The Effect Of Jukebox Musicalss On Modern Day Musicals

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The Effect Of Jukebox Musicalss On Modern Day Musicals



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Top 10 Saddest Musicals of All Time

Still, a few creative teams began to build on Show Boat ' s innovations. Waters' numbers included " Supper Time ", a woman's lament for her husband who has been lynched. The Cradle Will Rock , directed by Orson Welles , was a highly political pro- union piece that, despite the controversy surrounding it, ran for performances. Cohan as President Franklin D. Roosevelt , and Kurt Weill 's Knickerbocker Holiday depicted New York City's early history while good-naturedly satirizing Roosevelt's good intentions. The motion picture mounted a challenge to the stage.

Silent films had presented only limited competition, but by the end of the s, films like The Jazz Singer could be presented with synchronized sound. In fact, it continued to evolve thematically beyond the gags and showgirls musicals of the Gay Nineties and Roaring Twenties and the sentimental romance of operetta, adding technical expertise and the fast-paced staging and naturalistic dialogue style led by director George Abbott. The s would begin with more hits from Porter, Irving Berlin , Rodgers and Hart, Weill and Gershwin, some with runs over performances as the economy rebounded, but artistic change was in the air. Rodgers and Hammerstein 's Oklahoma! It defied musical conventions by raising its first act curtain not on a bevy of chorus girls, but rather on a woman churning butter, with an off-stage voice singing the opening lines of Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin' unaccompanied.

It drew rave reviews, set off a box-office frenzy and received a Pulitzer Prize. It remains one of the most frequently produced of the team's projects. William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird wrote that this was a "show, that, like Show Boat , became a milestone, so that later historians writing about important moments in twentieth-century theatre would begin to identify eras according to their relationship to Oklahoma! The examples they set in creating vital plays, often rich with social thought, provided the necessary encouragement for other gifted writers to create musical plays of their own".

Some of these musicals treat more serious subject matter than most earlier shows: the villain in Oklahoma! The show's creativity stimulated Rodgers and Hammerstein's contemporaries and ushered in the "Golden Age" of American musical theatre. The story is set during wartime and concerns three sailors who are on a hour shore leave in New York City, during which each falls in love. The show also gives the impression of a country with an uncertain future, as the sailors and their women also have. The formula for the Golden Age musicals reflected one or more of four widely held perceptions of the "American dream": That stability and worth derives from a love relationship sanctioned and restricted by Protestant ideals of marriage; that a married couple should make a moral home with children away from the city in a suburb or small town; that the woman's function was as homemaker and mother; and that Americans incorporate an independent and pioneering spirit or that their success is self-made.

The s were crucial to the development of the American musical. The relatively brief seven-month run of that show didn't discourage Lerner and Loewe from collaborating again, this time on My Fair Lady , an adaptation of George Bernard Shaw 's Pygmalion starring Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews , which at 2, performances held the long-run record for many years. Popular Hollywood films were made of all of these musicals. Two hits by British creators in this decade were The Boy Friend , which ran for 2, performances in London and marked Andrews' American debut, and Salad Days , with a run of 2, performances. Another record was set by The Threepenny Opera , which ran for 2, performances, becoming the longest-running off-Broadway musical until The Fantasticks.

The production also broke ground by showing that musicals could be profitable off-Broadway in a small-scale, small orchestra format. This was confirmed in when a revival of Jerome Kern and P. Wodehouse 's Leave It to Jane ran for more than two years. It was embraced by the critics, but failed to be a popular choice for the "blue-haired matinee ladies", who preferred the small town River City, Iowa of Meredith Willson 's The Music Man to the alleys of Manhattan 's Upper West Side.

Apparently Tony Award voters were of a similar mind, since they favored the former over the latter. West Side Story had a respectable run of performances 1, in the West End , while The Music Man ran nearly twice as long, with 1, performances. However, the film of West Side Story was extremely successful. The original production ran for performances, and was given four subsequent revivals, with Angela Lansbury , Tyne Daly , Bernadette Peters and Patti LuPone later tackling the role made famous by Ethel Merman. Although directors and choreographers have had a major influence on musical theatre style since at least the 19th century, [67] George Abbott and his collaborators and successors took a central role in integrating movement and dance fully into musical theatre productions in the Golden Age.

