Voter ID Argumentative Essay

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Voter ID Argumentative Essay



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Does the Voter ID Requirement Safeguard the Election Process? [POLICYbrief]

The juries under the assizes began deciding guilt as well as providing accusations. The same year, trial by jury became an explicit right in one of the most influential clauses of Magna Carta. Article 39 of the Magna Carta read:. Nullus liber homo capiatur, vel imprisonetur, aut desseisetur de libero tenemento, vel libertatibus, vel liberis consuetudinibus suis, aut utlagetur, aut exuletur, aut aliquo modo destruatur, nec super eum ibimus, nec super eum mittemus, nisi per legale judicium parium suorum, vel per legem terrae. No free man shall be captured, and or imprisoned, or disseised of his freehold, and or of his liberties, or of his free customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor will we proceed against him by force or proceed against him by arms, but by the lawful judgment of his peers, and or by the law of the land.

Although it says "and or by the law of the land", this in no manner can be interpreted as if it were enough to have a positive law, made by the king, to be able to proceed legally against a citizen. The law of the land was the consuetudinary law , based on the customs and consent of John's subjects, and since they did not have Parliament in those times, this meant that neither the king nor the barons could make a law without the consent of the people. According to some sources, [ who? In , Magna Carta [18] further secured trial by jury by stating that. For a trivial offence, a free man shall be fined only in proportion to the degree of his offence, and for a serious offence correspondingly, but not so heavily as to deprive him of his livelihood.

In the same way, a merchant shall be spared his merchandise, and a husbandman the implements of his husbandry, if they fall upon the mercy of a royal court. None of these fines shall be imposed except by the assessment on oath of reputable men of the neighbourhood. Earls and barons shall be fined only by their equals, and in proportion to the gravity of their offence. To any man whom we have deprived or dispossessed of lands, castles, liberties, or rights, without the lawful judgement of his equals, we will at once restore these. If we have deprived or dispossessed any Welshmen of lands, liberties, or anything else in England or in Wales, without the lawful judgement of their equals, these are at once to be returned to them. A dispute on this point shall be determined in the Marches by the judgement of equals.

English law shall apply to holdings of land in England, Welsh law to those in Wales, and the law of the Marches to those in the Marches. The Welsh shall treat us and ours in the same way. During the midth century, persons who had sat on the Presenting Jury i. Medieval juries were self-informing, in that individuals were chosen as jurors because they either knew the parties and the facts, or they had the duty to discover them.

This spared the government the cost of fact-finding. Jurors remained free to investigate cases on their own until the 17th century. Magna Carta being forgotten after a succession of benevolent reigns or, more probably, reigns limited by the jury and the barons, and only under the rule of laws that the juries and barons found acceptable , the kings, through the royal judges, began to extend their control over the jury and the kingdom. In David Hume 's History of England , he tells something of the powers that the kings had accumulated in the times after Magna Carta, the prerogatives of the crown and the sources of great power with which these monarchs counted:.

One of the most ancient and most established instruments of power was the court of Star Chamber , which possessed an unlimited discretionary authority of fining, imprisoning, and inflicting corporal punishment, and whose jurisdiction extended to all sorts of offenses, contempts, and disorders, that lay not within reach of the common law. The members of this court consisted of the privy council and the judges; men who all of them enjoyed their offices during pleasure: And when the prince himself was present, he was the sole judge, and all the others could only interpose with their advice.

There needed but this one court in any government, to put an end to all regular, legal, and exact plans of liberty. For who durst set himself in opposition to the crown and ministry, or aspire to the character of being a patron of freedom, while exposed to so arbitrary a jurisdiction? I much question, whether any of the absolute monarchies in Europe contain, at present, so illegal and despotic a tribunal.

While so many terrors hung over the people, no jury durst have acquitted a man, when the court was resolved to have him condemned. The practice also, of not confronting witnesses to the prisoner, gave the crown lawyers all imaginable advantage against him. And, indeed, there scarcely occurs an instance, during all these reigns, that the sovereign, or the ministers, were ever disappointed in the issue of a prosecution. Timid juries, and judges who held their offices during pleasure, never failed to second all the views of the crown. And as the practice was anciently common of fining, imprisoning, or otherwise punishing the jurors, merely at the discretion of the court, for finding a verdict contrary to the direction of these dependent judges; it is obvious, that juries were then no manner of security to the liberty of the subject.

