Lewis Hyde The Gift

Thursday, September 23, 2021 7:29:05 AM

Lewis Hyde The Gift



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Gary Laderman, focusing on the intersection of psychedelic culture, sacred drugs, and the modern American zeitgeist This lecture focused on the Hindu view of life from the margins. Where do our ideas about how the economy works, and our views on economic policy, come from? Critics of contemporary economics complain that belief in free markets, among economists as well as many ordinary citizens, is a form of religion. The foundational transition in thinking about what we now call economics, beginning in the eighteenth century, was decisively shaped by the hotly contended lines of religious thought at that time within the English-speaking Protestant world Read more about Video: Religion and the Rise of Capitalism.

Skip to main content. Main Menu Utility Menu Search. The CSWR facilities are wheelchair accessible. Public parking is not readily available in the immediate vicinity of the CSWR, although there is limited metered parking nearby, on Oxford, Kirkland, and Beacon Streets. For additional information, email Ariella Ruth Goldberg or call Hope came in the form of the expertise of a local cardiologist…and the help of a fighter pilot. Need to see a doctor but feeling too old to ask your parents to make an appointment? Taking on responsibility for your own health care can seem like a huge task. But by taking a few simple steps, you can ensure that you are able to take care of yourself, become more independent and remain healthy as you grow older.

In Good Hands Our providers and staff work hard every day to deliver high quality care to our patients and families. Read the Annual Report. The gift is said to embody the sins of the giver the "poison of the gift" , whom it frees of evil by transmitting it to the recipient. The merit of the gift depends on finding a worthy recipient such as a Brahmin priest.

Priests are supposed to be able to digest the sin through ritual action and transmit the gift with increment to someone of greater worth. It is imperative that this be a true gift, with no reciprocity, or the evil will return. The gift is not intended to create any relationship between donor and recipient, and there should never be a return gift. Dana thus transgresses the so-called universal "norm of reciprocity". The Children of Peace — were a utopian Quaker sect. Today, they are primarily remembered for the Sharon Temple , a national historic site and an architectural symbol of their vision of a society based on the values of peace, equality and social justice.

They built this ornate temple to raise money for the poor, and built the province of Ontario's first shelter for the homeless. They took a lead role in organizing the province's first co-operative, the Farmers' Storehouse , and opened the province's first credit union. The group soon found that the charity they tried to distribute from their Temple fund endangered the poor. Accepting charity was a sign of indebtedness, and the debtor could be jailed without trial at the time ; this was the "poison of the gift".

They thus transformed their charity fund into a credit union that loaned small sums like today's micro-credit institutions. This is an example of singularization , as money was transformed into charity in the Temple ceremony, then shifted to an alternative exchange sphere as a loan. Interest on the loan was then singularized, and transformed back into charity. Non-commodified spheres of exchange exist in relation to the market economy.

They are created through the processes of singularization as specific objects are de-commodified for a variety of reasons and enter an alternative exchange sphere. As in the case of organ donation, this may be the result of an ideological opposition to the "traffic in humans". It may also be used by corporations as a means of creating a sense of endebtedness and loyalty in customers. Modern marketing techniques often aim at infusing commodity exchange with features of gift exchange, thus blurring the presumably sharp distinction between gifts and commodities.

Market economies tend to "reduce everything - including human beings, their labor, and their reproductive capacity — to the status of commodities". In North America, it is illegal to sell organs, and citizens are enjoined to give the "gift of life" and donate their organs in an organ gift economy. Unlike body organs, blood and semen have been successfully and legally commodified in the United States. Blood and semen can thus be commodified, but once consumed are "the gift of life". Although both can be either donated or sold, are perceived as the "gift of life" yet are stored in "banks", and can be collected only under strict government regulated procedures, recipients very clearly prefer altruistically donated semen and blood.

Ironically, the blood and semen samples with the highest market value are those that have been altruistically donated. The recipients view semen as storing the potential characteristics of their unborn child in its DNA, and value altruism over greed. Engineers, scientists and software developers have created free software projects such as the Linux kernel and the GNU operating system. They are prototypical examples for the gift economy's prominence in the technology sector, and its active role in instating the use of permissive free software and copyleft licenses, which allow free reuse of software and knowledge.

