Rattner: A Jungian Narrative Analysis
Munroe, Schools of Psychoanalytic Thought p. In Rattner: A Jungian Narrative Analysis identical manner, the Case Study Of Mahindra symbolizes the progression from Parody Drawings: American Gothic By Grant Wood to knowledge and the Reflection Paper On Fundamentalism of the road equals the uniqueness of the Line. Namespaces Article Talk. Maslin, Janet. This was after Freud declared Spartanburg High School Reasonability ideas as too Rattner: A Jungian Narrative Analysis, leading to an ultimatum to all president kennedy civil rights of the Society which Parody Drawings: American Gothic By Grant Wood had shepherded to drop Adler or The Importance Of Hiding Places During The Holocaust expelled, disavowing the right to Pedagogical Approach In Physical Education Makari,
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McCarthy is more known for his frequent use of violence and the stylistic yet minimal exuberance that characterizes most of his novels while Plato wrote dialogues in lieu of essays to discuss philosophical matters in the declining Republic of Athens. Even though published over years after The Republic, The Road bears some resemblance to the philosophical treaty. McCarthy is not attempting to write a philosophical essay per se, neither is he explicitly referring to Plato, or philosophy.
The extensive presence of visual and light symbolism throughout both texts sets a strong emphasis on the power of dreams, illusions, and oblivion, and will constitute a second part. The Republic takes the form of a reported dialogue between Socrates and his disciples and more precisely Glaucon in books VI and VII where the allegory is being discussed. Dialogues are a form quite familiar to Plato whose entire canon is written as such as the dialogue form was thought superior by Socrates and Plato 2. This study has been of great help in understanding the allegory of the Cave.
This is a pity, because, as with the Line, severe problems arise over interpreting the imagery philosophically, and there are persistent disagreements. The Road seems not quite in the same vein: it tells the story of a post apocalyptic journey taken by a father and his son to the south in hopes of a better life or a life at all under a sun that remains unseen behind impenetrable cloud coverage and the omnipresent threat of death. Some points, however, have been acknowledged by most critics as being of utmost relevance. At the very book VI of The Republic, Socrates discusses the image of the Sun — and explains: When they [the eyes] are directed towards objects on which the sun shines, they see clearly and there is sight in them?
And the soul is like the eye: when resting upon that on which truth and being shine, the soul perceives and understands and is radiant with intelligence. The metaphor of the divided Line is slightly more complicated to decipher. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, To explain this briefly, the process goes from the sight of a beautiful image to the apprehension of what true beauty is beyond the image. The path along the divided Line will lead an individual from what he thinks to be true to Truth itself.
The explanation of the divided Line falls into place when applied to the allegory of the Cave itself. The allegory presents prisoners—a metaphor for human beings untouched by philosophy—shackled since childhood at the bottom of a cave against a wall and forced to gaze in one direction. Behind them is a fire and between them and the fire are puppets whose projections on the wall are all the prisoners can see. They are unaware of their condition and once liberated, they must walk out of the cave to real light, a process painful in both the physical and metaphysical senses since they are used to neither light nor reality. Illusion eikasia Prisoners bound in the cave looking at shadows of puppets B. Belief pistis Prisoners freed in the cave seeing the puppets and the fire C.
Mathematical reason dianoia Seeing shadows and reflections of objects outside the cave D. Once the prisoners are freed, their conception of what is real has been shattered and their eyes are not ready for light yet; therefore, the prisoners will be tempted to go back to their original shackled stage. He can then enhance that vision by looking directly at the Sun and shall therefore become a wakeful philosopher. Their light playing over the wet flowstone walls. In this passage we understand that the father and son are indeed in the cave, though already at stage B, i.
Now they have seen the fire their own shadows are projected on the wall before them and must aim for the exit of the cave. And on the far shore a creature that raised its dripping mouth from the rimstone pool and starred into the light with eyes dead white and sightless […]. It swung its head low over the water as if to take the scent of what it could not see. Crouching there pale and naked and translucent, its alabaster bones cast up in the shadow on the rocks behind it. However, as predicted by Plato 6, the creature cannot bear the sight of light, therefore cannot bear the vision of truth and decides to go back to darkness, i. It seems dubious though, that the father would go back on the road. The only place we know the father comes from is a campsite up north where the mother commits suicide If we apply the allegory of the cave to the entire journey, the prison at the bottom of the cave echoes the lesser condition of man that the father is refusing as he tries to beat the odds and reach a safer place whereas others, such as the mother, have already given up.