The first paragraph of the Act that abolished the Star Chamber repeats the clause on the right of a citizen to be judged by his peers:. WHEREAS by the great charter many times confirmed in parliament, it is enacted, That no freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or disseised of his freehold or liberties, or free customs, or be outlawed or exiled or otherwise destroyed, and that the King will not pass upon him, or condemn him; but by lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land In two Quakers charged with unlawful assembly , William Penn and William Mead , were found not guilty by a jury.

The judge then fined the jury for contempt of court for returning a verdict contrary to their own findings of fact and removed them to prison until the fine was paid. Edward Bushel, a member of the jury, nonetheless refused to pay the fine. Bushel petitioned the Court of Common Pleas for a writ of habeas corpus. The ruling in the Bushel's Case was that a jury could not be punished simply on account of the verdict it returned.

Many British colonies, including the United States , adopted the English common law system in which trial by jury is an important part. Jury trials in criminal cases were a protected right in the original United States Constitution and the Fifth , Sixth , and Seventh Amendments of the U. Constitution extend the rights to trial by jury to include the right to jury trial for both criminal and civil matters and a grand jury for serious cases. In most common law jurisdictions, the jury is responsible for finding the facts of the case, while the judge determines the law.

These "peers of the accused" are responsible for listening to a dispute, evaluating the evidence presented, deciding on the facts, and making a decision in accordance with the rules of law and their jury instructions. Typically, the jury only judges guilt or a verdict of not guilty, but the actual penalty is set by the judge. An interesting innovation was introduced in Russia in the judicial reform of Alexander II : unlike in modern jury trials, jurors decided not only whether the defendant was guilty or not guilty, but they had a third choice: "Guilty, but not to be punished", since Alexander II believed that justice without morality was wrong.

In France and some countries organized in the same fashion, the jury and several professional judges sit together to determine guilt first. Then, if guilt is determined, they decide the appropriate penalty. Some jurisdictions with jury trials allow the defendant to waive their right to a jury trial, thus leading to a bench trial. Jury trials tend to occur only when a crime is considered serious. In some jurisdictions, such as France and Brazil , jury trials are reserved, and compulsory, for the most severe crimes and are not available for civil cases.

In Brazil, for example, trials by jury are applied in cases of voluntary crimes against life, such as first and second degree murder, forced abortion and instigation of suicide, even if only attempted. In others, jury trials are only available for criminal cases and very specific civil cases malicious prosecution , civil fraud and false imprisonment. In the United States , jury trials are available in both civil and criminal cases. In Canada , an individual charged with an indictable offence may elect to be tried by a judge alone in a provincial court, by judge alone in a superior court, or by judge and jury in a superior court; summary offences cannot be tried by jury. In England and Wales , offences are classified as summary, indictable, or either way; jury trials are not available for summary offences using instead a summary proceeding with a panel of three lay magistrates or a district judge sitting alone , unless they are tried alongside indictable or either way offences that are themselves tried by jury, but the defendant has a right to demand trial by jury for either way offences.

The situation is similar in Scotland; whereas in Northern Ireland even summary offences carry a right to jury trial, with some exceptions. In the United States, because jury trials tend to be high profile, the general public tends to overestimate the frequency of jury trials. Approximately , jury trials are conducted in state courts annually, [22] and an additional 5, jury trials are conducted in federal courts. Two thirds of jury trials are criminal trials, while one-third are civil and "other" e. Nevertheless, the vast majority of criminal cases are settled by plea bargain , [23] [24] which bypasses the jury trial. Some commentators contend that the guilty-plea system unfairly coerces defendants into relinquishing their right to a jury trial.

In countries where jury trials are common, juries are often seen as an important separation of powers. Another common assertion about the benefits of trial by jury is that it provides a means of educating citizens about government. Many also believe [ weasel words ] that a jury is likely to provide a more sympathetic hearing, or a fairer one, to a party who is not part of the government—or other establishment interest—than representatives of the state might. This last point may be disputed. For example, in highly emotional cases, such as child rape, the jury may be tempted to convict based on personal feelings rather than on conviction beyond reasonable doubt.

Another issue with jury trials is the potential for jurors to exhibit discrimination. Infamous cases include the Scottsboro Boys , a group of nine African-American teenagers accused of raping two White American women on a train in , for which they were indicted by an all-white jury , the acquittal of two white men Roy Bryant and J. Milan by an all-white jury for the murder of year-old Emmett Till in they admitted killing him in a magazine interview a year later , and the trial in the Rodney King case in California , in which white police officers were acquitted of excessive force in the beating of King, an African-American man.