Other examples include file-sharing , open access , unlicensed software and so on. Many retail organizations have "gift" programs meant to encourage customer loyalty to their establishments. Bird-David and Darr refer to these as hybrid "mass-gifts" which are neither gift nor commodity. They are called mass-gifts because they are given away in large numbers "free with purchase" in a mass-consumption environment. They give as an example two bars of soap in which one is given free with purchase: which is the commodity and which the gift? The mass-gift both affirms the distinct difference between gift and commodity while confusing it at the same time. As with gifting, mass-gifts are used to create a social relationship.

They are similar to charity shops , with mostly second-hand items—only everything is available at no cost. Whether it is a book , a piece of furniture , a garment or a household item, it is all freely given away, although some operate a one-in, one-out—type policy swap shops. The free store is a form of constructive direct action that provides a shopping alternative to a monetary framework, allowing people to exchange goods and services outside a money-based economy. The anarchist s countercultural group The Diggers [60] opened free stores which gave away their stock, provided free food, distributed free drugs, gave away money, organized free music concerts, and performed works of political art. Today the idea is kept alive by the new generations of social centres , anarchists and environmentalists who view the idea as an intriguing way to raise awareness about consumer culture and to promote the reuse of commodities.

The event is described as an experiment in community, radical self-expression, and radical self-reliance. The event forbids commerce except for ice, coffee, and tickets to the event itself [64] and encourages gifting. According to the Associated Press, "Gift-giving has long been a part of marijuana culture" and has accompanied legalization in U. Possession, growth, and use of the drug by adults is legal in the District, as is giving it away, but sale and barter of it is not, in effect attempting to create a gift economy. Many anarchists, particularly anarcho-primitivists and anarcho-communists , believe that variations on a gift economy may be the key to breaking the cycle of poverty. Therefore, they often desire to refashion all of society into a gift economy.

Anarcho-communists advocate a gift economy as an ideal, with neither money, nor markets, nor planning. This view traces back at least to Peter Kropotkin , who saw in the hunter-gatherer tribes he had visited the paradigm of " mutual aid ". As an intellectual abstraction, mutual aid was developed and advanced by mutualism or labor insurance systems and thus trade unions , and has been also used in cooperatives and other civil society movements. Typically, mutual-aid groups are free to join and participate in, and all activities are voluntary. Often they are structured as non-hierarchical , non-bureaucratic non-profit organizations , with members controlling all resources and no external financial or professional support.

They are member-led and member-organized. They are egalitarian in nature, and designed to support participatory democracy , equality of member status and power, and shared leadership and cooperative decision-making. Members' external societal status is considered irrelevant inside the group: status in the group is conferred by participation. English historian E. Thompson wrote about the moral economy of the poor in the context of widespread English food riots in the English countryside in the late 18th century. Thompson claimed that these riots were generally peaceable acts that demonstrated a common political culture rooted in feudal rights to "set the price" of essential goods in the market. These peasants believed that a traditional "fair price" was more important to the community than a "free" market price and they punished large farmers who sold their surpluses at higher prices outside the village while some village members still needed produce.

Thus a moral economy is an attempt to preserve an alternative exchange sphere from market penetration. However, James C. Scott points out that those who provide this subsistence insurance to the poor in bad years are wealthy patrons who exact a political cost for their aid; this aid is given to recruit followers. The concept of moral economy has been used to explain why peasants in a number of colonial contexts, such as the Vietnam War, have rebelled. Some may confuse common property regimes with gift exchange systems. The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth.

These resources are held in common, not owned privately. When commonly held property is transformed into private property this process is called " enclosure " or "privatization". A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner. There are a number of important aspects that can be used to describe true commons. The first is that the commons cannot be commodified — if they are, they cease to be commons.

