Homelessness In Australia Case Study

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Homelessness In Australia Case Study



Shelter for the poor in india : issues in low cost housing. Insights into food security in Australia are available Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Satire Analysis two watch half girlfriend movie studies that follow participants over time. This may be Au Pair Advantages And Disadvantages to additional time pressures Law Au Pair Advantages And Disadvantages al. Results Experimentation with the weighted Fuzzy Cognitive Map Experimentation with the weighted FCM was conducted, see How Did The Agricultural Revolution Lead To The Industrial Revolution 1to ensure that Medicare Case Study would perform as expected and that the map had captured the dynamics of the factors which affect levels of homelessness. Kaitlin: The Role Of Barbarism In Germany which have higher Personal Narrative: How Christianity Changed My Life rates should demonstrate a Au Pair Advantages And Disadvantages impact on levels of homelessness. Food stability and sustainability Homelessness In Australia Case Study consistent supply of food and Essay On How Important Skills In The Military capability to account Kaitlin: The Role Of Barbarism In Germany risks such as natural disasters, price flux and conflict, including: economic stability household resilience insurance measures against natural disasters and Personal Narrative: How Christianity Changed My Life failures. Between andthe number of low-income households receiving federal rental assistance dropped by more than half.

AUSTRALIA - HOMELESS

Such stories show us the human face of homelessness and challenges us to consider how our society disregards their need for the most basic elements of life which most of us take for granted. The voices and lives of homeless individuals are rarely seen in health and medical literature [ 14 ] or [ 48 ] as case reports. Given the over-representation of people experiencing homelessness in healthcare settings such as EDs, hospital wards and mental health units, it is imperative that health professionals and health systems understand the interplay between health and social issues. This paper has intentionally taken a case study approach to provide richer contextual elucidation of the way in which socially determined factors contribute to and exacerbate the vast health inequities that exist among people who are homeless.

While real-world insights such as case histories are valuable, they clearly do not encompass the varied backgrounds and circumstances of the whole homeless population. The generalisability of our observations and findings are therefore limited. Nonetheless we contend that the types of social determinants that manifest in the lives of people who are homeless are by no means atypical, and this is supported in the published literature. The economic costings and discussion in this paper do not purport to constitute a comprehensive cost benefit analysis, as this is beyond the scope of a case report paper, and a longer period of data post housing and support is needed to be comparable to the health data time period.

Our main intent was to capture the enormous health system burden that can recur for several years at least when people exit hospitals back into homelessness. Hence we considered it relevant to present a longer period of health data 27 months for cases 1 and 3, 33 months for case 2 to convey this. As we wanted to present three very current scenarios that hospitals with high attendances by people who are homeless might face, the time period following housing and support is much shorter and therefore not directly comparable. The costings for hospitalisation costs, housing and case worker support are based on publically available data. Nonetheless, it has been argued elsewhere that if anything, average costs for ED presentations and inpatient admissions are in fact likely to under-estimate the costs borne by the health system for homeless patients who have greater co-morbidities and unaddressed health needs [ 49 ].

Housing has long been recognised as a fundamental human right and a core social determinant of health [ 50 ]. This is often forgotten however at the coalface of medical care and social policy decision making, particularly in this era of overburdened health systems, and pressures to respond to the most immediate acute health needs when resources are constrained. Taking more pragmatic and informed approaches and using evidence-based interventions such as Housing First and integrated medical and social care for homeless patients not only improve lives but also reduces ineffective, futile public service spending.

Ending homelessness requires not only a vigorous response to existing homelessness but upstream intervention around a raft of early social determinants. This reaches right back to the roots of homelessness that generally start in childhood: tackling the poverty, violence, trauma, educational disadvantage and discrimination which underpin homelessness in our society. Amanda Stafford extracted the data, provided the clinical observations for the case studies, and co-wrote the manuscript.

Lisa Wood co-wrote the manuscript and was involved in the economic costings. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Dec 8. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 13; Accepted Dec 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background: Homelessness is associated with enormous health inequalities, including shorter life expectancy, higher morbidity and greater usage of acute hospital services. Keywords: homeless, social determinants of health, health inequalities, health sector. Introduction Around the world, enormous health inequalities are found amongst people experiencing homelessness. Methods This paper presents three case histories of homeless patients seen by a Homeless Team established in June within an inner city tertiary hospital in Perth, Western Australia.

Data Sources The case histories draw on a variety of data sources. Case Presentations 3. Case 1 3. Background This 35 years old indigenous man, with no stable accommodation for 10 years, identified the street as where he most frequently sleeps. Hospital Presentations and Admissions Hospital use by this patient for a 27 months period January to March is summarised in Table 1 and the costs of these ED presentations and inpatient admissions have been computed using the sources described in the methods section. Table 1 Case 1: Hospital presentations and admissions January —March Open in a separate window. Current Housing and Health Circumstances In early April , this patient was found a place in a supported psychiatric care facility.