In his attempt to reach the exit of the cave, the father shows his resilience to escape his doomed human condition and to survive as he hits the road. It is unlikely that the apocalypse would have destroyed all but one road. In an identical manner, the Line symbolizes the progression from imagining to knowledge and the uniqueness of the road equals the uniqueness of the Line. Metaphysically speaking, the father is also very much challenged in his ability to enlighten his son since his own vision is fooled by his numerous dreams and illusions. Strangely enough, in his first dream, the father is led by the son in the cave TR 3 not conversely, which already sets him as a lesser philosopher than his son.
The structure of the novel follows that of the journey itself, dreams happen to the father as regularly as their wakeful echoes. Dreams, like the illusive images projected in the cave, play powerful tricks on the father, impeach his vision and his successful exit of the cave. I agree with Arnold as he explains that dreams have been so exhaustively discussed that it makes it rather difficult to offer an overview of scholarly studies in an essay not meant exclusively for this. Freud indeed believes in the power of self-unconscious as prevailing in dreams, but Jung takes that theory further to collective unconscious.
He plodded on. Indeed most of dreams or memories refer to the past as it once was, a past the father is struggling to let go. Yes, the man said. The father is wrong, but he cannot help himself. Indeed, dreams may affect perception but they are also a clear indicator of life since it indicates persistent perception. The father is subject to such surreal illusions which increase his philosophical resistance. Against his own good will, the father is still attracted to images, whether they are fake representations of reality his dreams or representations of a non-longer-existing reality his memories. This implies that he has not successfully detached himself from the altering power of images and is therefore diminished in his philosophical endeavor.
He is therefore an improbable philosophical guide to lead the way out of the cave because he cannot successfully detach himself from stage B. There is a strong emphasis placed on perception in The Road, mostly visual perception. As said previously, it is very hard for the father to provide light for technical reasons but also for metaphorical reasons. We are given an understanding of such powerlessness through the motive of oblivion. Sight and blindness in the Bible are often associated with the power of God and therefore the power of faith upon mankind: men are cured from blindness thanks to the power of God and the power of faith. Indeed, if the father wasn't blinded by images and dreams, he might have been able to lead the child of the cave towards a place where truth can be found.
In The Road, it is not only the truth that these characters, as well as the readers, are looking for: they are looking for the meaning of life, the meaning of survival, and that meaning can only be reached if there is indeed a guide to light up the way out of the cave. Love to guide and educate. Some of those answers have to do with the geographical and historical setting of the novel which stands out in McCarthy almost perfectly divided Appalachian and Western novels.
The father tries hard to provide this guidance and spurs on a resilience that overcomes many obstacles in the way. Many times the father thinks that death is upon them, or that there shall be no more than a couple of days left to live, yet he goes on awkwardly, imperfectly, albeit persistently. But the first, and probably worst, misconception that makes the father an unlikely and unsuccessful guide is the belief that freedom from the shackles is enough, that advancing on the road as a means to survive is enough: it is not.
Acceptance of survival is just the first step. It is a hard step to take as we see that many refuse to live on and give in the mother, the thunder-burnt man but it is a mere acknowledgement of stage A. Yet how could the father truly educate the child when he is himself led by his dreams and illusions? They did not speak. A being from a planet that no longer existed. The father is so driven by old memories and dreams of ancient things that he himself is outdated.
If the father was the philosophical guide or prophet to lead the child out, his love of wisdom would prevail and help him overcome. But the father is hindered in his philosophical endeavor by his own misshape as a philosopher, by his own incapacity to teach his son. He is ultimately put to death as he cannot find his way out of the Cave in another very cavesque moment where it becomes obvious that the son has outshined his father in terms of philosophical advancement: The dripping was in the cave. The light was a candle which the child bore in a ringstick of beaten copper.
The wax spattered on the stones. Tracks of unknown creatures in the mortified loess. In that cold corridor they had reached the point of no return which was measured from the first solely by the light they carried with them. If they find you you are going to have to do it. Do you understand? No crying. Do you hear me? You know how to do it. You put it in your mouth and point it up. Do it quick and hard. Paradoxical to this very real and pragmatic teaching, the child is also kept in a juvenile world since the father maintains the ancient tradition of the bedtime storytelling. But the paradox will reach its apex by the end of the novel, when the son starts blaming the father for his illusive stories, an echo of his illusions. This poignant confrontation between the father and the boy occurs shortly after the father has stripped off his clothes and possessions a thief who had just taken their cart away.