He was later the director-choreographer for Sweet Charity , Pippin and Chicago Prominent directors have included Hal Prince , who also got his start with Abbott, [68] and Trevor Nunn. During the Golden Age, automotive companies and other large corporations began to hire Broadway talent to write corporate musicals , private shows only seen by their employees or customers. It ran for 1, performances and shared the Tony Award for Best Musical. Together with its extremely successful film version , it has become one of the most popular musicals in history. In , The Fantasticks was first produced off-Broadway.

This intimate allegorical show would quietly run for over 40 years at the Sullivan Street Theatre in Greenwich Village , becoming by far the longest-running musical in history. Its authors produced other innovative works in the s, such as Celebration and I Do! The s would see a number of blockbusters, like Fiddler on the Roof ; 3, performances , Hello, Dolly! Two men had considerable impact on musical theatre history beginning in this decade: Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman. Sondheim moved the musical beyond its concentration on the romantic plots typical of earlier eras; his work tended to be darker, exploring the grittier sides of life both present and past.

Later, Sondheim found inspiration in unlikely sources: the opening of Japan to Western trade for Pacific Overtures , a legendary murderous barber seeking revenge in the Industrial Age of London for Sweeney Todd , the paintings of Georges Seurat for Sunday in the Park with George , fairy tales for Into the Woods , and a collection of presidential assassins in Assassins While some critics have argued that some of Sondheim's musicals lack commercial appeal, others have praised their lyrical sophistication and musical complexity, as well as the interplay of lyrics and music in his shows.

Some of Sondheim's notable innovations include a show presented in reverse Merrily We Roll Along and the above-mentioned Anyone Can Whistle , in which the first act ends with the cast informing the audience that they are mad. Jerry Herman played a significant role in American musical theatre, beginning with his first Broadway production, Milk and Honey , performances , about the founding of the state of Israel , and continuing with the blockbuster hits Hello, Dolly! Even his less successful shows like Dear World and Mack and Mabel have had memorable scores Mack and Mabel was later reworked into a London hit.

Writing both words and music, many of Herman's show tunes have become popular standards, including " Hello, Dolly! Herman's songbook has been the subject of two popular musical revues, Jerry's Girls Broadway, and Showtune off-Broadway, The musical started to diverge from the relatively narrow confines of the s. Rock music would be used in several Broadway musicals, beginning with Hair , which featured not only rock music but also nudity and controversial opinions about the Vietnam War , race relations and other social issues. After Show Boat and Porgy and Bess , and as the struggle in America and elsewhere for minorities' civil rights progressed, Hammerstein, Harold Arlen , Yip Harburg and others were emboldened to write more musicals and operas that aimed to normalize societal toleration of minorities and urged racial harmony.

The creative team later decided that the Polish white vs. Puerto Rican conflict was fresher. Tolerance as an important theme in musicals has continued in recent decades. The final expression of West Side Story left a message of racial tolerance. By the end of the s, musicals became racially integrated, with black and white cast members even covering each other's roles, as they did in Hair. Parade is a sensitive exploration of both anti-Semitism and historical American racism , and Ragtime similarly explores the experience of immigrants and minorities in America.

Some of those began as " concept albums " which were then adapted to the stage, most notably Jesus Christ Superstar and Evita. Others had no dialogue or were otherwise reminiscent of opera, with dramatic, emotional themes; these sometimes started as concept albums and were referred to as rock operas. More varied musical genres and styles were incorporated into musicals both on and especially off-Broadway.

At the same time, Stephen Sondheim found success with some of his musicals, as mentioned above. In , the dance musical A Chorus Line emerged from recorded group therapy-style sessions Michael Bennett conducted with "gypsies" — those who sing and dance in support of the leading players — from the Broadway community. From hundreds of hours of tapes, James Kirkwood Jr. What initially had been planned as a limited engagement eventually moved to the Shubert Theatre on Broadway [76] for a run of 6, performances, becoming the longest-running production in Broadway history up to that time. Broadway audiences welcomed musicals that varied from the golden age style and substance.

