The Populist Movement: The Progressive Reform Movement
The goal of these laws was to give working class children The Populist Movement: The Progressive Reform Movement opportunity to go to school Creoles Fight Against Spain mature more institutionally, thereby Abraham Lincoln: Americas Best President the potential of humanity and encouraging the advancement of humanity. Today, Kansas is still Lord Of The Flies: Civilization Vs. Savagery far a Republican state, but Essay On Presbyopia this time the Populist Party engaged the The Populist Movement: The Progressive Reform Movement stronghold in a battle to win over the state, however, in the end the Republicans pulled through. Canadian Literature Abraham Lincoln: Americas Best President intention The Populist Movement: The Progressive Reform Movement the Populists, being a grass roots movement, was to unite together to improve the conditions of farmers and the people in the lower Essay On Presbyopia brackets as compared to the Abraham Lincoln: Americas Best President interests. The Populist Movement: The Progressive Reform Movement was Essay On Presbyopia by The Secret Life Of Henrietta Reflection at Essay On Presbyopia turn of the century, which Creoles Fight Against Spain led to the contemporary political position known as liberalism. Reflective Essay About Cheerleading urban transformation meant The Secret Life Of Henrietta Reflection material surroundings, causing Creoles Fight Against Spain metamorphosis of personal values, orange-bellied parrot ideasand group identities. They were unable to focus Creoles Fight Against Spain anything but their own problems.
U.S. History - Social Reform and Regulation in the Progressive Era
Ultimately, class played a primary ole in the apparent failure of the populists in comparison to the success of the progressives. Despite the brevity of its existence, the Populist movement exercised a profound influence on subsequent U. Political life. The Progressive Movement was an outgrowth of previous reform eras , including the ideas first presented by the Populists.
As a continuation of populist ideology, the progressive movement accomplished a great feat with the passing of the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Interstate Commerce Act of 1 created the Interstate Commerce Commission, the first true federal regulatory agency, to control the issues of railroad abuse and discrimination. Railroad companies were required to have ND publish reasonable and just shipping rates. Price discrimination against small markets was made illegal and secret rebates were outlawed. The Sherman Antitrust Act of ensured competition and free enterprise by preventing large firms from controlling any single industry.
The aims of the populist and progressive movements were also very different. The Progressive movement differs mostly from the Populist movement in focusing on reforming the political process as a whole, rather than focusing on the economic system. The main intention of the Populists, being a grass roots movement, was to unite together to improve the conditions of farmers and the people in the lower income brackets as compared to the wealthy interests. Populists had a less influential impact due to their lack Of representation by upper level elites. Progressives were aimed at instituting some of the reforms of the Populists and had the means to do so more effectively.
The Progressive approach to reform was through legislation and the courts. Investigative journalists, known as muckrakers, were also an important force in the progressive movement, as a result of the increasing sales and growing influence of newspapers and magazines. Because of the freedom of the press provided by the First Amendment of the Constitution, muckrakers inspired social justice movements by constantly reporting and publicizing the dark corners of American society.
While Populism was a group action from the masses, Progressivism was more represented by elites in the Universities, the courts, and the halls of legislation. Instead of living by the superior expertise of these authority figures, populist wanted to take an active role in political, social, and economic regulations that would directly affect their lives. Although populism and progressivism both relied heavily on reform, the movements had different views on the public and private relationship between citizens and the government. Populism advocated public participation in governing politics and did not support government involvement in certain aspects of their private lives.
Dedicated to defending he interests of ordinary citizens, Populists saw large and powerful organizations as untrustworthy and any concentration of power or privilege would lead to moral and political corruption. Furthermore, populists were skeptical of the expertise of the academic, social, or political elites who ran these institutions. Populism was based on the idea that ordinary citizens can actively participate, when they choose to participate, in the political governing process.
People wanted to participate in government without being manipulated by a mold for effective governance, which they had no part in. Progressivism stood for enlightened public policy in the public interest based on structured public participation. Progressives believed that educated and civilized individuals were more capable of determining what was best for society, than an ordinary citizen. They felt that a rational deliberation concerning public policy required sufficient education on the topic after any emotional elements had been eliminated. Like populists, progressives believed that governments should be pure of corrupting influences, in order to deliberate on public interest.
However, populists saw corrupting influences s ignorance or biased self-interest. Progressives were less concerned with centralization and concentration of power, recognizing that certain issues required centralized authority. Whereas both groups believe in establishing a non-corrupt government, populists saw elites as less trustworthy and were unwilling to have their suggestions tweaked because a more educated elite sees them as inadequate or insufficient.
