Theories Of Development: Piagets Theory Of Cognitive Development

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Theories Of Development: Piagets Theory Of Cognitive Development

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Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

If a child is in a low economic household, he or she may be deprived from stimulations and support necessary to enhance higher levels of cognition. Government can also influence behaviors depending on the school systems the government provides. Where the child is located could potentially be an influence on development. If the child is located in a poor country, the child has a greater possibility of not developing fully cognitively due to limited resources. Gary W. Evans, Henry N. Bradley, Robert F. Evans et al. Our data also reveal, for the first time, that the well-documented link- ages between higher residential crowding and poorer cognitive development are largely mediated by diminished maternal responsiveness. Herein we show that greater crowding , at ages 9, 15, and 36 months of age, is related to less maternal responsiveness at 36 months of age.

Meditational analyses suggest that this relation explains some of the association between crowding and cognitive development pg. Discuss the diversity issues involved Please answer the following questions in your answer: Please discuss gender, ethnicity , age, social economical status, spiritually, and sexual orientation issues in your answer. A study was conducted by Margaret R. Burchinal et al, found:. These comparisons indicated that although all children except White girls tended to show higher mean scores if they were attending medium- or high- quality child care than if they attended poor-quality care, this trend was especially pronounced among girls from minority ethnic back- grounds and families not in poverty and among boys from minority ethnic backgrounds and families living in poverty pg.

Piaget is criticized by Carol Gilligan, who maintains that much if not most of the developmental research done is skewed in favor of male participants. She talks of the bias that leads Piaget to equate male development with child development. Gilligan insists that the studies done by Piaget simply do not apply to female students , because no female students were included in the study group with which Piaget worked pg. Identify how the theoretical framework impacts the behavior on a micro systems level Please answer the following questions: How does the theoretical framework you are using impact behavior on a micro systems level?

Please discuss biological, psychological, social, cultural , and spiritual issues in your answer. In his theory, biological, psychological, social cultural, and spiritual issues all correlate with each other and have influences on this. For example, children who are abused do not develop psychologically at the same rate as children who were not abused do. A child who is abused or neglected develops a lack of social responsiveness, object relations , and separation anxiety.

Children from inadequate parenting families may also fail to develop separation anxiety and later stranger anxiety. Identify how the theoretical framework impacts the behavior on a mezzo systems level Please answer the following questions: How is mezzo system level defined? How does the theoretical framework you are using impact behavior on a mezzo systems level?

Please discuss family, and group issues. Zastro and Kirst-Ashman define mezzo system that refers to any small group , including family, work groups, and other social groups pg. Family especially influences cognitive development. Identify how the theoretical framework impacts the behavior on a macro systems level Please answer the following questions: How is the macro system level defined?

How does the theoretical framework you are using impact behavior on a macro systems level? Please discuss community, institutions, and organization issues in your answer. Zastro and Kirst-Ashman define macro system as refers to a system larger than a small group. Macro involves focusing on the social, political, and economic conditions and policies that affect peoples overall access to resources and quality of life pg. If the social and economic environments that people live in are improved, it will have a positive impact on cognitive development.

Identify and describe at least four social work roles as outlined in chapter 1. Describe all of the anticipated outcomes that a social worker using each social work role could expect from using the theoretical framework you have identified with your targeted population. An enabler role is a worker that helps a client cope with various stresses. An educator role involves giving information and teaching skills to clients. A mediator role involves resolving arguments. An advocate steps forward and speaks on behalf of the client.

An enabler would help the parents cope if the child had a cognitive delay. At the same time children have an obvious advantage in the tasks related to gestural communication, observational learning, and understanding of intentions. Tomasello : p. Vygotsky should also be credited with posing an intriguing question regarding possible historical changes in human cognition. Are cognitive functions of people in antiquity, Middle Ages, and the eighteenth century the same as those of people in the twenty-first century?

Do the historical changes in cultural tools impact on our cognition? The unique sociocultural situation of this region in the late s and early s was determined by a very rapid invasion of Soviet power into an otherwise traditional and mostly nonliterate agricultural society. As a result, people belonging to the same economic and sociocultural group, often even to the same extended family, found themselves under very different sociocultural circumstances. Some of them, especially those in the remote villages, retained all aspects of a traditional nonliterate culture and way of life.

Others became involved in new agricultural or industrial enterprises, exposed to the new technology and means of communication, but still without access to systematic formal education. The main conclusions reached by Vygotsky and Luria on the basis of this study were that informants who retain a traditional nonliterate culture and way of life tend to solve problems by using functional reasoning reflecting their everyday life practical experience and reject the possibility of looking at classification, generalization, or drawing conclusions from another; for example, more abstractive point of view.

It was observed, however, that informants who did not experience formal education rather easily reverted to purely functional reasoning. At the same time, informants who received some form of formal education demonstrated a clear preference for the verbal-logical form of problem solving. With the wisdom of hindsight, one can distinguish a number of questions that remained unanswered in this initial research. Vygotsky and Luria seem to have grouped together different sociocultural factors such as the acquisition of literacy, formal classroom learning, exposure to modern technology, and participation in labor activities based on the formal division of labor.