John Kander and Fred Ebb explored the rise of Nazism in Germany in Cabaret , and murder and the media in Prohibition -era Chicago , which relied on old vaudeville techniques. Pippin , by Stephen Schwartz , was set in the days of Charlemagne. At the end of the decade, Evita and Sweeney Todd were precursors of the darker, big budget musicals of the s that depended on dramatic stories, sweeping scores and spectacular effects. Although many film versions of musicals were made in the s, few were critical or box office successes, with the notable exceptions of Fiddler on the Roof , Cabaret and Grease.

The s saw the influence of European " megamusicals " on Broadway, in the West End and elsewhere. These typically feature a pop-influenced score, large casts and spectacular sets and special effects — a falling chandelier in The Phantom of the Opera ; a helicopter landing on stage in Miss Saigon — and big budgets. Some were based on novels or other works of literature. The British team of composer Andrew Lloyd Webber and producer Cameron Mackintosh started the megamusical phenomenon with their musical Cats , based on the poems of T.

Eliot , which overtook A Chorus Line to become the longest-running Broadway show. Lloyd Webber followed up with Starlight Express , performed on roller skates; The Phantom of the Opera ; also with Mackintosh , derived from the novel of the same name ; and Sunset Boulevard , from the film of the same name. Phantom would surpass Cats to become the longest-running show in Broadway history, a record it still holds. The team produced another hit with Miss Saigon , which was inspired by the Puccini opera Madama Butterfly. The megamusicals' huge budgets redefined expectations for financial success on Broadway and in the West End. In earlier years, it was possible for a show to be considered a hit after a run of several hundred performances, but with multimillion-dollar production costs, a show must run for years simply to turn a profit.

Megamusicals were also reproduced in productions around the world, multiplying their profit potential while expanding the global audience for musical theatre. In the s, a new generation of theatrical composers emerged, including Jason Robert Brown and Michael John LaChiusa , who began with productions off-Broadway. While the cost of tickets to Broadway and West End musicals was escalating beyond the budget of many theatregoers, Rent was marketed to increase the popularity of musicals among a younger audience. It featured a young cast and a heavily rock-influenced score; the musical became a hit.

Other shows on Broadway followed Rent' s lead by offering heavily discounted day-of-performance or standing-room tickets, although often the discounts are offered only to students. The s also saw the influence of large corporations on the production of musicals. The most important has been Disney Theatrical Productions , which began adapting some of Disney's animated film musicals for the stage, starting with Beauty and the Beast , The Lion King and Aida , the latter two with music by Elton John.

The Lion King is the highest-grossing musical in Broadway history. Despite the growing number of large-scale musicals in the s and s, a number of lower-budget, smaller-scale musicals managed to find critical and financial success, such as Falsettoland and Little Shop of Horrors , Bat Boy: The Musical and Blood Brothers. The topics of these pieces vary widely, and the music ranges from rock to pop, but they often are produced off-Broadway, or for smaller London theatres, and some of these stagings have been regarded as imaginative and innovative. In the new century, familiarity has been embraced by producers and investors anxious to guarantee that they recoup their considerable investments. Hamilton , transformed "under-dramatized American history" into an unusual hip-hop inflected hit.

However, most major-market 21st-century productions have taken a safe route, with revivals of familiar fare, such as Fiddler on the Roof , A Chorus Line , South Pacific , Gypsy , Hair , West Side Story and Grease , or with adaptations of other proven material, such as literature The Scarlet Pimpernel , Wicked and Fun Home , hoping that the shows would have a built-in audience as a result. Today, it is less likely that a sole producer, such as David Merrick or Cameron Mackintosh , backs a production. In , the credits for Thoroughly Modern Millie listed ten producers, and among those names were entities composed of several individuals.

