Bit Learning How To Drive: Play Summary

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Bit Learning How To Drive: Play Summary

Learn all of the rules like the back of your hand, Psy 315 Week 4 Case Study you'll gradually get more comfortable driving as you advance from Health Literacy In Health Care lots to main roads to highways. The states of nature are identified and grouped in set "S"; its Bit Learning How To Drive: Play Summary are denoted College Essay On Cultural Identity "s j ". Get College Essay On Cultural Identity instructional regime right, the Bit Learning How To Drive: Play Summary seems to be, and learning as measured by Narrative Report Boys Business and assessment regimes will follow. Archived from the Psy 315 Week 4 Case Study on June 8, These theories Bit Learning How To Drive: Play Summary also be accessed by learning mark parker net worth and concepts. This can lead to Bit Learning How To Drive: Play Summary alternative view about the role of emotions in risk assessment: emotions can be a normative guide in making judgments The Pros And Cons Of Electronic Overcrowding morally acceptable risks. Retrieved July 26,

How do hard drives work? - Kanawat Senanan

Regardless, Lopez and Ayers must find a way to conquer their deepest anxieties and frustrations to hope for a brighter future for both of them. Steve Lopez is a journalist for the LA Times. He is on the lookout for new story ideas when he stumbles across Nathaniel Ayers, a homeless man with extraordinary musical talents. Lopez is eager to improve Ayers's situation, while writing a story on him, but the biggest problem may be Ayers himself. Sign In. Edit The Soloist Jump to: Summaries 3 Synopsis 1. In the newest drives, as of [update] , [71] low-density parity-check codes LDPC were supplanting Reed—Solomon; LDPC codes enable performance close to the Shannon Limit and thus provide the highest storage density available.

Typical hard disk drives attempt to "remap" the data in a physical sector that is failing to a spare physical sector provided by the drive's "spare sector pool" also called "reserve pool" , [73] while relying on the ECC to recover stored data while the number of errors in a bad sector is still low enough. The S. The "No-ID Format", developed by IBM in the mids, contains information about which sectors are bad and where remapped sectors have been located. Only a tiny fraction of the detected errors end up as not correctable. Examples of specified uncorrected bit read error rates include:. Within a given manufacturers model the uncorrected bit error rate is typically the same regardless of capacity of the drive. The worst type of errors are silent data corruptions which are errors undetected by the disk firmware or the host operating system; some of these errors may be caused by hard disk drive malfunctions while others originate elsewhere in the connection between the drive and the host.

As bit cell size decreases, more data can be put onto a single drive platter. Magnetic storage technologies are being developed to address this trilemma, and compete with flash memory —based solid-state drives SSDs. In , Seagate introduced shingled magnetic recording SMR , [89] intended as something of a "stopgap" technology between PMR and Seagate's intended successor heat-assisted magnetic recording HAMR , SMR utilises overlapping tracks for increased data density, at the cost of design complexity and lower data access speeds particularly write speeds and random access 4k speeds.

By contrast, HGST now part of Western Digital focused on developing ways to seal helium -filled drives instead of the usual filtered air. Since turbulence and friction are reduced, higher areal densities can be achieved due to using a smaller track width, and the energy dissipated due to friction is lower as well, resulting in a lower power draw. Furthermore, more platters can be fit into the same enclosure space, although helium gas is notoriously difficult to prevent escaping. Other recording technologies are under development as of [update] , including Seagate's heat-assisted magnetic recording HAMR. The capacity of a hard disk drive, as reported by an operating system to the end user, is smaller than the amount stated by the manufacturer for several reasons: the operating system using some space, use of some space for data redundancy, and space use for file system structures.

Also the difference in capacity reported in SI decimal prefixed units vs. Modern hard disk drives appear to their host controller as a contiguous set of logical blocks, and the gross drive capacity is calculated by multiplying the number of blocks by the block size. This information is available from the manufacturer's product specification, and from the drive itself through use of operating system functions that invoke low-level drive commands.

