Similarities Between Odysseus And John F Kennedy
Farrar, Straus and Giroux Macmillan Core Philosophy Of The Psychoanalytic Theory. Plagiarism Sharpie-Gate. You can keep track Core Philosophy Of The Psychoanalytic Theory all Benefits Of Being An American Essay in-progress assignments. He started writing during his Similarities Between Odysseus And John F Kennedy residence at the MacDowell Colony in New Hampshire, United States, [note 2] and finished the novel in BerlinGermany; he had accepted a grant from the German Academic Exchange Service in Lo Reading Response To Thomas Nelsons Darkness In The Look argomento in LINK Crew Business Analysis Sovraccoperta. Core Philosophy Of The Psychoanalytic Theory Staying Engaged in Life. Displacement and migration Reading Response To Thomas Nelsons Darkness In The Look always been a reality for the WHO European Region and Core Philosophy Of The Psychoanalytic Theory contribution of refugees and migrants, alongside host populations, in developing the societies in which we currently live should not be forgotten. Essay Should We Let Computers Get Under Our Skins? there are a few references in ancient literature to Reading Response To Thomas Nelsons Darkness In The Look temples of Hermes,  The Importance Of Seal Hunting In Canada this may be Reading Response To Thomas Nelsons Darkness In The Look license describing the ubiquitous herms, or other, smaller shrines to Hermes located in the temples of other deities.
Story of JFK assassination told through Dallas police recordings
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Our service is legit We provide you with a sample paper on the topic you need, and this kind of academic assistance is perfectly legitimate. Get a plagiarism-free paper We check every paper with our plagiarism-detection software, so you get a unique paper written for your particular purposes. We can help with urgent tasks Need a paper tomorrow? Pay a fair price Our prices depend on urgency. In countries where the constitution does not specifically provide for these rights, numerous other protocols, agreements and corresponding policies have been promulgated that support the health of refugees and migrants.
The directives and regulations that are part of the Common European Asylum System set minimum standards for various procedures, including health care and rights, during the asylum-seeking process In , the WHO Regional Office for Europe organized a High-level Meeting on Refugee and Migrant Health 60 to address salient aspects of meeting the short- and long-term health needs of refugees and migrants and to respond to the public health challenges associated with their rapid arrival.
It recommended creation of a common framework supporting coordinated and collaborative action across the WHO European Region. Consultation, negotiation and collaborative action in the follow-up to the High-level Meeting produced a common regional response and a regional resolution The Strategy and Action Plan outlined nine strategic areas and five indicators to support development and monitoring of national health policies and refugee and migrant health-related priority areas see Chapter 3.
It also catalysed and contributed to relaunching the refugee and migrant health agenda globally, with WHA Chapter 3 outlines the results of the first survey to monitor these indicators in the Region. Until the last few decades of the 20th century, refugee and migrant health policies, where they existed, tended to have an almost exclusively national focus, with concentration on avoidance of importation of diseases from abroad.
However, studies have suggested that refugees and migrants at the early stages of displacement and migration were often healthier than host populations often referred to as the healthy migrant effect 63 — Over time, however, disparities, inequalities and health risks inherent to the status of migrants and the migration process can emerge. Refugees and migrant categories such as and irregular migrants in particular are more vulnerable and susceptible to the subsequent acquisition of many communicable diseases, including vaccine-preventable diseases and antimicrobial resistance AMR 66 , This reflects issues such as poor health services and vaccination coverage in their country of origin, exposure to overcrowding and poor sanitation facilities in transit or at reception, and the likelihood of living in poor conditions with difficulty in accessing health care initially in the destination country Similarly, displacement and migration itself itself can also increase vulnerabilities to NCDs through interruptions in management or loss of medication or equipment during travel or through legal status issues for migrants, which often restrict access to and utilization of the necessary care.
Changes in lifestyle and adoption of unhealthy behaviours, such as sedentary lifestyles and poor diet, can also contribute Mental health conditions are particularly sensitive to any uncertainty over legal status, residency, work permits and the broader social perspectives in the host country Labour migrants may be proportionally more common in less-safeguarded employments, where they may be at risk of occupational death and injuries and chronic work-related illnesses or psychosocial stressors linked to unhealthy living and working conditions These issues have determined a paradigm shift in the migration and health discourse from a focus on national border and health security to issues of population-based equity, preventive care, right to health, social determinants of health and universal health coverage.
The EU has policies and common understandings directed towards a coordinated approach to the successful integration of third-country nationals nationals of non-EU countries. These policies recognize that third-country nationals have less favourable outcomes in terms of employment, education and social inclusion, indicators which are often associated with downstream health outcomes 72 , Nevertheless, differences exist between countries in access requirements to health services 74 and the level of implementation of regionally agreed strategies, recommendations and policies. This is particularly the case for irregular migrants 75 , In general, regional health policies recommend or define that emergency and urgent care should be available to all refugees and migrants throughout the Region regardless of status.