The jury consisted mostly of white people, and there were no African-American jurors. The positive belief about jury trials in the UK and the U. In Japan , for instance, which used to have optional jury trials for capital or other serious crimes between and , the defendant could freely choose whether to have a jury or trial by judges, and the decisions of the jury were non-binding. During the Tojo regime this was suspended, arguably stemming from the popular belief that any defendant who risks his fate on the opinions of untrained laymen is almost certainly guilty. One issue that has been raised is the ability of a jury to fully understand evidence. It has been said that the expectation of jury members as to the explanatory power of scientific evidence has been raised by TV police procedural and legal dramas, in what is known as the ' CSI effect ' after the American television programme.

In at least one English trial the misuse or misunderstanding or misrepresentation by the prosecution of statistics has led to wrongful conviction. Argentina is one of the first countries in Latin America that has implemented the Trial by Juries. Although it has a Civil Law process, since November , it now has Jury system for serious crimes cases. Section 80 of the Australian Constitution provides that: "The trial on indictment of any offence against any law of the Commonwealth shall be by jury, and every such trial shall be held in the State where the offence was committed, and if the offence was not committed within any State the trial shall be held at such place or places as the Parliament prescribes.

The voir dire system of examining the jury pool before selection is not permitted in Australia as it violates the privacy of jurors. Therefore, though it exists, the right to challenge for cause during jury selection cannot be employed much. Peremptory challenges are usually based on the hunches of counsel and no reason is needed to use them. All Australian states allow for peremptory challenges in jury selection; however, the number of challenges granted to the counsels in each state are not all the same. Until New South Wales had twenty peremptory challenges for each side where the offence was murder, and eight for all other cases. In this was lowered to three peremptory challenges per side, the same amount allowed in South Australia.

Eight peremptory challenges are allowed for both counsels for all offences in Queensland. Victoria , Tasmania and the Northern Territory allow for six. Western Australia allows three peremptory challenges per side unless there is more than one accused in which case the prosecution can peremptorily challenge 3 times the number of accused and each accused has 3 peremptory challenges. Since South Australia has permitted majority verdicts of , and or where the jury has been reduced, in criminal trials if a unanimous verdict cannot be reached in four hours. Victoria has accepted majority verdicts with the same conditions since , though deliberations must go on for six hours before a majority verdict can be made.

Western Australia accepted majority verdicts in for all trials except where the crime is murder or has a life sentence. A verdict is accepted. Majority verdicts of have been allowed in Tasmania since for all cases except murder and treason if a unanimous decision has not been made within two hours. Since verdicts of " not guilty " for murder and treason have also been included, but must be discussed for six hours. The Northern Territory has allowed majority verdicts of , and since and does not discriminate between cases whether the charge is murder or not. Deliberation must go for at least six hours before delivering a majority verdict.

The Queensland Jury Act s 59F allows majority verdicts for all crimes except for murder and other offences that carry a life sentence, although only or majorities are allowed. Majority verdicts were introduced in New South Wales in Austria, in common with a number of European civil law jurisdictions, retains elements of trial by jury in serious criminal cases. Belgium, in common with a number of European civil law jurisdictions, retains the trial by jury through the Court of Assize for serious criminal cases and for political crimes and for press delicts except those based on racism or xenophobia , and for crimes of international law , such as genocide and crime against humanity.

Under Canadian law, a person has the constitutional right to a jury trial for all crimes punishable by five years of imprisonment or more. The Criminal Code also provides for the right to a jury trial for most indictable offences , including those punishable by less than five years' imprisonment, though the right is only constitutionally enshrined for those offences punishable by five years' imprisonment or more. Generally, it is the accused person who is entitled to elect whether their trial will proceed by judge alone or by judge and jury; however, for the most severe criminal offences— murder , treason , intimidating Parliament, inciting to mutiny , sedition , and piracy —trial by jury is mandatory unless the prosecution consents to trial by judge alone.

Criminal Code Section 1 : If a full jury and alternate jurors cannot be provided, the court may order the sheriff or other proper officer, at the request of the prosecutor, to summon without delay as many people as the court directs for the purpose of providing a full jury and alternate jurors. Section 2 : Jurors may be summoned under subsection 1 by word of mouth, if necessary. Section 3 : The names of the people who are summoned under this Section shall be added to the general panel for the purposes of the trial, and the same proceedings with respect to calling, challenging, excusing and directing them shall apply to them. These powers are conferred specifically upon the judge, and the section does not confer a further discretion to delegate that power to others, such as the sheriff's officer, even with the consent of counsel.