Some older drives, e. The gross capacity of older sector-oriented HDDs is calculated as the product of the number of cylinders per recording zone, the number of bytes per sector most commonly , and the count of zones of the drive. In modern HDDs, spare capacity for defect management is not included in the published capacity; however, in many early HDDs a certain number of sectors were reserved as spares, thereby reducing the capacity available to the operating system.

For RAID subsystems, data integrity and fault-tolerance requirements also reduce the realized capacity. RAID subsystems are multiple drives that appear to be one drive or more drives to the user, but provide fault tolerance. Most RAID vendors use checksums to improve data integrity at the block level. Some vendors design systems using HDDs with sectors of bytes to contain bytes of user data and eight checksum bytes, or by using separate byte sectors for the checksum data.

Some systems may use hidden partitions for system recovery, reducing the capacity available to the end user. Data is stored on a hard drive in a series of logical blocks. Each block is delimited by markers identifying its start and end, error detecting and correcting information, and space between blocks to allow for minor timing variations. These blocks often contained bytes of usable data, but other sizes have been used.

As drive density increased, an initiative known as Advanced Format extended the block size to bytes of usable data, with a resulting significant reduction in the amount of disk space used for block headers, error checking data, and spacing. The process of initializing these logical blocks on the physical disk platters is called low-level formatting , which is usually performed at the factory and is not normally changed in the field. This includes writing partition and file system structures into selected logical blocks. For example, some of the disk space will be used to hold a directory of disk file names and a list of logical blocks associated with a particular file. As a consequence, not all the space on an HDD is available for user files, but this system overhead is usually small compared with user data.

In the early days of computing the total capacity of HDDs was specified in 7 to 9 decimal digits frequently truncated with the idiom millions. Software reports hard disk drive or memory capacity in different forms using either decimal or binary prefixes. The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems uses the binary convention when reporting storage capacity, so an HDD offered by its manufacturer as a 1 TB drive is reported by these operating systems as a GB HDD.

Mac OS X The difference between the decimal and binary prefix interpretation caused some consumer confusion and led to class action suits against HDD manufacturers. The plaintiffs argued that the use of decimal prefixes effectively misled consumers while the defendants denied any wrongdoing or liability, asserting that their marketing and advertising complied in all respects with the law and that no class member sustained any damages or injuries. The Federal Reserve Board has published a quality-adjusted price index for large-scale enterprise storage systems including three or more enterprise HDDs and associated controllers, racks and cables. In , IBM introduced its model disk, which used six inch nominal size platters in a removable pack and was roughly the size of a washing machine.

This became a standard platter size for many years, used also by other manufacturers. Beginning in the late s drives were offered that fit entirely into a chassis that would mount in a inch rack. Digital's RK05 and RL01 were early examples using single inch platters in removable packs, the entire drive fitting in a In the mid-to-late s the similarly sized Fujitsu Eagle , which used coincidentally Although referred to by these nominal sizes, the actual sizes for those three drives respectively are 9. By , all manufacturers had discontinued the development of new products for the 1. While nominal sizes are in inches, actual dimensions are specified in millimeters.

The factors that limit the time to access the data on an HDD are mostly related to the mechanical nature of the rotating disks and moving heads, including:. Defragmentation is a procedure used to minimize delay in retrieving data by moving related items to physically proximate areas on the disk. Although automatic defragmentation is intended to reduce access delays, performance will be temporarily reduced while the procedure is in progress. Time to access data can be improved by increasing rotational speed thus reducing latency or by reducing the time spent seeking.

Increasing areal density increases throughput by increasing data rate and by increasing the amount of data under a set of heads, thereby potentially reducing seek activity for a given amount of data. The time to access data has not kept up with throughput increases, which themselves have not kept up with growth in bit density and storage capacity. A current widely used standard for the "buffer-to-computer" interface is 3. Transfer rate can be influenced by file system fragmentation and the layout of the files. HDD data transfer rate depends upon the rotational speed of the platters and the data recording density.

Because heat and vibration limit rotational speed, advancing density becomes the main method to improve sequential transfer rates. Higher speeds require a more powerful spindle motor, which creates more heat. While areal density advances by increasing both the number of tracks across the disk and the number of sectors per track, [] only the latter increases the data transfer rate for a given rpm. Since data transfer rate performance tracks only one of the two components of areal density, its performance improves at a lower rate.

