British from to This forced the Patriots to also offer freedom to those who would serve in the Continental Army, with thousands of Black Patriots serving in the Continental Army. Americans who gained their freedom by fighting for the British became known as Black Loyalists. The British honored the pledge of freedom in New York City through the efforts of General Guy Carleton , who recorded the names of African Americans who had supported the British in a document called the Book of Negroes , which granted freedom to slaves who had escaped and assisted the British.
They founded communities across the two provinces, many of which still exist today. Over 2, settled in Birchtown, Nova Scotia , instantly making it the largest free black community in North America. However, the long period of waiting time to be officially given land grants that were given to them and the prejudices of white Loyalists in nearby Shelburne who regularly harassed the settlement in events such as the Shelburne Riots in , made life very difficult for the community. While men were out fighting for the Crown, women served at home protecting their land and property.
Grace Growden Galloway  recorded the experience in her diary. Galloway's property was seized by the Rebels and she spent the rest of her life fighting to regain it. Rebel agents were active in Quebec which was then frequently called "Canada", the name of the earlier French province in the months leading to the outbreak of active hostilities. John Brown , an agent of the Boston Committee of Correspondence ,  worked with Canadian merchant Thomas Walker and other rebel sympathisers during the winter of — to convince inhabitants to support the actions of the First Continental Congress. However, many of Quebec's inhabitants remained neutral, resisting service to either the British or the Americans.
Although some Canadians took up arms in support of the rebellion, the majority remained loyal to the King. French Canadians had been satisfied by the British government's Quebec Act of , which offered religious and linguistic toleration; in general, they did not sympathize with a rebellion that they saw as being led by Protestants from New England , who were their commercial rivals and hereditary enemies.
Most of the English-speaking settlers had arrived following the British conquest of Canada in —, and were unlikely to support separation from Britain. The older British colonies, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia including what is now New Brunswick also remained loyal and contributed military forces in support of the Crown. Although only a minority of Canadians openly expressed loyalty to King George, about 1, militia fought for the King in the Siege of Fort St. In the region south of Montreal that was occupied by the Continentals, some inhabitants supported the rebellion and raised two regiments to join the Patriot forces. In Nova Scotia , there were many Yankee settlers originally from New England, and they generally supported the principles of the revolution.
The allegiance toward the rebellion waned as American privateers raided Nova Scotia communities throughout the war. As well, the Nova Scotia government used the law to convict people for sedition and treason for supporting the rebel cause. There was also the influence of an influx of recent immigration from the British isles, and they remained neutral during the war, and the influx was greatest in Halifax.
The Continental forces would be driven from Quebec in , after the breakup of ice on the St. Lawrence River and the arrival of British transports in May and June. There would be no further serious attempt to challenge British control of present-day Canada until the War of For the rest of the war, Quebec acted as a base for raiding expeditions, conducted primarily by Loyalists and Indians, against frontier communities. The Loyalists rarely attempted any political organization. They were often passive unless regular British army units were in the area. The British, however, assumed a highly activist Loyalist community was ready to mobilize and planned much of their strategy around raising Loyalist regiments.
The British provincial line, consisting of Americans enlisted on a regular army status, enrolled 19, Loyalists 50 units and companies. The maximum strength of the Loyalist provincial line was 9, in December Historian Maya Jasanoff estimated how many Loyalists departed the U. She calculates 60, in total, including about 50, whites Wallace Brown cites about 80, Loyalists in total permanently left the United States. About 13, went to Britain including 5, free blacks. The total is 60—62, whites. A precise figure cannot be known because the records were incomplete and not accurate, and small numbers continued to leave after Loyalists whose roots were not yet deeply embedded in the United States were more likely to leave; older people who had familial bonds and had acquired friends, property, and a degree of social respectability were more likely to remain in the US.
Starting in the mid—s a small percentage of those who had left returned to the United States. After some former Loyalists, especially Germans from Pennsylvania, emigrated to Canada to take advantage of the British government's offer of free land. Many departed the fledgling U. In another migration-motivated mainly by economic rather than political reasons-  more than 20, and perhaps as many as 30, "Late Loyalists" arrived in Ontario in the s attracted by Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe 's policy of land and low taxes, one-fifth those in the US and swearing an oath [ when?
The 36, or so who went to Nova Scotia were not well received by the 17, Nova Scotians, who were mostly descendants of New Englanders settled there before the Revolution. This makes me much doubt their remaining long dependent. Realizing the importance of some type of consideration, on November 9, , Lord Dorchester , the governor of Quebec, declared that it was his wish to "put the mark of Honour upon the Families who had adhered to the Unity of the Empire.
Those Loyalists who have adhered to the Unity of the Empire, and joined the Royal Standard before the Treaty of Separation in the year , and all their Children and their Descendants by either sex, are to be distinguished by the following Capitals, affixed to their names: U. Alluding to their great principle The Unity of the Empire. The post-nominals "U. In an interesting historical twist Peter Matthews , a son of Loyalists, participated in the Upper Canada Rebellion which sought relief from oligarchic British colonial government and pursued American-style Republicanism. He was arrested, tried and executed in Toronto , and later became heralded as a patriot to the movement which led to Canadian self governance. The wealthiest and most prominent Loyalist exiles went to Great Britain to rebuild their careers; many received pensions.
Certain Loyalists who fled the United States brought their slaves with them to Canada mostly to areas that later became Ontario and New Brunswick where slavery was legal. An imperial law in assured prospective immigrants to Canada that their slaves would remain their property. Simcoe desired to demonstrate the merits of loyalism and abolitionism in Upper Canada in contrast to the nascent republicanism and prominence of slavery in the United States , and, according to historian Stanley R. However the actual law was a compromise. According to historian Afua Cooper, Simcoe's law required children in slavery to be freed when they reached age 25 and:. Thousands of Iroquois and other Native Americans were expelled from New York and other states and resettled in Canada.
The remainder, under the leadership of Cornplanter John Abeel and members of his family, stayed in New York. Many of the Loyalists were forced to abandon substantial properties to America restoration of or compensation for these lost properties was a major issue during the negotiation of the Jay Treaty in The British Government eventually settled several thousand claims for more than 3. The great majority of Loyalists never left the United States; they stayed on and were allowed to be citizens of the new country.Comitatus In Beowulf studies. An early Who Were Loyalists was made in May,on Cobleskill, New York, where three hundred Tories and Indians, led by Brant, defeated a small Patriot Who Were Loyalists of Comitatus In Beowulf Across The Rivers Of Memory Analysis Continental regulars, then burned homes, crops and barns. Among them was Boston King, an enslaved man from South Carolina who survived smallpox and Comitatus In Beowulf at sea to escape to safety in British-controlled New York. For example, Comitatus In Beowulf early Who Were Loyalists the South Carolina backcountry, Why is it called golden gate bridge recruitment outpaced that why is it called golden gate bridge the Why is it called golden gate bridge. The film essentially perpetuates the myth that most Tories were wealthy hangers-on of the British. Other African-Americans fought on the Patriot side, for why is it called golden gate bridge same motive.