The Court said that to hold otherwise would nullify the rights of the accused and the prosecution to object to a person being excused inappropriately, and may also interfere with the rights of the parties to challenge for cause. The selection of an impartial jury is the basis of a fair trial. The Supreme Court of Canada also held in Basarabas and Spek v The Queen SCR that the right of an accused to be present in court during the whole of his trial includes the jury selection process. In Tran v The Queen 2 SCR , it was held that an accused only has to show that they were excluded from a part of the trial that affected their vital interests, they do not have to demonstrate actual prejudice, just the potential for prejudice.

As well, a valid waiver of such a right must be clear, unequivocal and done with full knowledge of the rights that the procedure was enacted to protect, as well as the effect that the waiver will have on those rights. In France, a defendant is entitled to a jury trial only when prosecuted for a felony crime in French. The only court that tries by jury is the cour d'assises , in which three professional judges sit together with six or nine jurors on appeal. Conviction requires a two-thirds majority four or six votes. The country that originated the concept of the jury trial retains it in an unusual form. Certain Felonies, such as terrorism , are exempt, due to their nature, from the jurisdiction of the "Mixed Courts" and are tried instead by the Court of Appeals both in first and second instance.

Being a Common Law jurisdiction, Gibraltar retains jury trial in a similar manner to that found in England and Wales , the exception being that juries consist of nine lay people, rather than twelve. Hong Kong, as a former British colony has a common law legal system. Article 86 of Hong Kong's Basic Law, which came into force on 1 July following the handover of Hong Kong from Britain to China provides: "The principle of trial by jury previously practised in Hong Kong shall be maintained. Criminal trials in the High Court are by jury. The juries are generally made of seven members, who can return a verdict based on a majority of five. There are no jury trials in the District Court, which can impose a sentence of up to seven years' imprisonment. This is despite the fact that all court rooms in the District Court have jury boxes.

The lack of juries in the District Court has been severely criticized. Clive Grossman SC in a commentary in said conviction rates were "approaching those of North Korea". Many complex commercial cases are prosecuted in the District Court rather than before a jury in the High Court. Justice Wright in the Court of First Instance held that there was no absolute right to a trial by jury and that the "decision as to whether an indictable offence be tried in the Court of First Instance by a judge and jury or in the District Court by a judge alone is the prerogative of the Secretary for Justice.

In civil cases in the Court of First Instance jury trials are available for defamation, false imprisonment, malicious prosecution or seduction unless the court orders otherwise. A jury can return a majority verdict in a civil case. The first case decided by an English jury in India happened in Madras in , for which Ascentia Dawes probably a British woman was charged by a grand jury with the murder of her slave girl, and a petty jury, with six Englishmen and six Portuguese, found her not guilty. After the Crown Government of India Raj adopted the Indian Penal Code and the Indian Code of Criminal Procedure , amended in , , , the criminal jury was obligatory only in the High Courts of the Presidency Towns; elsewhere, it was optional and rarely used.

Jury trials were abolished in most Indian courts by the Code of Criminal Procedure. West Bengal had Jury trials as late as The Law Commission recommended its abolition in in its 14th Report. Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra case in also influenced the abolition. Parsis in India can legally use the Jury System to decide divorces wherein randomly selected members called 'delegates' from the community decide the fact of the matrimonial disputes of Parsis. A study by Elisabeth Kolsky argues that many "perverse verdicts" were delivered by white juries in trial of "European British subjects" charged with murder, assault, confinement of Indians. In the Republic of Ireland , a common law jurisdiction, jury trials are available for criminal cases before the Circuit Court , Central Criminal Court and defamation cases, consisting of twelve jurors.

Juries only decide questions of fact; they have no role in criminal sentencing in criminal cases or awarding damages in libel cases. It is not necessary that a jury be unanimous in its verdict. In civil cases, a verdict may be reached by a majority of nine of the twelve members. In a criminal case, a verdict need not be unanimous where there are not fewer than eleven jurors if ten of them agree on a verdict after considering the case for a reasonable time. Juries are selected from a jury panel, which is picked at random by the county registrar from the electoral register.