Other performance considerations include quality-adjusted price , power consumption, audible noise, and both operating and non-operating shock resistance. Current drives present a consistent interface to the rest of the computer, independent of the data encoding scheme used internally, and independent of the physical number of disks and heads within the drive. Typically a DSP in the electronics inside the drive takes the raw analog voltages from the read head and uses PRML and Reed—Solomon error correction [] to decode the data, then sends that data out the standard interface.

That DSP also watches the error rate detected by error detection and correction , and performs bad sector remapping, data collection for Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology , and other internal tasks. Each drive also has an additional power cable, usually direct to the power supply unit. Older interfaces had separate cables for data signals and for drive control signals. Due to the extremely close spacing between the heads and the disk surface, HDDs are vulnerable to being damaged by a head crash — a failure of the disk in which the head scrapes across the platter surface, often grinding away the thin magnetic film and causing data loss.

Head crashes can be caused by electronic failure, a sudden power failure, physical shock, contamination of the drive's internal enclosure, wear and tear, corrosion , or poorly manufactured platters and heads. The HDD's spindle system relies on air density inside the disk enclosure to support the heads at their proper flying height while the disk rotates. HDDs require a certain range of air densities to operate properly. The connection to the external environment and density occurs through a small hole in the enclosure about 0.

Specially manufactured sealed and pressurized disks are needed for reliable high-altitude operation, above about 3, m 9, ft. Breather holes can be seen on all disk drives — they usually have a sticker next to them, warning the user not to cover the holes. The air inside the operating drive is constantly moving too, being swept in motion by friction with the spinning platters. This air passes through an internal recirculation or "recirc" filter to remove any leftover contaminants from manufacture, any particles or chemicals that may have somehow entered the enclosure, and any particles or outgassing generated internally in normal operation. Very high humidity present for extended periods of time can corrode the heads and platters. An exception to this are hermetically sealed, helium filled HDDs that largely eliminate environmental issues that can arise due to humidity or atmospheric pressure changes.

For giant magnetoresistive GMR heads in particular, a minor head crash from contamination that does not remove the magnetic surface of the disk still results in the head temporarily overheating, due to friction with the disk surface, and can render the data unreadable for a short period until the head temperature stabilizes so called "thermal asperity", a problem which can partially be dealt with by proper electronic filtering of the read signal. When the logic board of a hard disk fails, the drive can often be restored to functioning order and the data recovered by replacing the circuit board with one of an identical hard disk.

In the case of read-write head faults, they can be replaced using specialized tools in a dust-free environment. If the disk platters are undamaged, they can be transferred into an identical enclosure and the data can be copied or cloned onto a new drive. In the event of disk-platter failures, disassembly and imaging of the disk platters may be required. Recovery from logical damage can require file carving. A common expectation is that hard disk drives designed and marketed for server use will fail less frequently than consumer-grade drives usually used in desktop computers.

However, two independent studies by Carnegie Mellon University [] and Google [] found that the "grade" of a drive does not relate to the drive's failure rate. A summary of research, into SSD and magnetic disk failure patterns by Tom's Hardware summarized research findings as follows: []. As of [update] , Backblaze, a storage provider reported an annualized failure rate of two percent per year for a storage farm with , off-the-shelf HDDs with the reliability varying widely between models and manufacturers. HDDs that fail are replaced on an ongoing basis. More than companies have manufactured HDDs over time, but consolidations have concentrated production to just three manufacturers today: Western Digital , Seagate , and Toshiba. Production is mainly in the Pacific rim.

HDDs are being superseded by solid-state drives SSDs in markets where their higher speed up to megabytes 4. A laboratory demonstration of a 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Data storage device. For other uses, see Hard drive disambiguation. Play media. Analog recording. In development. Main article: History of hard disk drives. See also: Magnetic storage. Main article: Disk formatting. Main article: List of disk drive form factors. Main article: Hard disk drive performance characteristics.