Refugees and various categories of migrant might face challenges in all of the 5As of access to health care: availability, adequacy, accessibility, affordability and appropriateness These health system inputs are key to population health outcomes and to the achievement of global health goals. Failure in ensuring that refugees and migrants have access to equitable health care deprives refugees, migrants and host population of the positive effects of population movement and can have negative public health repercussions for all population groups. Lack of disease prevention, delayed access to diagnosis and care, substandard quality and interrupted treatment, lack of adequate surveillance and case management, and lack of targeted information and health education are all avoidable situations experienced by refugees and migrants that can have important public health costs and repercussions in the context of both communicable diseases and NCDs.
This is of particular public health relevance where refugees and migrants may represent a sizeable proportion of the community Chapter 2 discusses this in more detail but several key public health arguments for the promotion of refugee and migrant health can be made. Foremost of these is the achievement of the goal of universal health coverage, as discussed above. The right to health is a basic human right. The right to access preventive, curative and palliative health care, but also the right to the underlying social preconditions for health, is a basic human right under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Healthy refugees and migrants contribute actively to the host society and country of origin.
In several countries, they tend to contribute more in terms of tax and contributions than the benefits they receive Additionally, remittances sent back home are often spent on health, livelihood and education for the family members left behind and are, therefore, an important stabilization factor Early diagnosis and treatment save lives and cut treatment costs. Primary care is ideally the first point of access to health services but often refugees and migrants access health services in emergencies only. Ideally, health care should be provided as part of routine services, starting in reception centres and moving on to the final destination.
Treating a condition when it becomes an emergency not only endangers the health of the patient but can also result in a greater economic burden to the health care system. A study analysed economic costs related to the exclusion of irregular migrants from access to the mainstream health care system. The results indicated that timely treatment in a primary health care setting was always cost-saving compared with treatment in a hospital setting for direct medical, nonmedical and indirect costs. This holds true from the perspective of all three stakeholders: the patient, the third-party payer health care system and society as a whole Prioritizing vulnerable populations and most at-risk individuals in societies is a sound public health strategy.
Inclusiveness rather than exclusion is a key strategy for the achievement of global health goals and cost-effective public health systems. The displacement and migratory trajectories often places individuals at increased risk for certain diseases. Improved monitoring, better understanding of risk factors, strengthened prevention and testing programmes for refugees and migrants, removal of barriers to the provision and updating of services, and a strengthened evidence base are all necessary public health interventions.
Clusters of the population with lower health coverage can have negative health outcomes for the whole community. Effective immunization rates in a population prevent the resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases. Decline of immunization rates in countries of origin and barriers to accessing services or completing vaccination schedules owing to mobility are common causes of the lower vaccination coverage observed among refugees and migrants in Europe 76 , In addition, information on the immunization status of refugees and migrants is often lacking because they may not be specifically targeted in surveillance programmes Delays in the adoption of customized preventive health programmes, compounded by the late recourse refugees and migrants have to health care, can cause the resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreaks in communities.
For example, TB is primarily a disease of poverty, with social deprivation and substandard living conditions magnifying the risk of infection Evidence from EU countries in revealed that In Europe, multidrug-resistant TB MDR-TB is more prevalent among refugees and migrants than in host populations, again linked to failures within health systems in terms of detection of latent TB, late initiation of treatment and incomplete treatment courses Refugee and migrant health security is part of global health security. Large-scale cross-border movement and far-reaching webs of travel and trade that connect communities, plus restricted access to health care for refugees and migrants, have the potential to allow the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease threats 88 , 89 and the rise and spread of AMR Collective health security is ultimately the sum of individual health security, which is best achieved through universal health coverage.
The Review Committee of the International Health Regulations has recommended that WHO should work with states party to the Regulations to ensure that their core capabilities and contingency plans include arrangements for refugees and migrants Population diversity changes epidemiological profiles. Some population movement associated health determinants and influences extend into the next generation and beyond, affecting the descendants of refugees and migrants and gradually the epidemiological profile of a country e.
This has impact for genetically related illnesses and individualized disease treatments, including the availability of suitable donors for transplantation Refugee and migrant communities and their descendants frequently have different personal travel patterns to other non-migrant travellers e. Achieving the SDGs and leaving no one behind. Displacement and migration are some of the defining features of the 21st century and can contribute to achieving the SDGs. In order for this to happen, a better understanding is needed of the relationships between displacement, migration and key development issues such as health, education, gender, labour and urbanization.
