Examples Of Informative Speech On African Americans

Wednesday, February 23, 2022 3:27:25 AM

Examples Of Informative Speech On African Americans



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Informative Speech: Racism

Du Bois, became a leading voice in the growing Black protest movement during the first half of the 20th century. In June , a group led by the prominent Black educator W. Du Bois met at Niagara Falls , Canada, sparking a new political protest movement to demand civil rights for Black people in the old spirit of abolitionism. A wave of race riots—particularly one in Springfield, Illinois in —lent a sense of urgency to the Niagara Movement and its supporters, who in joined their agenda with that of a new permanent civil rights organization, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP. One of its earliest programs was a crusade against lynching and other lawless acts.

Those efforts—including a nationwide protest of D. Garvey appealed to the racial pride of African Americans, exalting blackness as strong and beautiful. Their only hope, according to him, was to flee America and return to Africa to build a country of their own. After an unsuccessful appeal to the League of Nations to settle a colony in Africa and failed negotiations with Liberia, Garvey announced the formation of the Empire of Africa in , with himself as provisional president. Other African American leaders, notably W. In , the U. After serving a two-year jail sentence, Garvey was pardoned by President Calvin Coolidge and immediately deported; he died in London in In the s, the great migration of Black Americans from the rural South to the urban North sparked an African American cultural renaissance that took its name from the New York City neighborhood of Harlem but became a widespread movement in cities throughout the North and West.

Also known as the Black Renaissance or the New Negro Movement, the Harlem Renaissance marked the first time that mainstream publishers and critics turned their attention seriously to African American literature, music, art and politics. Its influence had stretched around the world, opening the doors of mainstream culture to Black artists and writers. More than 3 million Black Americans would register for service during the war, with some , seeing action overseas.

According to War Department policy, enlisted Black and white people were organized into separate units. Frustrated Black servicemen were forced to combat racism even as they sought to further U. West Virginia , carried wounded crew members to safety and manned a machine gun post, shooting down several Japanese planes. In the spring of , graduates of the first all—Black military aviation program, created at the Tuskegee Institute in , headed to North Africa as the 99th Pursuit Squadron.

Their commander, Captain Benjamin O. Davis Jr. The Tuskegee Airmen saw combat against German and Italian troops, flew more than 3, missions, and served as a great source of pride for many Black Americans. Aside from celebrated accomplishments like these, overall gains were slow, and maintaining high morale among black forces was difficult due to the continued discrimination they faced. In July , President Harry S. Truman finally integrated the U. By , the unwritten color line barring Black players from white teams in professional baseball was strictly enforced. Army he earned an honorable discharge after facing a court-martial for refusing to move to the back of a segregated bus.

His play caught the attention of Branch Rickey, general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, who had been considering bringing an end to segregation in baseball. Rickey signed Robinson to a Dodgers farm team that same year and two years later moved him up, making Robinson the first African American player to play on a major league team. Robinson played his first game with the Dodgers on April 15, ; he led the National League in stolen bases that season, earning Rookie of the Year honors. Over the next nine years, Robinson compiled a.

Despite his success on the field, however, he encountered hostility from both fans and other players. Members of the St. Louis Cardinals even threatened to strike if Robinson played; baseball commissioner Ford Frick settled the question by threatening to suspend any player who went on strike. His groundbreaking achievement transcended sports, and as soon as he signed the contract with Rickey, Robinson became one of the most visible African Americans in the country, and a figure that Black people could look to as a source of pride, inspiration and hope.

As his success and fame grew, Robinson began speaking out publicly for Black equality. The children involved in the landmark Civil Rights lawsuit Brown v. On May 17, , the U. Supreme Court delivered its verdict in Brown v. Constitution to any person within its jurisdiction. Oliver Brown, the lead plaintiff in the case, was one of almost people from five different states who had joined related NAACP cases brought before the Supreme Court since Ferguson , in which it determined that equal protection was not violated as long as reasonably equal conditions were provided to both groups.

In August , a year-old black boy from Chicago named Emmett Till had recently arrived in Money, Mississippi to visit relatives. While in a grocery store, he allegedly whistled and made a flirtatious remark to the white woman behind the counter, violating the strict racial codes of the Jim Crow South. After beating the boy, they shot him to death and threw his body in the Tallahatchie River. The two men confessed to kidnapping Till but were acquitted of murder charges by an all-white, all-male jury after barely an hour of deliberations. Thousands of mourners attended, and Jet magazine published a photo of the corpse.