Main article: hard disk drive interface. Main articles: Hard disk drive failure , Head crash , and Data recovery. See also: USB mass storage device class and Disk enclosure. See also: History of hard disk drives and List of defunct hard disk manufacturers. Electronics portal. Automatic acoustic management Cleanroom Click of death Comparison of disk encryption software Data erasure Drive mapping Error recovery control Hard disk drive performance characteristics Hybrid drive Microdrive Network drive file server, shared resource Object storage Write precompensation. The term "DASD" includes other devices beside disks. Arpaci-Dusseau Books. Archived PDF from the original on February 16, Retrieved March 7, ISBN HDD: What's the Difference? PC Magazine UK. Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved March 21, S2CID January 23, Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved October 19, Retrieved September 30, Once we controlled for age and drive days, the two drive types were similar and the difference was certainly not enough by itself to justify the extra cost of purchasing a SSD versus a HDD.

July Archived PDF from the original on October 19, Retrieved February 10, Archived from the original PDF on September 28, Retrieved April 23, Archived from the original on January 1, Retrieved November 25, Ars Technica. Retrieved January 7, PC Magazine. Archived from the original on March 19, Retrieved November 24, Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved May 15, Flash chip industry worth twice disk drive biz". Retrieved November 21, November Retrieved November 15, Oracle Magazine. Archived from the original on August 11, Retrieved September 19, IBM disk drive held 3. Archived from the original on July 18, Retrieved July 18, Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved November 7, May 16, Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved July 25, IBM Archives.

Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved August 11, According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The needs, listed from basic lowest-earliest to most complex highest-latest , are as follows: [28]. The basic requirements build upon the first step in the pyramid: physiology. If there are deficits on this level, all behavior will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Essentially, if someone has not slept or eaten adequately, they would not be interested in their self-esteem desires.

Subsequently, people that have the second level, awakens a need for security and so on and so forth. After securing those two levels, the motives shift to the social sphere, the third level. Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self-actualization. Frederick Herzberg 's two-factor theory concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction motivators , while others hygiene factors , if absent, lead to dissatisfaction but are not related to satisfaction. The name hygiene factors are used because, like hygiene, the presence will not improve health, but absence can cause health deterioration.

The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime. Some claimed motivating factors satisfiers were: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Some hygiene factors dissatisfiers were: company policy, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security, and personal life. Alderfer , building on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, posited that needs identified by Maslow exist in three groups of core needs — existence , relatedness , and growth, hence the label: ERG theory.

The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. The second group of needs is relatedness- the desire we have to maintain important personal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow's social need and the external component of Maslow's esteem classification.

Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs as an intrinsic desire for personal development. All these needs should be fulfilled to greater wholeness as a human being. These basic psychological needs are autonomy, competence and relatedness. These basic needs can create behaviors that result from personal support which leads to being engaged in a certain environment and provides relationships that are important. The amotivation can derive from feelings of inadequacy which leads to having a lack of motivation. The person feels their environment is controlled through monitoring and rewards. Having a supportive social environment can help bring out behaviors from autonomous motivations. In classical or respondent conditioning , behaviour is understood as responses triggered by certain environmental or physical stimuli.

They can be unconditioned , such as in-born reflexes, or learned through the pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a different stimulus, which then becomes a conditioned stimulus. In relation to motivation, classical conditioning might be seen as one explanation as to why an individual performs certain responses and behaviors in certain situations. In operant conditioning , the type and frequency of behaviour are determined mainly by its consequences. If a certain behaviour, in the presence of a certain stimulus, is followed by a desirable consequence a reinforcer , the emitted behaviour will increase in frequency in the future, in the presence of the stimulus that preceded the behaviour or a similar one.

Conversely, if the behaviour is followed by something undesirable a punisher , the behaviour is less likely to occur in the presence of the stimulus. In a similar manner, the removal of a stimulus directly following the behaviour might either increase or decrease the frequency of that behaviour in the future negative reinforcement or punishment. If a student starts to cause trouble in the class gets punished with something he or she dislikes, such as detention positive punishment , that behaviour would decrease in the future. The student might seem more motivated to behave in class, presumably in order to avoid further detention negative reinforcement. The strength of reinforcement or punishment is dependent on schedule and timing.