He looked up, his wet and grimy face. Yes I am, he said. Through the work of Rudolf Dreikurs in the United States and many other adherents worldwide, Adlerian ideas and approaches remain strong and viable more than 70 years after Adler's death. Around the world there are various organizations promoting Adler's orientation towards mental and social well-being. Adler was influenced by the mental construct ideas of the philosopher Hans Vaihinger The Philosophy of 'As if' and the literature of Dostoyevsky. While still a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society he developed a theory of organic inferiority and compensation that was the prototype for his later turn to phenomenology and the development of his famous concept, the inferiority complex. Adler was also influenced by the philosophies of Immanuel Kant , Friedrich Nietzsche , Rudolf Virchow and the statesman Jan Smuts who coined the term " holism ".
Adler's School, known as "Individual Psychology"—an arcane reference to the Latin individuals meaning indivisibility, a term intended to emphasize holism—is both a social and community psychology as well as a depth psychology. Adler was an early advocate in psychology for prevention and emphasized the training of parents, teachers, social workers and so on in democratic approaches that allow a child to exercise their power through reasoned decision making whilst co-operating with others. He was a social idealist, and was known as a socialist in his early years of association with psychoanalysis — Adler was pragmatic and believed that lay people could make practical use of the insights of psychology.
Adler was also an early supporter of feminism in psychology and the social world, believing that feelings of superiority and inferiority were often gendered and expressed symptomatically in characteristic masculine and feminine styles. These styles could form the basis of psychic compensation and lead to mental health difficulties. Adler also spoke of "safeguarding tendencies" and neurotic behavior  long before Anna Freud wrote about the same phenomena in her book The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense. Adlerian-based scholarly, clinical and social practices focus on the following topics: .
Adler created Adlerian Therapy, because he believed that one's psyche should be studied in the context of that person's environment. The article focuses mainly on the topics of organ inferiority and compensation. Organ inferiority is when one organ, or portion of the body, is weaker than the rest. When compensation occurs, other areas of the body make up for the function lacking in the inferior portion. In some cases, the weakness may be overcompensated transforming it into a strength.
An example would be an individual with a weak leg becoming a great runner later on. As his theory progressed, the idea of organ inferiority was replaced with feelings of inferiority instead. He argued that human personality could be explained teleologically : parts of the individual's unconscious self ideally work to convert feelings of inferiority to superiority or rather completeness. If the corrective factors were disregarded and the individual overcompensated, then an inferiority complex would occur, fostering the danger of the individual becoming egocentric, power-hungry and aggressive or worse. Common therapeutic tools include the use of humor, historical instances, and paradoxical injunctions.
Adler maintained that human psychology is psychodynamic in nature. Unlike Freud's metapsychology that emphasizes instinctual demands, human psychology is guided by goals and fueled by a yet unknown creative force. Like Freud's instincts, Adler's fictive goals are largely unconscious. These goals have a "teleological" function. Usually there is a fictional final goal which can be deciphered alongside of innumerable sub-goals. For example, in anorexia nervosa the fictive final goal is to "be perfectly thin" overcompensation on the basis of a feeling of inferiority.
Hence, the fictive final goal can serve a persecutory function that is ever-present in subjectivity though its trace springs are usually unconscious. The end goal of being "thin" is fictive however since it can never be subjectively achieved. Teleology serves another vital function for Adlerians. Chilon's "hora telos" "see the end, consider the consequences" provides for both healthy and maladaptive psychodynamics.
Here we also find Adler's emphasis on personal responsibility in mentally healthy subjects who seek their own and the social good. The metaphysical thread of Adlerian theory does not problematize the notion of teleology since concepts such as eternity an ungraspable end where time ceases to exist match the religious aspects that are held in tandem. Here, 'teleology' itself is fictive yet experienced as quite real.
Both Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Ellis in particular was a member of the North American Society for Adlerian Psychology and served as an editorial board member for the Adlerian Journal Individual Psychology. Whilst Smuts' text Holism and Evolution is thought to be a work of science, it actually attempts to unify evolution with a higher metaphysical principle holism.
The sense of connection and one-ness revered in various religious traditions among these, Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Buddhism and Baha'i finds a strong complement in Adler's thought. The pragmatic and materialist aspects to contextualizing members of communities, the construction of communities and the socio-historical-political forces that shape communities matter a great deal when it comes to understanding an individual's psychological make-up and functioning. This aspect of Adlerian psychology holds a high level of synergy with the field of community psychology , especially given Adler's concern for what he called "the absolute truth and logic of communal life". Adlerian psychology, Carl Jung 's analytical psychology , Gestalt therapy and Karen Horney 's psychodynamic approach are holistic schools of psychology.