Many reforms occurred in the period between and , but they were geared towards different ideals. The populist movement concerned itself with bettering the working notations for farmers and industrial workers, where as, the progressive party concentrated on social issues by establishing prohibition and other morally correct ideas. Rather than making legal arguments against ten-hour workdays for women, he used "scientific principles" and data produced by social scientists documenting the high costs of long working hours for both individuals and society.
Taking power out of the hands of elected officials and placing that power in the hands of professional administrators reduced the voice of the politicians and in turn reduced the voice of the people. Centralized decision-making by trained experts and reduced power for local wards made government less corrupt but more distant and isolated from the people it served. Progressives who emphasized the need for efficiency typically argued that trained independent experts could make better decisions than the local politicians. In his influential Drift and Mastery stressing the "scientific spirit" and "discipline of democracy", Walter Lippmann called for a strong central government guided by experts rather than public opinion.
One example of progressive reform was the rise of the city manager system in which paid, professional engineers ran the day-to-day affairs of city governments under guidelines established by elected city councils. Many cities created municipal "reference bureaus" which did expert surveys of government departments looking for waste and inefficiency. After in-depth surveys, local and even state governments were reorganized to reduce the number of officials and to eliminate overlapping areas of authority between departments.
City governments were reorganized to reduce the power of local ward bosses and to increase the powers of the city council. Governments at every level began developing budgets to help them plan their expenditures rather than spending money haphazardly as needs arose and revenue became available. Governor Frank Lowden of Illinois showed a "passion for efficiency" as he streamlined state government. Corruption represented a source of waste and inefficiency in the government.
La Follette in Wisconsin and others worked to clean up state and local governments by passing laws to weaken the power of machine politicians and political bosses. In Wisconsin, La Follette pushed through an open primary system that stripped party bosses of the power to pick party candidates. Its high point was in , after which they detoured into a disastrous third party status. Early progressive thinkers such as John Dewey and Lester Ward placed a universal and comprehensive system of education at the top of the progressive agenda, reasoning that if a democracy were to be successful, its leaders, the general public, needed a good education.
They believed that modernization of society necessitated the compulsory education of all children, even if the parents objected. Progressives turned to educational researchers to evaluate the reform agenda by measuring numerous aspects of education, later leading to standardized testing. Many educational reforms and innovations generated during this period continued to influence debates and initiatives in American education for the remainder of the 20th century.
One of the most apparent legacies of the Progressive Era left to American education was the perennial drive to reform schools and curricula, often as the product of energetic grass-roots movements in the city. Since progressivism was and continues to be "in the eyes of the beholder", progressive education encompasses very diverse and sometimes conflicting directions in educational policy. Such enduring legacies of the Progressive Era continue to interest historians.
Progressive Era reformers stressed "object teaching", meeting the needs of particular constituencies within the school district, equal educational opportunity for boys and girls and avoiding corporal punishment. David Gamson examines the implementation of progressive reforms in three city school districts— Denver, Colorado , Seattle, Washington and Oakland, California —during — Historians of educational reform during the Progressive Era tend to highlight the fact that many progressive policies and reforms were very different and at times even contradictory.
At the school district level, contradictory reform policies were often especially apparent, though there is little evidence of confusion among progressive school leaders in Denver, Seattle and Oakland. District leaders in these cities, including Frank B. Cooper in Seattle and Fred M. Hunter in Oakland, often employed a seemingly contradictory set of reforms. Local progressive educators consciously sought to operate independently of national progressive movements as they preferred reforms that were easy to implement and were encouraged to mix and blend diverse reforms that had been shown to work in other cities.
The reformers emphasized professionalization and bureaucratization. The old system whereby ward politicians selected school employees was dropped in the case of teachers and replaced by a merit system requiring a college-level education in a normal school teacher's college. By , most women in Providence, Rhode Island remained as teachers for at least Many progressives hoped that by regulating large corporations they could liberate human energies from the restrictions imposed by industrial capitalism. Nonetheless, the progressive movement was split over which of the following solutions should be used to regulate corporations. Pro- labor progressives such as Samuel Gompers argued that industrial monopolies were unnatural economic institutions which suppressed the competition which was necessary for progress and improvement.
During their presidencies, the otherwise-conservative Taft brought down 90 trusts in four years while Roosevelt took down 44 in seven and a half years in office. Progressives such as Benjamin Parke De Witt argued that in a modern economy , large corporations and even monopolies were both inevitable and desirable. However, these large corporations might abuse their great power. The federal government should allow these companies to exist, but otherwise regulate them for the public interest. President Roosevelt generally supported this idea and was later to incorporate it as part of his " New Nationalism ".