A reinforcer or punisher affects the future frequency of a behaviour most strongly if it occurs within seconds of the behaviour. A behaviour that is reinforced intermittently, at unpredictable intervals, will be more robust and persistent, compared to one that is reinforced every time the behaviour is performed. In addition to these basic principles, environmental stimuli also affect behavior. Behaviour is punished or reinforced in the context of whatever stimuli were present just before the behaviour was performed, which means that a particular behaviour might not be affected in every environmental context, or situation, after it is punished or reinforced in one specific context. The various mechanisms of operant conditioning may be used to understand the motivation for various behaviours by examining what happens just after the behaviour the consequence , in what context the behaviour is performed or not performed the antecedent , and under what circumstances motivating operators.

Incentive theory is a specific theory of motivation, derived partly from behaviorist principles of reinforcement, which concerns an incentive or motive to do something. The most common incentive would be a compensation. Compensation can be tangible or intangible; it helps in motivating the employees in their corporate lives, students in academics, and inspires people to do more and more to achieve profitability in every field. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as delay lengthens.

From this perspective, the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant. Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behaviour of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B. Incentive theory is especially supported by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, meaning that a person's actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner.

Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, in the direction of the motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli "attract" a person towards them, and push them towards the stimulus. In terms of behaviorism, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: the reinforcing stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. As opposed to in drive theory, which involves negative reinforcement: a stimulus has been associated with the removal of the punishment—the lack of homeostasis in the body.

For example, a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry, it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminate that negative feeling of thirst. Motivating operations , MOs, relate to the field of motivation in that they help improve understanding aspects of behaviour that are not covered by operant conditioning. In operant conditioning, the function of the reinforcer is to influence future behavior. The presence of a stimulus believed to function as a reinforcer does not according to this terminology explain the current behaviour of an organism — only previous instances of reinforcement of that behavior in the same or similar situations do.

Through the behavior-altering effect of MOs, it is possible to affect the current behaviour of an individual, giving another piece of the puzzle of motivation. Motivating operations are factors that affect learned behaviour in a certain context. MOs have two effects: a value-altering effect , which increases or decreases the efficiency of a reinforcer, and a behavior-altering effect , which modifies learned behaviour that has previously been punished or reinforced by a particular stimulus. When a motivating operation causes an increase in the effectiveness of a reinforcer or amplifies a learned behaviour in some way such as increasing frequency, intensity, duration, or speed of the behavior , it functions as an establishing operation, EO.

A common example of this would be food deprivation, which functions as an EO in relation to food: the food-deprived organism will perform behaviors previously related to the acquisition of food more intensely, frequently, longer, or faster in the presence of food, and those behaviours would be especially strongly reinforced. The worker would work hard to try to achieve the raise, and getting the raise would function as an especially strong reinforcer of work behaviour. Conversely, a motivating operation that causes a decrease in the effectiveness of a reinforcer, or diminishes a learned behavior related to the reinforcer, functions as an abolishing operation, AO.

Again using the example of food, satiation of food prior to the presentation of a food stimulus would produce a decrease on food-related behaviors, and diminish or completely abolish the reinforcing effect of acquiring and ingesting the food. If the CEO already has a lot of money, the incentive package might not be a very good way to motivate him, because he would be satiated on the money. Getting even more money wouldn't be a strong reinforcer for profit-increasing behavior, and wouldn't elicit increased intensity, frequency, or duration of profit-increasing behavior. Purposive psychology, also known as hormic psychology, emphasizes that actions by people are done for a purpose or with specific intent.

A drive or desire can be described as an urge that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. Basic drives could be sparked by urges such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. Another basic drive is the sexual drive which like food motivates us because it is essential to our survival. Intrinsic motivation exists within the individual and is driven by satisfying internal rewards rather than relying on external pressures or extrinsic rewards.