The second aspect is that unlike private property, the commons are inclusive rather than exclusive — their nature is to share ownership as widely, rather than as narrowly, as possible. The third aspect is that the assets in commons are meant to be preserved regardless of their return of capital. Just as we receive them as a shared right, so we have a duty to pass them on to future generations in at least the same condition as we received them. If we can add to their value, so much the better, but at a minimum we must not degrade them, and we certainly have no right to destroy them. Free content, or free information, is any kind of functional work, artwork , or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work.

Although different definitions are used, free content is legally similar if not identical to open content. An analogy is the use of the rival terms free software and open source which describe ideological differences rather than legal ones. Because copyright law in most countries by default grants copyright holders monopolistic control over their creations, copyright content must be explicitly declared free, usually by the referencing or inclusion of licensing statements from within the work.

Although a work which is in the public domain because its copyright has expired is considered free, it can become non-free again if the copyright law changes. Information is particularly suited to gift economies, as information is a nonrival good and can be gifted at practically no cost zero marginal cost. Markus Giesler in his ethnography Consumer Gift System , described music downloading as a system of social solidarity based on gift transactions. This form of gift economy was a model for online services such as Napster , which focused on music sharing and was later sued for copyright infringement. Nonetheless, online file sharing persists in various forms such as Bit Torrent and Direct download link. A number of communications and intellectual property experts such as Henry Jenkins and Lawrence Lessig have described file-sharing as a form of gift exchange which provides many benefits to artists and consumers alike.

They have argued that file sharing fosters community among distributors and allows for a more equitable distribution of media. In his essay " Homesteading the Noosphere ", noted computer programmer Eric S. Raymond said that free and open-source software developers have created "a 'gift culture' in which participants compete for prestige by giving time, energy, and creativity away". Consequently, the developer may find more opportunities to work with other developers. However, prestige is not the only motivator for the giving of lines of code. An anthropological study of the Fedora community, as part of a master's study at the University of North Texas in , found that common reasons given by contributors were "learning for the joy of learning and collaborating with interesting and smart people".

Motivation for personal gain, such as career benefits, was more rarely reported. Many of those surveyed said things like, "Mainly I contribute just to make it work for me", and "programmers develop software to 'scratch an itch ' ". The firms' and the employees' motivations in such cases are less clear. Members of the Linux community often speak of their community as a gift economy. Collaborative works are works created by an open community. For example, Wikipedia — a free online encyclopedia — features millions of articles developed collaboratively, and almost none of its many authors and editors receive any direct material reward. The concept of a gift economy has played a large role in works of fiction about alternative societies, especially in works of science fiction.

Examples include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mode of exchange where valuables are given without rewards. Basic concepts. Provisioning systems. Hunting-gathering Pastoralism Nomadic pastoralism Shifting cultivation Moral economy Peasant economics. Case studies. Related articles. Original affluent society Formalist—substantivist debate The Great Transformation Peasant economics Culture of poverty Political economy State formation Nutritional anthropology Heritage commodification Anthropology of development.

Major theorists. Schneider Eric Wolf. Theories and ideas. Notable works. Organizations and groups. Adbusters Crass CrimethInc. Deep Green Resistance Democracy Now! Related social movements. See also. Related topics. Criticism Left-libertarianism Philosophical anarchism Right-libertarianism. Capitalism Socialism. By ideology. By coordination. By regional model. Common ownership Private Public Voluntary. Property types. Other types. Main article: Moka exchange. Main article: Alms. Main article: Organ gifting. Main article: Copyleft. Main article: Loyalty program. Main article: Give-away shop. Main article: Burning Man. Main article: Cannabis in Washington, D. Anarchy Anti-authoritarianism Anti-capitalism Anti-statism Class consciousness Class conflict Classless society Common ownership Common resources Commune Consensus democracy Co-operative economics Direct democracy Egalitarian community Free association " From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs ".

Organizational forms.

Michael Brendan Dougherty. The swimming pool library 27, Leading Teams Research Paper Lucky Kat World. Greenfield Ice Cream Company. Popular categories in deals. Original affluent Essay On Extracurricular Activities Formalist—substantivist debate The Great Transformation Peasant economics Smarter Technology of poverty Political Essay On Extracurricular Activities State formation Hcpc standards of conduct performance and ethics 2016 anthropology Heritage commodification Anthropology of development.