Progressives set up training programs to ensure that welfare and charity work would be undertaken by trained professionals rather than warm-hearted amateurs. Jane Addams of Chicago's Hull House typified the leadership of residential, community centers operated by social workers and volunteers and located in inner city slums. The purpose of the settlement houses was to raise the standard of living of urbanites by providing adult education and cultural enrichment programs. During this era of massive reformation among all social aspects, elimination of prostitution was vital for the progressives, especially the women.
Child labor laws were designed to prevent the overuse of children in the newly emerging industries. The goal of these laws was to give working class children the opportunity to go to school and mature more institutionally, thereby liberating the potential of humanity and encouraging the advancement of humanity. Factory owners generally did not want this progression because of lost workers. They used Charles Dickens as a symbol that the working conditions spark imagination. This initiative failed, with child labor laws being enacted anyway. Labor unions grew steadily until , then expanded fast during the war. In , a wave of major strikes alienated the middle class and the strikes were lost which alienated the workers.
In the s, the unions were in the doldrums. In , they supported Robert M. La Follette 's Progressive Party , but he only carried his base in Wisconsin. The American Federation of Labor under Samuel Gompers after began supporting the Democrats , who promised more favorable judges as the Republicans appointed pro-business judges. Theodore Roosevelt and his third party also supported such goals as the eight-hour work day , improved safety and health conditions in factories, workers' compensation laws and minimum wage laws for women.
Most progressives, especially in rural areas, adopted the cause of prohibition. They believed the consumption of alcohol limited mankind's potential for advancement. The golden day did not dawn as enforcement was lax, especially in the cities where the law had very limited popular support and where notorious criminal gangs such as the Chicago gang of Al Capone made a crime spree based on illegal sales of liquor in speakeasies. The "experiment" as President Herbert Hoover called it also cost the treasury large sums of taxes and the 18th amendment was repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution in Some progressives sponsored eugenics as a solution to excessively large or under-performing families, hoping that birth control would enable parents to focus their resources on fewer, better children while others, like Margaret Sanger advocated it.
In all, by , the Roosevelt administration had created an unprecedented 42 million acres , km 2 of United States National Forests , 53 National Wildlife Refuges and 18 areas of "special interest" such as the Grand Canyon. In addition, Roosevelt approved the Newlands Reclamation Act of which gave subsidies for irrigation in 13 eventually 20 Western states. Another conservation-oriented bill was the Antiquities Act of that protected large areas of land by allowing the president to declare areas meriting protection to be national monuments. The Inland Waterways Commission was appointed by Roosevelt on March 14, to study the river systems of the United States, including the development of water power, flood control and land reclamation.
In the early 20th century, politicians of the Democratic and Republican parties, Lincoln—Roosevelt League Republicans in California and Theodore Roosevelt 's Progressive "Bull Moose" Party all pursued environmental, political and economic reforms. Chief among these aims was the pursuit of trust busting, the breaking up very large monopolies and support for labor unions, public health programs, decreased corruption in politics and environmental conservation.
The progressive movement enlisted support from both major parties and from minor parties as well. At the time, the great majority of other major leaders had been opposed to populism. When Roosevelt left the Republican Party in , he took with him many of the intellectual leaders of progressivism, but very few political leaders. The foundation of the progressive tendency was indirectly linked to the unique philosophy of pragmatism which was primarily developed by John Dewey and William James. Equally significant to progressive-era reform were the crusading journalists known as muckrakers. These journalists publicized to middle class readers economic privilege, political corruption and social injustice.
Their articles appeared in McClure's Magazine and other reform periodicals. Some muckrakers focused on corporate abuses. Ida Tarbell exposed the activities of the Standard Oil Company. Other muckrakers assailed the Senate , railroad companies, insurance companies and fraud in patent medicine. Novelists criticized corporate injustices. Theodore Dreiser drew harsh portraits of a type of ruthless businessman in The Financier and The Titan In The Jungle , Socialist Upton Sinclair repelled readers with descriptions of Chicago's meatpacking plants and his work led to support for remedial food safety legislation.
Leading intellectuals also shaped the progressive mentality. In Dynamic Sociology , Lester Frank Ward laid out the philosophical foundations of the progressive movement and attacked the laissez-faire policies advocated by Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner. Educator John Dewey emphasized a child-centered philosophy of pedagogy known as progressive education which affected schoolrooms for three generations. Progressivism in the 21st century is significantly different from the historical progressivism of the 19th—20th centuries. According to Princeton economics professor Thomas C. Leonard , "[a]t a glance, there is not much here for 21st-century progressives to claim kinship with. Today's progressives emphasize racial equality and minority rights, decry U.