These discourses eschew a reductive approach to understanding human psychology and psychopathology. Adler developed a scheme of so-called personality types, which were however always to be taken as provisional or heuristic since he did not, in essence, believe in personality types, and at different times proposed different and equally tentative systems. Nevertheless, he intended to illustrate patterns that could denote a characteristic governed under the overall style of life. Hence American Adlerians such as Harold Mosak have made use of Adler's typology in this provisional sense: . Adler placed great emphasis upon the interpretation of early memories in working with patients and school children, writing that, "Among all psychic expressions, some of the most revealing are the individual's memories.
He maintained that memories are never incidental or trivial; rather, they are chosen reminders: " A person's memories are the reminders she carries about with her of her limitations and of the meanings of events. There are no 'chance' memories. Out of the incalculable number of impressions that an individual receives, she chooses to remember only those which she considers, however dimly, to have a bearing on her problems. Adler often emphasized one's psychological birth order as having an influence on the style of life and the strengths and weaknesses in one's psychological make up. It is important to note the difference between psychological and ordinal birth order e.
Mosak, H. A primer of Adlerian Psychology. Taylor and Francis. Adler believed that the firstborn child would be in a favorable position, enjoying the full attention of the eager new parents until the arrival of a second child. This second child would cause the first born to suffer feelings of dethronement, no longer being the center of attention. Adler believed that in a three-child family, the oldest child would be the most likely to suffer from neuroticism and substance addiction which he reasoned was a compensation for the feelings of excessive responsibility "the weight of the world on one's shoulders" e.
As a result, he predicted that this child was the most likely to end up in jail or an asylum. Youngest children would tend to be overindulged, leading to poor social empathy. Consequently, the middle child, who would experience neither dethronement nor overindulgence, was most likely to develop into a successful individual yet also most likely to be a rebel and to feel squeezed-out. Adler himself was the third some sources credit second in a family of six children. Adler never produced any scientific support for his interpretations on birth order roles, nor did he feel the need to. Yet the value of the hypothesis was to extend the importance of siblings in marking the psychology of the individual beyond Freud's more limited emphasis on the mother and father.
Hence, Adlerians spend time therapeutically mapping the influence that siblings or lack thereof had on the psychology of their clients. The idiographic approach entails an excavation of the phenomenology of one's birth order position for likely influence on the subject's Style of Life. In sum, the subjective experiences of sibling positionality and inter-relations are important in terms of the dynamics of psychology, for Adlerian therapists and personality theorists, not the cookbook predictions that may or may not have been objectively true in Adler's time. For Adler, birth order answered the question, "Why do children, who are raised in the same family, grow up with very different personalities?
The position in the family constellation, Adler said, is the reason for these differences in personality and not genetics: a point later taken up by Eric Berne. Adler's insight into birth order, compensation and issues relating to the individuals' perception of community also led him to investigate the causes and treatment of substance abuse disorders, particularly alcoholism and morphinism , which already were serious social problems of his time.
Adler's work with addicts was significant since most other prominent proponents of psychoanalysis invested relatively little time and thought into this widespread ill of the modern and post-modern age. In addition to applying his individual psychology approach of organ inferiority, for example, to the onset and causes of addictive behaviors, he also tried to find a clear relationship of drug cravings to sexual gratification or their substitutions. Early pharmaco-therapeutic interventions with non-addictive substances, such as neuphyllin were used, since withdrawal symptoms were explained by a form of "water-poisoning" that made the use of diuretics necessary.
Adler and his wife's pragmatic approach, and the seemingly high success rates of their treatment were based on their ideas of social functioning and well-being. Clearly, life style choices and situations were emphasized, for example the need for relaxation or the negative effects of early childhood conflicts were examined, which compared to other authoritarian or religious treatment regimens, were clearly modern approaches. Certainly some of his observations, for example that psychopaths were more likely to be drug addicts are not compatible with current methodologies and theories of substance abuse treatment, but the self-centered attributes of the illness and the clear escapism from social responsibilities by pathological addicts put Adler's treatment modalities clearly into a modern contextual reasoning.
Adler's ideas regarding non- heterosexual sexuality and various social forms of deviance have long been controversial. Along with prostitution and criminality, Adler had classified 'homosexuals' as falling among the "failures of life". In , he began his writings on homosexuality with a page magazine, and sporadically published more thoughts throughout the rest of his life. The Dutch psychologist Gerard J. There is evidence that Adler may have moved towards abandoning the hypothesis. Towards the end of Adler's life, in the mids, his opinion towards homosexuality began to shift.
Elizabeth H. McDowell, a New York state family social worker recalls undertaking supervision with Adler on a young man who was " living in sin " with an older man in New York City. Adler asked her, "Is he happy, would you say? Adler then stated, "Well, why don't we leave him alone. According to Phyllis Bottome, who wrote Adler's Biography after Adler himself laid upon her that task : "He always treated homosexuality as lack of courage.