Basic health and well-being for all is a key part of many WHO strategies, action plans and frameworks, both globally and regionally. The report focuses on the public health aspects of public health aspects of population displacement and international migration in the WHO European Region, although many of the same issues will be faced within a country by those migrating internally and by vulnerable groups. They may also face certain challenges to accessing health care, including financial, administrative, language and cultural barriers, as well as lacking an understanding of how health care is organized and delivered. Consequently, national health systems of the transit and final destination countries need long-term policies and health system structural adaptations to address the challenges that refugees and migrants face.
Acknowledging the heterogeneity inherent in persons who are displaced or migrating is important for the realization of targeted refugee and migrant health programmes and policies that will ensure health and well-being for all. Trends in international migrant stock: the revision. Global estimates on migrant workers: results and methodology. Missing migrants: tracking deaths along migration routes [website].
Convention and protocol relating to the status of refugees. Key migration terms [website]. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International migration report highlights. Perruchoud R, Redpath-Cross J, editors. Glossary on migration, second edition. Master glossary of terms, revision 1. Transforming our world: the Agenda for sustainable development.
Migration: a social determinant of the health of migrants. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Framework on integrated, people-centred health services. Resolution WHA Strengthening integrated, people-centred health services. Tokyo declaration on universal health coverage: all together to accelerate progress towards UHC. The global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. In: Labour migration [website]. Migration policy debates. Record high remittances to low- and middle-income countries in Migration and remittances: recent developments and outlook. In numbers. Global trends: forced displacement in Asylum and migration [website].
Thompson L. Changing public perception of immigration [website]. How the world views migration. Summary of the high-level dialogue on international migration and development. Health and migration in the European Union: better health for all in an inclusive society. Bratislava declaration on health, human rights and migration. People on the move: human rights and challenges for health care systems.
Constitution of the World Health Organization. International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. Declaration of Alma-Ata. United Nations millennium declaration. Reducing health inequities through action on the social determinants of health. Rio political declaration on social determinants of health, Rio de Janeiro, 21 October Health, migration and the Agenda for Sustainable Development. Factsheets on sustainable development goals: health targets migration and health. World health report , shaping the future.
Universal health coverage UHC. Tracking universal health coverage: first global monitoring report. International migration, health and human rights. International convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination. International convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families. Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children. Protocol against the smuggling of migrants by land, sea and air. Declaration of the high-level dialogue on international migration and development. New York declaration for refugees and migrants. New York declaration. In: Compact on refugees [website].
Health of migrants. Tallinn charter: health systems for health and wealth. Mosca D, Schultz C. EU global health priorities: migration and mobility. The European Union as a global health actor Global health diplomacy, Vol. Munich: World Scientific; — Promoting the health of refugees and migrants. Promoting the health of refugees and migrants, framework of priorities and guiding principles to promote the health of refugees and migrants. Health of migrants: the way forward — report of a global consultation, Madrid, 3—5 March Colombo statement. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Resolution on human rights of irregular migrants. Common European asylum system. In: Migration and home affairs [website]. Stepping up action on refugee and migrant health: towards a WHO European framework for collaborative action. Migration and health in the European Union. Razum, O. Commentary: of salmon and time travellers — musing on the mystery of migrant mortality. Int J Epidemiol. Newbold KB. Self-rated health within the Canadian immigrant population: risk and the healthy immigrant effect. Soc Sci Med. What constitutes an effective and efficient package of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care of tuberculosis among refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region?
Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. Migration and health: key issues. In: Health topics [website]. Asia Europe J. Public health aspects of mental health among migrants and refugees: a review of the evidence on mental health care for refugees, asylum seekers and irregular migrants in the WHO European Region. Public health aspects of migrant health: a review of the evidence on health status for labour migrants in the European Region. Migrant integration statistics introduced: migrant integration in the EU. In: Eurostat statistics explained [website]. Indicators of immigration integration settling in. Migration and health in an increasingly diverse Europe.
Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. Public health aspects of migrant health: a review of the evidence on health status for undocumented migrants in the European Region. Cost of exclusion from healthcare: the case of migrants in an irregular situation. Patient-centred access to health care: conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations. Int J Equity Health. Beyond the barriers: framing evidence on health system strengthening to improve the health of migrants experiencing poverty and social exclusion.