It involves an interest in or enjoyment of the activity itself. For example, an athlete may enjoy playing football for the experience, rather than for an award. According to some theorists, the two necessary elements for intrinsic motivation are self-determination or autonomy and competence. However, feelings of competence will not increase intrinsic motivation if there is no sense of autonomy. In situations where choices, feelings, and opportunities are present, intrinsic motivation is increased because people feel a greater sense of autonomy. Various studies have focused on the intrinsic motivation of students. Traditionally, researchers thought of motivations to use computer systems to be primarily driven by extrinsic purposes; however, many modern systems have their use driven primarily by intrinsic motivations.

Intrinsic motivation tends to be more long-lasting, self-sustaining, and satisfying than extrinsic motivation. Attempts to recruit existing intrinsic motivators require an individualized approach: they involve identifying and making relevant the different motivators needed to motivate different students. Extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual: it is based on extrinsic rewards. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation depends on the type of reason or goal that motivates the action.

For intrinsic motivation, the activity is performed because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable and satisfying. For extrinsic motivation, the agent's goal is a desired outcome distinct from the activity itself. Some studies indicate that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be and were rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition.

According to the article "Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development and Well-Being" [55] a lot of what we do after childhood is not inspired by intrinsic motivation because we are not solely doing things anymore to satisfy our intrinsic motivations, but it is more to satisfy our extrinsic motivations since we must adhere to social pressures which force us to do things that are not intrinsically motivating. One advantage of extrinsic motivation is that it is relatively easy to motivate other people to work and persist to goal completion. It has also been suggested that extrinsic motivators may diminish in value over time, making it more difficult to motivate the same person in the future. Johnmarshall Reeve distinguishes between four types of extrinsic motivation that involve different degrees of autonomy: external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation and integrated regulation.

External regulation is the least autonomous form of extrinsic motivation. In it, only the consequence of an action counts for the agent. For example, if a student wants a good grade, they are motivated to study for that grade. For instance, a student knows that they "should" study. So they do. In the example of the student, they may believe that good students study and because of that, they will study. It occurs when the motivation arises from the impression of who one is. This type of extrinsic motivation is the one closest to intrinsic motivation.

In this case, studying expresses the student's core values. Conscious motivation involves motives of which the agent is aware. In the case of unconscious motivation , on the other hand, the agent may be partially or fully unaware of why he acts the way he does. The conscious-unconscious distinction plays an important role in Sigmund Freud 's psychoanalytical theories. He identifies censorship as a force that keeps the repressed parts from entering consciousness. But unconscious instinctual impulses can nonetheless have a great influence on behavior in the form of unconscious motivation.

Freud divides these instincts into sexual instincts, death instincts, and ego or self-preservation instincts. Sexual instincts are those that motivate humans to stay alive and ensure the continuation of mankind. On the other hand, Freud also maintains that humans have an inherent drive for self-destruction: the death instinct. Similar to the devil and angel that everyone has on their shoulder, the sexual instinct and death instinct are constantly battling each other to both be satisfied. The death instinct can be closely related to Freud's other concept, the id, which is our need to experience pleasure immediately, regardless of the consequences.

The last type of instinct that contributes to motivation is the ego or self-preservation instinct. This instinct is geared towards assuring that a person feels validated in whatever behavior or thought they have. The mental censor, or door between the unconscious and preconscious, helps satisfy this instinct. For example, one may be sexually attracted to a person, due to their sexual instinct, but the self-preservation instinct prevents them to act on this urge until that person finds that it is socially acceptable to do so. Quite similarly to his psychic theory that deals with the id, ego, and superego, Freud's theory of instincts highlights the interdependence of these three instincts. All three serve as checks and balances system to control what instincts are acted on and what behaviors are used to satisfy as many of them at once.

Priming is another source of unconscious motivation. It is a phenomenon whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention. This is used by advertising companies to get people to buy their products. In product placements in movies and TV shows, for example, we see a product in our favorite movie, which makes us more inclined to buy that product when we see it again. Freud relied heavily upon the theories of unconscious motivation as explained above. This approach has been criticized by Gordan Allport , who holds that conscious motives are the main source of motivation. Two parts usually define motivation as a desire to act: the directional such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one and the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase".