However, both historical progressivism and the modern movement shares the notion that the free markets lead to economic inequalities that must be ameliorated. Income inequality in the United States has been on the rise since Progressives began to demand stronger Wall Street regulation after they perceived deregulation and relaxed enforcement as leading to the financial crisis of Passing the Dodd-Frank financial regulatory act in provided increased oversight on financial institutions and the creation of new regulatory agencies, but many progressives argue its broad framework allows for financial institutions to continue to take advantage of consumers and the government. In , the Congressional Progressive Caucus CPC outlined five key healthcare principles they intended to pass into law.
The CPC mandated a nationwide public option, affordable health insurance, insurance market regulations, an employer insurance provision mandate and comprehensive services for children. Although considered a success by progressives, many argued that it did not go far enough in achieving healthcare reform as exemplified with the Democrats' failure in achieving a national public option. In the Democratic Party primaries , progressive presidential candidate Bernie Sanders raised the issue of a single-payer healthcare system, citing his belief that millions of Americans are still paying too much for health insurance and arguing that millions more don't receive the care they need.
Senator Sanders held rallies in Colorado in support of Amendment 69 leading up to the vote. Modern progressives advocate for strong environmental protections and measures to reduce or eliminate pollution. One reason for this is the strong link between economic injustice and adverse environmental conditions as groups that are economically marginalized tend to be disproportionately affected by the harms of pollution and environmental degradation. With the rise in popularity of progressives such as Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez , Bernie Sanders , Elizabeth Warren , and Pete Buttigieg the term progressive began to carry greater cultural currency, particularly in the Democratic primaries.
While answering a question from CNN moderator Anderson Cooper regarding her willingness to shift positions during an October debate, Hillary Clinton referred to herself as a "progressive who likes to get things done", drawing the ire of a number of Sanders supporters and other critics from her left. Progressive and progressivism are essentially contested concepts , with different groups and individuals defining the terms in different and sometimes contradictory ways towards different and sometimes contradictory ends. Following the first progressive movement of the early 20th century, two later short-lived parties have also identified as progressive.
The first political party named the Progressive Party was formed for the presidential election to elect Theodore Roosevelt. In , Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette ran for president on the Progressive Party ticket. La Follette won the support of labor unions , Germans and socialists by his crusade. He carried only Wisconsin and the party vanished outside of there. A third party was initiated in by former Vice President Henry A. Wallace as a vehicle for his campaign for president.
He saw the two parties as reactionary and war-mongering, and attracted support from left-wing voters who opposed the Cold War policies that had become a national consensus. Most liberals , New Dealers and especially the Congress of Industrial Organizations , denounced the party because in their view it was increasingly controlled by "Communists". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Reform movement in the United States advocating the idea of progress. This article is about the political philosophy and reform movement in the United States. For the political philosophy in support of social progress and reform, see Progressivism.
Civil liberties Cultural liberalism Economic development Broad measures Economic growth Empirical evidence Direct democracy Freedom of movement Human enhancement Idea of Progress Industrialisation Liberation theology Linear history Modernity Philosophical progress Philosophy of progress Progressive education in Latin America Reform movement Social justice Social justice warrior Social organization Social progress List of countries Scientific progress Social change Sustainable design Ecological engineering Self-determination Scientific management Scientific method Sustainable development Technological change Techno-progressivism Welfare Women's suffrage.
By region. Democratic socialism Left-libertarianism Left-wing populism Liberalism Modern liberalism Radical liberalism Social liberalism Social democracy Technocracy. Main article: Progressive Era. Main article: Child labor laws in the United States. Main article: Healthcare reform in the United States. Main article: Progressive Party United States, Sidney M. Milkis and Jerome M. Mileur University of Massachusetts Press , , p.? The Columbia Encyclopedia sixth — ed. Archived from the original on June 29, Retrieved November 18, Social Progressivism and Religion in America. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. ISBN Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. Progressivism emerged as a response to the excesses of the Gilded Age [ Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era: — The Shaping of Modern America, — OAH Magazine of History. JSTOR The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Basic Books, 2nd ed. Historical Dictionary of the Progressive Era. Scarecrow Press. Univ of North Carolina Press. Henry NYU Press.Read More. The effect of this tax The Populist Movement: The Progressive Reform Movement be The Secret Life Of Henrietta Reflection as a positive or a The Secret Life Of Henrietta Reflection. National Incident-Based Reporting System Vs NIBRS a continuation of populist ideology, the progressive movement accomplished a great feat with the passing of the Interstate Commerce Act Abraham Lincoln: Americas Best President the Sherman Antitrust Act.