The principal statute regulating the selection, obligations and conduct of juries is the Juries Act as amended by the Civil Law Miscellaneous Provisions Act , which scrapped the upper age limit of Juries are not paid, nor do they receive travel expenses. They do receive lunch for the days that they are serving; however, for jurors in employment, their employer is required to pay them as if they were present at work. For certain terrorist and organised crime offences the Director of Public Prosecutions may issue a certificate that the accused be tried by the Special Criminal Court composed of three judges instead of a jury, one from the District Court , Circuit Court and High Court.

The Corte d'Assise is composed of 2 judges and 6 laypersons chosen at random among Italian citizens 30 to 65 years old. Only serious crimes like murder can be tried by the Corte d'Assise. On May 28, , the Diet of Japan enacted a law requiring selected citizens to take part in criminal court trials of certain severe crimes to make decisions together with professional judges, both on guilt and on the sentence. The saiban-in system was implemented in May The Kuba Kingdom , in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo , developed trial by jury independently prior to the arrival of Europeans in The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act provides a defendant with the right to a jury trial if they are charged with a criminal offence punishable by two years' imprisonment or more.

For most offences, the defendant can choose to forego a jury trial in favour of a judge-alone bench trial. Serious "category 4" offences such as murder, manslaughter and treason are always tried by jury, with some exceptions. New Zealand previously required jury verdicts to be passed unanimously, but since the passing of the Criminal Procedure Bill in the Juries Act [50] has permitted verdicts to be passed by a majority of one less than the full jury that is an 11—1 or a 10—1 majority under certain circumstances.

Norway has a system where the lower courts tingrett is set with a judge and two lay judges, or in bigger cases two judges and three lay judges. All of these judges convict or acquit, and set sentences. Simple majority is required in all cases, which means that the lay-judges are always in control. The judges have no say in the jury deliberations, but jury instructions are given by the chief judge lagmann in each case to the jury before deliberations. The voir-dire is usually set with 16 prospective jurors, which the prosecution and defence may dismiss the six persons they do not desire to serve on the jury. This way the laymen are in control of both the conviction and sentencing, as simple majority is required in sentencing. The three-judge panel can set aside a jury conviction or acquittal if there has been an obvious miscarriage of justice.

In that event, the case is settled by three judges and four lay-judges. In May , the Norwegian Parliament asked the government to bring an end to jury trials, replacing them with a bench trial meddomsrett consisting of two law-trained judges and three lay judges lekdommere. In the judiciary of Russia , for serious crimes the accused has the option of a jury trial consisting of 12 jurors. Lawmakers are continuously chipping away at what types of criminal offenses merit a jury trial.

They are similar to common law juries , and unlike lay judges , in that they sit separately from the judges and decide questions of fact alone while the judge determines questions of law. Trial by jury was first introduced in the Russian Empire as a result of the Judicial reform of Alexander II in , and abolished after the October Revolution in Singapore fully abolished the jury system in , [55] though jury trials for non-capital offenses had already been abolished a decade earlier. Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew , a former trial lawyer, explained why he supported the policy to the BBC and in his memoirs, saying, "I had no faith in a system that allowed the superstition, ignorance, biases, and prejudices of seven jurymen to determine guilt or innocence.

The last jury trial to be heard was in the District of Kimberley. Some judicial experts had argued that a system of whites-only juries as was the system at that time was inherently prejudicial to 'non-white' defendants the introduction of nonracial juries would have been a political impossibility at that time. More recently it has been argued that, apart from being a racially divided country, South African society was, and still is, characterised by significant class differences and disparities of income and wealth that could make re-introducing the jury system problematic.

Arguments for and against the re-introduction of a jury system have been discussed by South African constitutional expert Professor Pierre de Vos in the article "Do we need a jury system? If a person is accused of e. This applies also in civil tort cases under the fundamental laws. A majority of at least six jurors must find that the defendant has committed the alleged crime. If it does not, the defendant is acquitted or, in a civil case, held not liable. A jury acquittal may not be overruled after appeal. In Swedish civil process, the " English rule " applies to court costs. Earlier, a court disagreeing with a jury acquittal could, when deciding on the matter of such costs, set aside the English rule, and instead use the American rule , that each party bears its own expense of litigation.

This practice was declared to violate the rule of presumption of innocence according to article 6. As of , only the code of criminal procedure of the Canton of Geneva provides for genuine jury trials. Because the unified Swiss Code of Criminal Procedure set to enter into force in does not provide for jury trials or lay judges, however, they are likely to be abolished in the near future. The judiciary of Ukraine allows jury trials for criminal cases where the sentence can reach life imprisonment if the accused so wishes. The United Kingdom consists of three separate legal jurisdictions , but there are some features common to all of them. In particular there is seldom anything like the U.