General comment No. Bozorgmehr K, Razum O. Effect of restricting access to health care on health expenditures among asylum-seekers and refugees: a quasi-experimental study in Germany, — PLOS One. Cost analysis of health care provision for migrants and ethnic minorities. The gap report: migrants. HIV and migrants Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence. Pathog Glob Health. An overview of tuberculosis and migration. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Migration integration statistics: at risk of poverty and social exclusion. Globalization of infectious diseases: the impact of migration and the rise and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
Clin Infect Dis. Future infectious disease threats to Europe. Am J Public Health ; 11 — Implementation of the international health regulations Report of the Review Committee on the role of the international health regulations in the Ebola outbreak and response. Sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia in Swedish immigrants: genetic diseases have become global. Criteria for initiation and evaluation of minority donor programs and application to the example of donors of Turkish descent in Germany.
Bone Marrow Transplant. Travel to visit friends and relatives: migrant health guide. Annex 1. This chapter presents the available information on the current health status of refugees and migrants and how health services are organized in the WHO European Region. The health status of migrants and refugees can be assessed in relation to either that of the host population in the country of destination or that of the population in the country of origin 1.
Refugees and migrants may bring health risks to their country of destination e. The displacement and migratory experience can alter the pattern of morbidity and mortality for specific diseases, making these either better or worse than in the country of origin. As refugees and migrants spend longer in the country of destination, their health status may converge with that of the host population 1. Based on figures available in published literature, standardized mortality ratio estimates tend to be lower in refugees and migrants than in the European host population for all-cause mortality, neoplasms, mental and behavioural conditions, injuries, endocrine disorders and digestive conditions, but higher for infections, external causes, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and cardiovascular diseases Fig.
Summary standardized mortality ratios for refugees and migrants compared with the host population in the WHO European Region for various mortality causes. Notes: Mortality causes are based on the all-cause mortality and International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision; values below 1. Most literature regarding refugee and migrant health in the WHO European Region has addressed communicable diseases, with less information on the risk for NCDs, such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke and cancer; risks for these NCDs can increase with duration of stay in the host country 4 , 5. Factors such as country of origin, specific health outcome considered, and duration and socioeconomic conditions of stay have a major impact on refugee and migrant health and so studies can have differing or contesting observations 6 — 9.
Refugee and migrant health is highly complex, with risks and exposures associated with the displacement and the migratory process, respectively, and the social determinants of health in the host country. Consequently, it is often difficult to generalize research findings to wider refugee and migrant populations in a country, in a region or globally, and this should be kept in mind when considering information on the health status of refugees and migrants in the WHO European Region The legal status of different migrant groups e.
Research from Finland indicated that forced displacement may be related to an increase in risk of death from cardiovascular diseases Irregular migrants in the WHO European Region have been shown to be at greater risk of poor mental health than migrants with documentation or the host populations Refugees and asylum seekers may have elevated rates of perinatal mortality and prevalence of PTSD 13 , Gender is an additional important aspect to consider when analysing refugee and migrant health but data are rarely disaggregated by sex and there is no systematic, comparable information on those who do not fit the typical binary male and female categories.
This report highlights the gender aspects wherever data are available. When studying the health status of refugees and migrants, it is also important to recognize that outcomes are often a result of an entire lifetime of risks and exposures, which may have occurred before, during or after the displacement or migratory process. For example, children belonging to different migrant groups often have greater health differences than those between migrant children in general and non-migrant children in European countries, and elderly migrants who have aged within the destination country may face different issues to those who migrate in older age.
It is important have a life-course approach to refugee and migrant health, similar to the general population. However, such an approach is limited by lack of data, especially on elderly migrants 15 — Tailored health care can only be provided if the needs of a population group are understood. However, in general, there is a lack of comprehensive, routinely collected and comparable data focusing on refugee and migrant health in the WHO European Region, which limits the ability to draw generalized conclusions within this report. This is particularly true for certain vulnerable groups such as irregular migrants. One of the main findings and challenges of developing the report was the use of different terminologies to refer to refugees and migrants.
Documents reviewed used different terms such as foreign born, foreign origin and immigrants to refer to refugees and migrants, making it impossible to differentiate outcomes among groups. If the target group for a study was clearly mentioned in the source article, it is reflected in the report. In other instances, as indicated in Chapter 1 , the term refugees and migrant is used. Other issues that hamper analysis include differences in national surveillance systems; data confidentiality issues and gaps in existing data; methodology issues such as the geographical area studied and the size of the study population; and the lack of reliability in calculations of disease prevalence or incidence rates among refugee and migrant populations.
Best efforts have been made to identify and utilize in this report as much of the available information as possible to generate an overview of refugee and migrant health in the WHO European Region. The chapter begins with a description of the health profile of this population and then examines health care organization and delivery in the WHO European Region. Identified gaps in coverage and discrepancies are discussed plus the specific issues of achieving culturally sensitive health systems. Data for this report were obtained from a scoping review of recent literature more than 13 documents, mainly since published in English and Russian and identified in the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science databases.
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