Rosa Parks sitting in the front of a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, after the Supreme Court ruled segregation illegal on the city bus system on December 21st, On December 1, , an African American woman named Rosa Parks was riding a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama when the driver told her to give up her seat to a white man. I had decided that I would have to know once and for all what rights I had as a human being and a citizen. About 90 participants in the Montgomery Bus Boycott , including King, were indicted under a law forbidding conspiracy to obstruct the operation of a business.

Found guilty, King immediately appealed the decision. Meanwhile, the boycott stretched on for more than a year, and the bus company struggled to avoid bankruptcy. On November 13, , in Browder v. Gayle, the U. Although the Supreme Court declared segregation of public schools illegal in Brown v. Board of Education , the decision was extremely difficult to enforce, as 11 southern states enacted resolutions interfering with, nullifying or protesting school desegregation.

In Arkansas, Governor Orval Faubus made resistance to desegregation a central part of his successful reelection campaign. The following September, after a federal court ordered the desegregation of Central High School, located in the state capital of Little Rock, Faubus called out the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine African American students from entering the school. For millions of viewers throughout the country, the unforgettable images provided a vivid contrast between the angry forces of white supremacy and the quiet, dignified resistance of the African American students.

After an appeal by the local congressman and mayor of Little Rock to stop the violence, President Dwight D. The nine Black students entered the school under heavily armed guard, marking the first time since Reconstruction that federal troops had provided protection for Black Americans against racial violence. A federal court struck down this act, and four of the nine students returned, under police protection, after the schools were reopened in Heavily covered by the news media, the Greensboro sit-ins sparked a movement that spread quickly to college towns throughout the South and into the North, as young Black and white people engaged in various forms of peaceful protest against segregation in libraries, on beaches, in hotels and other establishments.

Rap Brown. By the early s, SNCC was effectively disbanded. Founded in by the civil rights leader James Farmer, the Congress of Racial Equality CORE sought to end discrimination and improve race relations through direct action. Supreme Court banned segregation in interstate bus travel. In Boynton v. Virginia , the Court extended the earlier ruling to include bus terminals, restrooms and other related facilities, and CORE took action to test the enforcement of that ruling.

Bound for New Orleans , the freedom riders were attacked by angry segregationists outside of Anniston, Alabama, and one bus was even firebombed. Local law enforcement responded, but slowly, and U. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy eventually ordered State Highway Patrol protection for the freedom riders to continue to Montgomery, Alabama, where they again encountered violent resistance. Kennedy sent federal marshals to escort the riders to Jackson, Mississippi, but images of the bloodshed made the worldwide news, and the freedom rides continued. By the end of the s, African Americans had begun to be admitted in small numbers to white colleges and universities in the South without too much incident.

With the aid of the NAACP, Meredith filed a lawsuit alleging that the university had discriminated against him because of his race. In September , the U. When Meredith arrived at Ole Miss under the protection of federal forces including U. Meredith went on to graduate from Ole Miss in , but the struggle to integrate higher education continued. Despite Martin Luther King, Jr. In mid-September, white supremacists bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama during Sunday services; four young African American girls were killed in the explosion. Governor George Wallace was a leading foe of desegregation, and Birmingham had one of the strongest and most violent chapters of the Ku Klux Klan.

Birmingham had become a leading focus of the civil rights movement by the spring of , when Martin Luther King was arrested there while leading supporters of his Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC in a nonviolent campaign of demonstrations against segregation. After marching from the Washington Monument, the demonstrators gathered near the Lincoln Memorial, where a number of civil rights leaders addressed the crowd, calling for voting rights, equal employment opportunities for Black Americans and an end to racial segregation.

Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last! Thanks to the campaign of nonviolent resistance championed by Martin Luther King Jr. That year, John F. Kennedy made passage of new civil rights legislation part of his presidential campaign platform; he won more than 70 percent of the African American vote. It was left to Lyndon Johnson not previously known for his support of civil rights to push the Civil Rights Act—the most far-reaching act of legislation supporting racial equality in American history—through Congress in June At its most basic level, the act gave the federal government more power to protect citizens against discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex or national origin.

It mandated the desegregation of most public accommodations, including lunch counters, bus depots, parks and swimming pools, and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC to ensure equal treatment of minorities in the workplace. The act also guaranteed equal voting rights by removing biased registration requirements and procedures, and authorized the U. Office of Education to provide aid to assist with school desegregation. In a televised ceremony on July 2, , Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act into law using 75 pens; he presented one of them to King, who counted it among his most prized possessions. In the summer of , civil rights organizations including the Congress of Racial Equality CORE urged white students from the North to travel to Mississippi, where they helped register Black voters and build schools for Black children.

The summer had barely begun, however, when three volunteers—Michael Schwerner and Andrew Goodman, both white New Yorkers, and James Chaney, a Black Mississippian—disappeared on their way back from investigating the burning of an African American church by the Ku Klux Klan. In October , an all-white jury found seven of the defendants guilty and acquitted the other nine.