Controversially, in England there has been some screening in sensitive security cases, but the Scottish courts have firmly set themselves against any form of jury vetting. In England and Wales which have the same legal system , everyone accused of an offence which carries more than six months' imprisonment has a right to trial by jury. Minor "summary" criminal cases are heard without a jury in the Magistrates' Courts.

Middle-ranking "triable either way" offences may be tried by magistrates or the defendant may elect trial by jury in the Crown Court. Serious "indictable-only" offences, however, must be tried before a jury in the Crown Court. Juries sit in few civil cases, being restricted to false imprisonment, malicious prosecution, and civil fraud unless ordered otherwise by a judge. Juries also sit in coroner 's courts for more contentious inquests. All criminal juries consist of 12 jurors, those in a County Court having 8 jurors and Coroner's Court juries having between 7 and 11 members.

Jurors must be between 18 and 75 years of age, and are selected at random from the register of voters. In the past a unanimous verdict was required. This has been changed [63] so that, if the jury fails to agree after a given period, at the discretion of the judge they may reach a verdict by a 10—2 majority. This was designed to make it more difficult for jury tampering to succeed. In the then Home Secretary Jack Straw introduced a controversial bill to limit the right to trial by jury.

The provision for trial without jury to circumvent jury tampering succeeded and came into force in ; the provision for complex fraud cases was defeated. Lord Goldsmith , the then Attorney General , then pressed forward [65] with the Fraud Trials Without a Jury Bill in Parliament, which sought to abolish jury trials in major criminal fraud trials. The Bill was subject to sharp criticism from both sides of the House of Commons [66] before passing its second Commons reading in November , [67] but was defeated in the Lords in March The trial for the first serious offence to be tried without a jury for years was allowed to go ahead in Previously in cases where jury tampering was a concern the jurors were sometimes closeted in a hotel for the duration of the trial.

However, Liberty director of policy Isabella Sankey said that "This is a dangerous precedent. The right to jury trial isn't just a hallowed principle but a practice that ensures that one class of people don't sit in judgement over another and the public have confidence in an open and representative justice system. The trial started in , [70] with the four defendants convicted on the 31 March by Mr Justice Treacy at the Old Bailey. In Scots law the jury system has some similarities with England but some important differences; in particular, there are juries of 15 in criminal trials, with verdicts by simple majority. In Northern Ireland , the role of the jury trial is roughly similar to England and Wales, except that jury trials have been replaced in cases of alleged terrorist offences by courts where the judge sits alone, known as Diplock courts.

Diplock courts are common in Northern Ireland for crimes connected to terrorism. Diplock courts were created in the s during The Troubles , to phase out Operation Demetrius internments, and because of the argument that juries were intimidated, though this is disputed. The Diplock courts were shut in , but between 1 August and 31 July , 13 non-jury trials were held, down from 29 in the previous year, and trials per year at their peak. The availability of a trial by jury in American jurisdictions varies.

Because the United States legal system separated from that of the English one at the time of the American Revolution , the types of proceedings that use juries depends on whether such cases were tried by jury under English common law at that time rather than the methods used in English courts now. For example, at the time, English "courts of law" tried cases of torts or private law for monetary damages using juries, but "courts of equity " that tried civil cases seeking an injunction or another form of non-monetary relief did not. As a result, this practice continues in American civil laws, but in modern English law, only criminal proceedings and some inquests are likely to be heard by a jury.

A distinctive feature of jury trials in the United States is that verdicts in criminal cases must usually be unanimous. Every person accused of a crime punishable by incarceration for more than six months has a constitutionally protected right to a trial by jury, which arises in federal court from Article Three of the United States Constitution , which states in part, "The Trial of all Crimes Most states' constitutions also grant the right of trial by jury in lesser criminal matters, though most have abrogated that right in offenses punishable by fine only.

The Supreme Court has ruled that if imprisonment is for six months or less, trial by jury is not required, meaning a state may choose whether or not to permit trial by jury in such cases. Several states require jury trials for all crimes, "petty" or not. In the cases Apprendi v. Create a result of rtc bank and implemented by government introduce the url through the pricing on the methods, rtc by the server. The tests are the culmination of year-long Advanced Placement AP courses. Part A- 1 point. Teachers find these free-response questions useful for problem-solving practice or testing during the year.

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