These were but ways of obtaining a slight release for a physical need while avoiding a greater obligation. A transient partner of your own sex is a better known road and requires less courage than a permanent contact with an "unknown" sex. Adler emphasized both treatment and prevention. With regard to psychodynamic psychology, Adlerians emphasize the foundational importance of childhood in developing personality and any tendency towards various forms of psychopathology. The best way to inoculate against what are now termed "personality disorders" what Adler had called the "neurotic character" , or a tendency to various neurotic conditions depression, anxiety, etc. The responsibility of the optimal development of the child is not limited to the mother or father, but rather includes teachers and society more broadly.
Adler argued therefore that teachers, nurses, social workers, and so on require training in parent education to complement the work of the family in fostering a democratic character. When a child does not feel equal and is enacted upon abused through pampering or neglect he or she is likely to develop inferiority or superiority complexes and various concomitant compensation strategies. In a late work, Social Interest: A Challenge to Mankind , Adler turns to the subject of metaphysics , where he integrates Jan Smuts' evolutionary holism with the ideas of teleology and community: " sub specie aeternitatis ".
Unabashedly, he argues his vision of society: "Social feeling means above all a struggle for a communal form that must be thought of as eternally applicable I see no reason to be afraid of metaphysics; it has had a great influence on human life and development. We are not blessed with the possession of absolute truth; on that account we are compelled to form theories for ourselves about our future, about the results of our actions, etc.
Our idea of social feeling as the final form of humanity — of an imagined state in which all the problems of life are solved and all our relations to the external world rightly adjusted — is a regulative ideal, a goal that gives our direction. This goal of perfection must bear within it the goal of an ideal community, because all that we value in life, all that endures and continues to endure, is eternally the product of this social feeling. Clearly, Adler himself had little problem with adopting a metaphysical and spiritual point of view to support his theories. Adler died suddenly in Aberdeen , Scotland , in May , during a three-week visit to the University of Aberdeen. While walking down the street, he was seen to collapse and lie motionless on the pavement.
As a man ran over to him and loosened his collar, Adler mumbled "Kurt", the name of his son and died. The autopsy performed determined his death was caused by a degeneration of the heart muscle. In , his ashes were rediscovered in a casket at Warriston Crematorium and returned to Vienna for burial in Much of Adler's theories have been absorbed into modern psychology without attribution. Psychohistorian Henri F. Ellenberger writes, "It would not be easy to find another author from which so much has been borrowed on all sides without acknowledgement than Alfred Adler. In collaboration with Sigmund Freud and a small group of Freud's colleagues, Adler was among the co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement and a core member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society : indeed, to Freud he was "the only personality there".
He also imagined a person to be connected or associated with the surrounding world. This was after Freud declared Adler's ideas as too contrary, leading to an ultimatum to all members of the Society which Freud had shepherded to drop Adler or be expelled, disavowing the right to dissent Makari, Nevertheless, Freud always took Adler's ideas seriously, calling them "honorable errors". Though one rejects the content of Adler's views, one can recognize their consistency and significance. Adler emphasized the importance of equality in preventing various forms of psychopathology, and espoused the development of social interest and democratic family structures for raising children. His emphasis on power dynamics is rooted in the philosophy of Nietzsche , whose works were published a few decades before Adler's.
Specifically, Adler's conceptualization of the "Will to Power" focuses on the individual's creative power to change for the better. Adler was also among the first in psychology to argue in favor of feminism , and the female analyst,  making the case that power dynamics between men and women and associations with masculinity and femininity are crucial to understanding human psychology Connell, During his college years, he had become attached to a group of socialist students, among which he had found his wife-to-be, Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein, an intellectual and social activist from Russia studying in Vienna.
Because Raissa was a militant socialist, she had a large impact on Adler's early publications and ultimately his theory of personality. Author and journalist Margot Adler was Adler's granddaughter. The two main characters in the novel Plant Teacher engage in a session of Adlerian lifestyle interpretation, including early memory interpretation. In the episode Something About Dr. Mary of the television series Frasier , Frasier recalls having to "pass under a dangerously unbalanced portrait of Alfred Adler" during his studies at Harvard. He appears as a charecter in the Young Indiana Jones chronicles. In his lifetime, Adler published more than books and articles. An entirely new translation of Adler's magnum opus, The Neurotic Character , is featured in Volume 1.
Volume 12 provides comprehensive overviews of Adler's mature theory and contemporary Adlerian practice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Austrian psychotherapist — Aberdeen , Scotland. Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. See also. Child psychoanalysis Depth psychology Psychodynamics Psychoanalytic theory. Further information: Homosexuality and psychology.
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