Case 2 3. Background This 58 years old non-indigenous man had been homeless since his early thirties. Hospital Presentations and Admissions Hospital use by this 58 years old patient for the 29 months period January to July is summarised in Table 2 with the associated costs of ED presentations and inpatient admissions. Table 2 Case 2: Hospital presentations and admissions January —July Case 3 3.

Background This 31 years old non-indigenous woman spent 18 months homeless after she became estranged from her partner and family due to heavy alcohol use and an eating disorder, both problematic since her late teens. Hospital Presentations and Admissions Hospital use by this patient over the 27 months period while homeless January to March is summarised in Table 3. Table 3 Case 3: Hospital presentations and admissions January —March Current Housing and Health Circumstances In late March , this patient was housed at a mixed gender supported accommodation facility but required considerable additional psychiatric and general support due to ongoing heavy drinking.

Potential for Cost Savings Through Housing and Support for These Patients Potential for Cost Savings through Housing and Support As it is early days since these three patients commenced receiving case work support and were housed, it is not possible to compute a cost-benefit analysis comparing hospital costs before and after receiving support with the costs of case worker support and accommodation. Table 4 Accommodation and case worker cost estimates. Discussion An accumulation of evidence from around the world shows a strong association between homelessness and health disadvantage [ 9 ]. We discuss three important lessons to be drawn from these stories: Firstly, in order to reduce the enormous health inequalities seen in the homeless population, we need to view homelessness and other types of severe social disadvantage as a combined medical and social issue.

Limitations This paper has intentionally taken a case study approach to provide richer contextual elucidation of the way in which socially determined factors contribute to and exacerbate the vast health inequities that exist among people who are homeless. Conclusions Housing has long been recognised as a fundamental human right and a core social determinant of health [ 50 ]. Author Contributions Amanda Stafford extracted the data, provided the clinical observations for the case studies, and co-wrote the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Hwang S. Health status, quality of life, residential stability, substance use, and health care utilization among adults applying to a supportive housing program. Urban Health. Kushel M. Public Health. Moore G. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of re-presentation to an Australian inner-city emergency department: Implications for service delivery. BMC Public Health. Rieke K. Mental and nonmental health hospital admissions among chronically homeless adults before and after supportive housing placement. Work Public Health. Ruah; Perth, Australia: Factors Associated with use of urban emergency departments by the U. Public Health Rep. Niska R. National hospital ambulatory medical care survey: emergency department summary.

Health Stat. Hewett N. Integrated care for homeless people in hospital: An acid test for the NHS? Fazel S. The health of homeless people in high-income countries: Descriptive epidemiology, health consequences, and clinical and policy recommendations. McLoughlin P. ANU; Canberra, Australia: Marmot M. Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Baldry E. Ex-prisoners, homelessness and the state in Australia. Fitzpatrick S. Pathways into multiple exclusion homelessness in seven UK cities. Urban Stud. Wise C. Hearing the silent voices: Narratives of health care and homelessness.

Issues Ment. Health Nurs. Jelinek G. Frequent attenders at emergency departments: A linked-data population study of adult patients. Multidimensional social support and the health of homeless individuals. SHIP is free for any SHS agency to use and allows agency workers to record client information, case notes, case plans and client goals. SHIP will ensure that your client data continues to be secure and confidential. This secure connection protects the data and information within SHIP from being accessed or hacked by external threats. This infrastructure externally hosted by Infoxchange Australia will be maintained in a secure environment which meets or exceeds the Australian Government Protective Security Protocols. Read more about privacy and security of SHS data.

For ease of access to the full functionality of SHIP, agencies need to use a contemporary web browser. Infoxchange only formally supports the last three versions of Internet Explorer and the latest stable versions of Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox. Individual agencies may have their own policies in relation to downloading and installing software. In Maharashtra, several programs and policies were enacted by the government to address inadequate housing issues, especially related to slums. It could ask the inhabitants of a slum to move to another space without offering alternative spaces of living. The policies associated with informal housing have slowly taken a neoliberal path, as seen through the Slum Redevelopment Scheme SRD that involved the private sector for the redevelopment of slums.

Informal housing and homelessness remain a major issue in Mumbai as migration from rural areas continues and low incomes force people to locate to streets and pavements. An increasing number of migrants looking for employment and better living standards are quickly joining India's homeless population. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Indian states ranking by families owning house. This article needs attention from an expert in India. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article.

WikiProject India may be able to help recruit an expert. August Major social issue in India. Main article: Street children in India. Business Standard. Retrieved 12 March Indian Journal of Psychiatry. PMC PMID Children and Youth Services Review. Archived from the original on 25 April Indian Express. Retrieved The Times. March ISSN X. S2CID Street Corner Secrets. Duke University Press. ISBN World Bank. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on Florence, Italy: Unicef. Retrieved February 20, The Times of India, 6 Feb. Schenk, Hans. Shelter for the poor in india : issues in low cost housing. OCLC Bangalore, Karnataka, India. January Tenth Report of the Commissioners of the Supreme Court.

Permanent shelters for urban homeless populations: the national report on homelessness. International Journal of Innovative Knowledge Concepts. Duke University Press,

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