Each of these factors seems, however, to have a different impact on the construction of cognitive functions and should be investigated separately. The Central Asia study later inspired the Scribner and Cole research in Western Africa that demonstrated that literacy and schooling may have a differential cognitive impact. For this experiment, he presented the infants with a cloth mother or a wire mother under two conditions. In one situation, the wire mother held a bottle with food and the cloth mother held no food; in the other, the cloth mother held the bottle and the wire mother had nothing. In the end, even in the situations in which the wire mother had food and the cloth mother had none, the baby monkeys preferred to cling to the cloth mother for comfort.

Sigmund Freud was a Viennese physician who developed his psychosexual theory of development through his work with emotionally troubled adults. Sigmund Freud : Sigmund Freud developed his theory of development based on five psychosexual stages. Freud believed that the human personality consisted of three interworking parts: the id , the ego, and the superego. According to his theory, these parts become unified as a child works through the five stages of psychosexual development. The id , the largest part of the mind, is related to desires and impulses and is the main source of basic biological needs. The ego is related to reasoning and is the conscious, rational part of the personality; it monitors behavior in order to satisfy basic desires without suffering negative consequences.

The superego, or conscience, develops through interactions with others mainly parents who want the child to conform to the norms of society. The superego restricts the desires of the id by applying morals and values from society. Freud believed that a struggle existed between these levels of consciousness, influencing personality development and psychopathology. The information in our unconscious affects our behavior, although we are unaware of it. For Freud, childhood experiences shape our personalities and behavior as adults. Freud viewed development as discontinuous; he believed that each of us must pass through a series of stages during childhood, and that if we lack proper nurturing and parenting during a stage, we may become stuck in, or fixated on, that stage.

Some critics of Freud believe the memories and fantasies of childhood seduction Freud reported were not real memories but constructs that Freud created and forced upon his patients. Erikson emphasized that the ego makes positive contributions to development by mastering attitudes, ideas, and skills at each stage of development. This mastery helps children grow into successful, contributing members of society. Erikson proposed that we are motivated by the need to achieve competence in certain areas of our lives. According to psychosocial theory, we experience eight stages of development over our lifespan, from infancy through late adulthood.

At each stage there is a crisis or task that we need to resolve. Successful completion of each developmental task results in a sense of competence and a healthy personality. Failure to master these tasks leads to feelings of inadequacy. From birth to 12 months of age, infants must learn that adults can be trusted. If infants are treated cruelly or their needs are not met appropriately, they will likely grow up with a sense of mistrust for people in the world.

As toddlers ages 1—3 years begin to explore their world, they learn that they can control their actions and act on their environment to get results. They begin to show clear preferences for certain elements of the environment, such as food, toys, and clothing. For example, we might observe a budding sense of autonomy in a 2-year-old child who wants to choose her clothes and dress herself. Although her outfits might not be appropriate for the situation, her input in such basic decisions has an effect on her sense of independence. If denied the opportunity to act on her environment, she may begin to doubt her abilities, which could lead to low self-esteem and feelings of shame. Once children reach the preschool stage ages 3—6 years , they are capable of initiating activities and asserting control over their world through social interactions and play.

According to Erikson, preschool children must resolve the task of initiative vs. By learning to plan and achieve goals while interacting with others, preschool children can master this task. These children will develop self-confidence and feel a sense of purpose. Those who are unsuccessful at this stage—with their initiative misfiring or stifled by over-controlling parents—may develop feelings of guilt. During the elementary school stage ages 6—12 , children face the task of industry vs. Children begin to compare themselves with their peers to see how they measure up. If children do not learn to get along with others or have negative experiences at home or with peers, an inferiority complex might develop into adolescence and adulthood.

In adolescence ages 12—18 , children face the task of identity vs. They will be unsure of their identity and confused about the future. People in early adulthood 20s through early 40s are concerned with intimacy vs. After we have developed a sense of self in adolescence, we are ready to share our life with others. However, if other stages have not been successfully resolved, young adults may have trouble developing and maintaining successful relationships with others.

Erikson said that we must have a strong sense of self before we can develop successful intimate relationships. Adults who do not develop a positive self-concept in adolescence may experience feelings of loneliness and emotional isolation. When people reach their 40s, they enter the time known as middle adulthood, which extends to the mids. The social task of middle adulthood is generativity vs. During this stage, middle-aged adults begin contributing to the next generation, often through childbirth and caring for others; they also engage in meaningful and productive work which contributes positively to society. Those who do not master this task may experience stagnation and feel as though they are not leaving a mark on the world in a meaningful way; they may have little connection with others and little interest in productivity and self-improvement.

From the mids to the end of life, we are in the period of development known as late adulthood. He said that people in late adulthood reflect on their lives and feel either a sense of satisfaction or a sense of failure. People who feel proud of their accomplishments feel a sense of integrity, and they can look back on their lives with few regrets. However, people who are not successful at this stage may feel as if their life has been wasted. They face the end of their lives with feelings of bitterness, depression, and despair.

Lawrence Kohlberg expanded on the earlier work of cognitive theorist Jean Piaget to explain the moral development of children. Kohlberg believed that moral development, like cognitive development, follows a series of stages. He used the idea of moral dilemmas—stories that present conflicting ideas about two moral values—to teach 10 to 16 year-old boys about morality and values. Kohlberg emphasized that it is the way an individual reasons about a dilemma that determines positive moral development. Each level of morality contains two stages, which provide the basis for moral development in various contexts.

Each level is associated with increasingly complex stages of moral development. Children accept and believe the rules of authority figures, such as parents and teachers.

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