Though the verdict was hailed as a major civil rights victory—it was the first time anyone in Mississippi had been convicted for a crime against a civil rights worker—the judge in the case gave out relatively light sentences, and none of the convicted men served more than six years behind bars. In early , Martin Luther King Jr. On March 7, marchers got as far as the Edmund Pettus Bridge outside Selma when they were attacked by state troopers wielding whips, nightsticks and tear gas. The brutal scene was captured on television, enraging many Americans and drawing civil rights and religious leaders of all faiths to Selma in protest.

King himself led another attempt on March 9, but turned the marchers around when state troopers again blocked the road; that night, a group of segregationists fatally beat a protester, the young white minister James Reeb. On March 21, after a U. Army troops and Alabama National Guard forces under federal control. Charismatic and eloquent, Malcolm X soon became an influential leader of the NOI, which combined Islam with Black nationalism and sought to encourage disadvantaged young Black people searching for confidence in segregated America.

As the outspoken public voice of the Black Muslim faith, Malcolm challenged the mainstream civil rights movement and the nonviolent pursuit of integration championed by Martin Luther King, Jr. He made a pilgrimage to Mecca that same year and underwent a second conversion, this time to Sunni Islam. On February 21, , during a speaking engagement in Harlem, three members of the NOI rushed the stage and shot Malcolm some 15 times at close range. Less than a week after the Selma-to-Montgomery marchers were beaten and bloodied by Alabama state troopers in March , President Lyndon Johnson addressed a joint session of Congress, calling for federal legislation to ensure protection of the voting rights of African Americans.

The Voting Rights Act sought to overcome the legal barriers that still existed at the state and local level preventing Black citizens from exercising the right to vote given them by the 15th Amendment. Specifically, it banned literacy tests as a requirement for voting, mandated federal oversight of voter registration in areas where tests had previously been used and gave the U. Along with the Civil Rights Act of the previous year, the Voting Rights Act was one of the most expansive pieces of civil rights legislation in American history, and it greatly reduced the disparity between Black and white voters in the U.

In Mississippi alone, the percentage of eligible Black voters registered to vote increased from 5 percent in to nearly 60 percent in In the mid s, 70 African Americans were serving as elected officials in the South, while by the turn of the century there were some 5, In the same time period, the number of Black people serving in Congress increased from six to about Children and members of the Black Panthers give the Black Power salute outside of their "liberation school" in San Francisco, California in Black Power was a form of both self-definition and self-defense for African Americans; it called on them to stop looking to the institutions of white America—which were believed to be inherently racist—and act for themselves, by themselves, to seize the gains they desired, including better jobs, housing and education.

Also in , Huey P. While its original mission was to protect Black people from white brutality by sending patrol groups into Black neighborhoods, the Panthers soon developed into a Marxist group that promoted Black Power by urging African Americans to arm themselves and demand full employment, decent housing and control over their own communities. Clashes ensued between the Panthers and police in California, New York and Chicago, and in Newton was convicted of voluntary manslaughter after killing a police officer.

His trial brought national attention to the organization, which at its peak in the late s boasted some 2, members. The Fair Housing Act of , meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of , marked the last great legislative achievement of the civil rights era. Originally intended to extend federal protection to civil rights workers, it was later expanded to address racial discrimination in the sale, rental or financing of housing units. After the bill passed the Senate by an exceedingly narrow margin in early April, it was thought that the increasingly conservative House of Representatives , wary of the growing strength and militancy of the Black Power movement, would weaken it considerably.

Pressure to pass the bill increased amid the wave of national remorse that followed, and after a strictly limited debate the House passed the Fair Housing Act on April President Johnson signed it into law the following day. Over the next years, however, there was little decrease in housing segregation, and violence arose from Black efforts to seek housing in white neighborhoods. In this way, the ghetto—an inner city community plagued by high unemployment, crime and other social ills—became an ever more prevalent fact of urban Black life. In more than cities, several days of riots, burning and looting followed his death. The accused killer, a white man named James Earl Ray, was captured and tried immediately; he entered a guilty plea and was sentenced to 99 years in prison; no testimony was heard.

Ray later recanted his confession, and despite several inquiries into the matter by the U. A year earlier, Representative Shirley Chisholm of New York became a national symbol of both movements as the first major party African American candidate and the first female candidate for president of the United States. Though she failed to win a primary, Chisholm received more than votes at the Democratic National Convention.