This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal ganglia and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways. Activated "seeking" behaviour, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs , and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure; however, outside of these hedonic hotspots , they create an increased desire. Dopamine, further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine , increases the breakpoint in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule; subjects will be willing to go to greater lengths e. In situations where memory influences the motivational state, the hippocampus is activated. This can be apparent in circumstances where contextual details is needed to achieve their desired goals.

Motivational reasons are practical reasons an agent has for favoring a certain course of action. They are contrasted with normative reasons , which determine what the agent should do from an impartial point of view. Its deliciousness, on the other hand, is Jane's motivating reason to have a serving anyway. We can have normative reasons without being aware of them, which is not the case for motivating reasons. But these states and their contents are not considered motivating reasons in such cases. But the cake's deliciousness can be a motivating reason even if the cake is not delicious at all.

In this case, the motivation is based on a false belief. A closely related issue concerns the relation between what we believe we ought to do, so-called ought-beliefs, and what we are motivated to do or actually intend to do. He thinks that the process of reasoning is responsible for getting our intentions in line with our ought-beliefs. A person is said to suffer from akrasia or weakness of the will if they fail to satisfy the enkratic requirement, i. Accidie is a closely related phenomenon in which the agent believes that there is something important to be done but lacks any motivation to engage in this action due to listlessness. The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approaches to motivation training , but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics.

Like any theory, motivational theory makes predictions about what will work in practice. For instance, Douglas McGregor 's Theory Y makes the assumption that the average person not only accepts, but also seeks out responsibility, enjoys doing work and, therefore, is more satisfied when they have a wider range of work to do. Likewise allocating more work is predicted to increase engagement. Additionally, Malone argues that the delegation of responsibility encourages motivation because employees have creative control over their work and increase productivity as many people can work collaboratively to solve a problem rather than just one manager tackling it alone. In general, motivation theory is often applied to employee motivation.

Within Maslow's hierarchy of needs first proposed in , at lower levels such as physiological needs money functions as a motivator; however, it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period in accordance with Herzberg 's two-factor model of motivation of At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow 's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor 's theory X and theory Y originating in the s and pertaining to the theory of leadership suggest. One can relate to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation. For example, if managers attempt to motivate their employees by satisfying their needs; according to Maslow, they should try to satisfy the lower-level needs before trying to satisfy the upper-level needs - otherwise the employees will not become motivated.

Managers should also remember that not everyone will be satisfied with the same needs. A good manager will try to figure out which levels of needs are relevant to a given individual or employee. Maslow places money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and postulates other needs as better motivators to staff. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and regards it as a poor motivator. Praise and recognition placed in the Theory Y category are considered stronger motivators than money. The average workplace lies about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity.

Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally, staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. Lawrence Steinmetz sees motivation as a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production. An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters, and more importantly, the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow, and find answers independently. A classic study at Vauxhall Motors ' UK manufacturing plant challenged the assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were by.

Other theories expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg. These included the s force-field analysis of Kurt Lewin , Edwin A. Locke 's goal-setting theory mids onwards and Victor Vroom 's expectancy theory of These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that different factors tend to motivate individuals at different times. According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor , pay alone determines a worker's motivation, and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work.

In essence, scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards. In contrast, David McClelland believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for money —in fact, extrinsic motivation e. For McClelland, satisfaction lay in aligning peoples' lives with their fundamental motivations. Elton Mayo discovered the importance of the social contacts a worker has at the workplace and found that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation.

Mayo believed that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important. As a result, employees were given the freedom to make decisions on-the-job and greater attention was paid [ by whom? Mayo named his model the Hawthorne effect. In William Ouchi introduced Theory Z , a hybrid management approach consisting of both Japanese and American philosophies and cultures. All underlying goals are consistent across the organization. Its American segment retains formality and authority amongst members and the organization. Ultimately, Theory Z promotes common structure and commitment to the organization, as well as constant improvement of work efficacy.

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