Several musicals returned to the spectacle format that was so successful in the s, recalling extravaganzas that have been presented at times, throughout theatre history, since the ancient Romans staged mock sea battles. These musicals involved songwriters with little theatrical experience, and the expensive productions generally lost money. Conversely, The Drowsy Chaperone , Avenue Q , The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee , Xanadu and Fun Home , among others, have been presented in smaller-scale productions, mostly uninterrupted by an intermission, with short running times, and enjoyed financial success.

In , Cyndi Lauper was the "first female composer to win the [Tony for] Best Score without a male collaborator" for writing the music and lyrics for Kinky Boots. Another trend has been to create a minimal plot to fit a collection of songs that have already been hits. This style is often referred to as the " jukebox musical ". Seuss 's How the Grinch Stole Christmas! In Asia, India continues to produce numerous "Bollywood" film musicals, and Japan produces "Anime" and "Manga" film musicals. Made for TV musical films were popular in the s, such as Gypsy , Cinderella and Annie Several made for TV musicals in the first decade of the 21st century were adaptations of the stage version, such as South Pacific , The Music Man and Once Upon a Mattress , and a televised version of the stage musical Legally Blonde in Additionally, several musicals were filmed on stage and broadcast on Public Television, for example Contact in and Kiss Me, Kate and Oklahoma!

The made-for-TV musical High School Musical , and its several sequels, enjoyed particular success and were adapted for stage musicals and other media. Fox, , [] and Rent: Live Fox Some television shows have set episodes as a musical. Others have included scenes where characters suddenly begin singing and dancing in a musical-theatre style during an episode, such as in several episodes of The Simpsons , 30 Rock , Hannah Montana , South Park , Bob's Burgers and Family Guy. There have also been musicals made for the internet, including Dr.

It was written during the WGA writer's strike. Buddy — The Buddy Holly Story. Buddy Holly , including many early rock "standards". Return to the Forbidden Planet. Boogie Nights. Saturday Night Fever. Bee Gees and others. Disco Inferno. The Marvelous Wonderettes. Love, Janis. Janis Joplin. The Legend of The Wild One. Johnny O'Keefe. We Will Rock You. Our House. Movin' Out. Billy Joel. The Boy from Oz. Peter Allen. Tonight's The Night. Rod Stewart. Belles belles belles. On the Record. Back to the 80's! John Lennon. Good Vibrations. The Beach Boys. All Shook Up. Jersey Boys. Frankie Valli and Four Seasons. Hoy no me puedo levantar.

Spanish group Mecano. Mexican and Cuban bolero songs. Dusty — The Original Pop Diva. Dusty Springfield. Hot Feet. Priscilla, Queen of the Desert. Various artists, based on the movie Priscilla, Queen of the Desert. Daddy Cool. Frank Farian. Ring of Fire. Johnny Cash. Rock of Ages. Glam metal of the s. The Onion Cellar. The Dresden Dolls. Desperately Seeking Susan. Never Forget. Ich war noch niemals in New York [ de ]. Sunshine on Leith. The Proclaimers. The Beautiful South. All the Fun of the Fair. David Essex. Charles Aznavour. Dreamboats and Petticoats.

Mentiras el musical. Life Could Be a Dream. Doo-wop music circa Perfect Harmony. Everyday Rapture. Come Fly Away. Frank Sinatra. Million Dollar Quartet. Padam Padam : Le spectacle musical [ fr ]. Norbert Glanzberg. Baby It's You! Hinterm Horizont [ de ]. Udo Lindenberg. The Bodyguard. Whitney Houston. I Dreamed a Dream. Raiding the Rock Vault [8]. Various classic rock songs. Viva Forever! Spice Girls. Soul Sister. Tina Turner. Yoshimi Battles the Pink Robots. The Flaming Lips. Beautiful: The Carole King Musical. Carole King. Soul Doctor. Shlomo Carlebach and Nina Simone. After Midnight. Duke Ellington. The set pieces are minimal but used to the fullest. Instead of drowning the stage, they hooked toilet paper up to leaf blowers, rendering Jackson the true Supreme Lord of the Bathroom.

The costuming was stunning. The musical is everything that the movie missed and everything that the series deserves. I saw my astonishment mirrored on her face and in the faces of the other audience members. The awe quickly turned into joy. Even Mr. D would be proud.

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