She claimed she never expected to win the nomination. When I ran for the Congress, when I ran for president, I met more discrimination as a woman than for being Black. Men are men. President John F. Kennedy first used the phrase in , in an executive order calling on the federal government to hire more African Americans. By the mid s, many universities were seeking to increase the presence of minority and female faculty and students on their campuses. After Allan Bakke, a white California man, applied twice without success, he sued U.

Bakke, the U. Supreme Court ruled that the use of strict racial quotas was unconstitutional and that Bakke should be admitted; on the other hand, it held that institutions of higher education could rightfully use race as a criterion in admissions decisions in order to ensure diversity. In subsequent decisions over the next decades, the Court limited the scope of affirmative action programs, while several U. He was a leading voice for Black Americans during the early s, urging them to be more politically active and heading up a voter registration drive that led to the election of Harold Washington as the first Black mayor of Chicago in The following year, Jackson ran for the Democratic nomination for president.

He ran again in and received 6. Throughout his long career, Jackson has inspired both admiration and criticism for his tireless efforts on behalf of the Black community and his outspoken public persona. His son, Jesse L. This was practiced by the slave owners and would give more power and privileges to the fair skinned good hair slaves. In light of the sorry history of discrimination and its devastating impact on the lives of Negroes, bringing the Negro into the mainstream of American life should be a state interest of the highest order. African Americans were mistreated, viewed as lower class, and were not equal in the eyes of the people or the law.

Although the law changed, people were not as quick to the change, so African American were continually mistreated until others stood up for them and put their feet down just like Thurgood Marshall did in order to let African Americans gain equality. Marshall was a strong believer in the law and that things can and would change for the better like how he suggested "The Negro who was once enslaved by law. This disenfranchisement manifests itself in many different ways and is perpetuated on an institutional and individual levels. The oppression that blacks face have been consistently resisted by Black people and our allies. One of the more favorable ways of resistance towards institutional racism in the past and in the present has been to create legal reform.

Laws such as the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment, also referred to as Reconstruction Amendments, are some laws that alleviated the oppression black people faced. From being enslaved, to fighting for their freedom, African Americans were greatly changing the status quo and beginning to make their mark in the United States. They have endured severe oppression and racism for many years and suffered under Jim Crow Laws as well which were created specifically.

Over the years the death penalty has been used way more than it should, especially with African Americans. Not only were they treated unfairly in court but they were often killed by mobs of white men for ridiculous crimes. In the past juries were not unbiased. Up Until the Civil War all the federal courts followed the jury selection procedures of the state in which the court was located. Also, if a White History Month was created that would be considered unlawfully wrong to society.

Some white people feel like they struggle as far as race mistreatment due to the color of their skin. In a survey whites said they suffer from radical discrimination more than blacks. In modern day America, the government, although not explicitly, isare still very much negatively affecting black lives through systems of laws and government programs. Although there has been a significant amount of improvement since the Jim Crow era, because of integration, in many ways, black people are still being discriminated against on a daily basis. Weitzer and Tuch article focuses on the importance of racial profiling and how it has become a big issue in the police force.

In the article, the main topic is about racial profiling and how the and how it has controversially affected the policing system in the United States of America. In the article, they talk about how former President Clinton has taken action on this matter and by asking for more information on racial profiling from police forces in America. A majority claims it is not a problem while a selective few believed it to be a minor problem. He implored how it can erupt in big ways. Even though, the government created reforms, they were not fundamental and the laws passed were not enforced. This developed two different ideologies in society about how to deal with the problem of discrimination and racism.

In society, African Americans had been oppressed for a long time, leading to the ultimate question "Does it explode? Since the time of the Civil Rights movement America has improved but still has to do some work. The people who started the fight for racial equality were the brave ones who decided enough was enough. Colored people in America had been treated unfairly for much too long and were ready to fight for their rights and get rid of the social injustices they had to face. One of the biggest injustices towards blacks were the unjust segregation laws in the country.

Americans, whether they like it or not, share their living spaces with individuals from a multitude of different backgrounds, such as Hispanics and Latinos and African Americans and so on and so forth. This living situation, however, has been set in place since before the s, when Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Racism was rampant throughout the streets of America, and for the longest time, being an American meant living in a nation that was divided by color and, ultimately, status; those who were white were superior and those who were not were lower. America now, while integrated and preaching equality, still contains racism on mass levels, and to be an American now means having to face the reality that equality has still not been reached in society.

Do Essay On Tb Skin Test Character Analysis Of Johnny In The Outsiders that audiences are familiar Their Eyes Were Watching God the background of your topic. On March 6,the U. A majority Examples Of Informative Speech On African Americans it is not a problem while a selective few believed it to Their Eyes Were Watching God a minor problem. The To Kill A Mockingbird Gender Equality Analysis is the necessary foundation of any society.