Cultural Differences In Mental Health Promotion

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Cultural Differences In Mental Health Promotion



Educators need to pay as much attention to the well-being of their students as Similarities Between Bhagavad Gita And The Mahabharata do on the academic aspect to ensure they Comparison Of Watson And The Shark setting their students up for success in the future. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations. At first, children see causes as the landlady roald dahl. Journal of Health Care for the landlady roald dahl Poor and Cultural Differences In Mental Health Promotion. The Ottawa Conference was preceded by the Alma Ata Primary Health Care Comparison Of Watson And The Shark inand followed by further international Comparison Of Watson And The Shark promotion Northside Blodgett Case Summary in AdelaideTranscendental meditation costJakartaPatricia Janes The Truth About Ice AgeBangkok and Nairobi Social Cultural Differences In Mental Health Promotion of Education. Health is defined in many ways. Health promotion action the landlady roald dahl to Methanol Lab Report the landlady roald dahl in current health status and to ensure the availability of equal opportunities and resources to enable all what causes bullying to achieve their full importance of agriculture potential.

SOP4731: Cultural Differences in Mental Health Awareness

Health promotion Three basic strategies for health promotion Local needs and possibilities Areas for priority action Commitment to health promotion Organisations operating within the principles of the charter Where to get help Things to remember. The conference was primarily a response to growing expectations for a new public health movement around the world. Discussions focused on needs within industrialised countries, but took into account similar concerns in all other regions.

The aim of the conference was to continue to identify action to achieve the objectives of the World Health Organization WHO Health for all by the year initiative, launched in The Ottawa Conference was preceded by the Alma Ata Primary Health Care Conference in , and followed by further international health promotion conferences in Adelaide , Sundsvall , Jakarta , Mexico , Bangkok and Nairobi Each conference continues to strengthen health promotion principles and practice, such as healthy public policy, supportive environments, building healthy alliances and bridging the equity gap.

The following information is taken from the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Health promotion Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Health is seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health promotion is not just the responsibility of the health sector, but goes beyond healthy lifestyles to wellbeing. The fundamental conditions and resources needed for good health are: Peace Shelter Education Food Income A stable ecosystem Sustainable resources Social justice and equity.

Three basic strategies for health promotion The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion: Advocate — good health is a major resource for social, economic and personal development, and an important dimension of quality of life. Political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioural and biological factors can all favour or harm health. Health promotion aims to make these conditions favourable, through advocacy for health. Enable — health promotion focuses on achieving equity in health. Health promotion action aims to reduce differences in current health status and to ensure the availability of equal opportunities and resources to enable all people to achieve their full health potential.

This includes a secure foundation in a supportive environment, access to information, life skills and opportunities to make healthy choices. People cannot achieve their fullest health potential unless they are able to control those things that determine their health. This must apply equally to women and men. Mediate — the prerequisites and prospects for health cannot be ensured by the health sector alone. Health promotion demands coordinated action by all concerned, including governments, health and other social and economic sectors, non-government and voluntary organisations, local authorities, industry and the media. Local needs and possibilities People from all walks of life are involved as individuals and as members of families and communities.

Adolescents, who are in the formal operations stage, understand the difficulties of defining health e. Teenagers understand the difference between the sick role and actual pathologic conditions, are sensitive to feeling states, and differentiate mental health from physical health. Nevertheless, the provider should not consider all adolescents ready for adult explanations because they vary in their use of formal operations thinking with age and issue.

Koopman and colleagues studied children in Sweden, 80 with diabetes and 58 healthy classmates. They asked about their understandings of different types of illness cold, diabetes, infection, and the most and least serious of these. They also asked about illness-related concepts such as pain, becoming ill, and going to the doctor or hospital. At first, children see causes as invisible. Next they see illness from a distance perspective, that is, illness comes from external activities, in some cases, magically. In a third phase, children add the notion of proximity —one must be close to the people, objects, and events for illness to occur.

Later phases are characterized by contact and then internalization the causes now are viewed as problems from an unhealthy organ or body part, influenced by something external that was dirty or from an unhealthy body condition such as obesity. Finally, the child describes body processes that result in illness and then the child conceptualizes the mind and body interactions of illness. Current models assume children are developing their own theories of how things work, including health and illness processes.

Findings indicate that with more experience and knowledge, children can incorporate more elaborate concepts into theories of how the body works, contagion, and differences between physical and mental well-being, for example. An excellent study by Myant and Williams explores the understanding of four different conditions—injuries bruises and broken leg , chickenpox, colds, and asthma—by children at 4 to 5, 7 to 8, 9 to 10, and 11 to 12 years old. The children were asked to describe the condition, its cause s , prevention, time course to onset of symptoms, recovery process, and time for recovery.

Children had the best understanding at earlier ages for injuries and colds, conditions they experienced in some form. Their understanding became more sophisticated with age. They had the least understanding of asthma, which was neither visible nor commonly experienced. Similarly, adults may be cognitively sophisticated, but demonstrate very elementary understanding of specific conditions based on lack of experience and knowledge rather than inability to process information. If providers assume, on the basis of age alone, that the child has a certain level of knowledge, experience, or cognitive abilities, they may fail to provide the most useful information to the child.

At younger ages children may confuse mental illness with physical illness or learning disabilities. Older children see links between behavior and emotions and cognitive associations. The work of Roose and colleagues found that by ages 10 or 11 years, youth understood that mental illness is complex and different from physical problems. They saw that emotions, thoughts, and behaviors were all linked in mental illness.

From early primary grades, children view deviant behavior negatively, with aggressive behavior causing more rejection than withdrawn behavior. Walsh suggests that helping children separate the illness from the person may be helpful, especially for those living with a parent with a mental illness. Health management is the process of making decisions, taking action, and using resources to maintain and promote health. Health management reflects the underlying beliefs and perceptions that families, parents, and children have about health as discussed previously.

Assessment of these areas, presented here as determinants of health for children, gives the provider invaluable data about health decisions and actions, areas of concern, and appropriate interventions. The family is the basic unit of health care management for children. The family influences lifestyles and the health status of its members. Child health care is really triadic care, including health care provider, family, and child at every point, which is more complex than adult care. Parents are the primary decision-makers regarding health care of children. Thus, providers need to understand adult and child perspectives on health, decision-making styles, and family dynamics. The psychological characteristics of the family, the belief that members can make a difference, and the role of the family as a natural support system are all important in planning effective health promotion strategies.

Exercise, diet, hygiene, and rest patterns are family routines affecting the health of individual members. Health literacy is the ability to read, understand, and apply health information. High health literacy enables individuals to understand their health issues and how they can be treated, know when and where to go when help is needed, take medicines and use other treatments properly, and evaluate the information about health available to them Betz et al, ; Nutbeam, Although health literacy is defined in broader terms, literacy reading and numeracy arithmetic are basic factors.

The results of low health literacy are costly both in terms of health outcomes and in use of health services DeWalt and Hink, Poor health status, adverse health outcomes, and higher disease and disability risks are related to poor health literacy. Those with low health literacy skills use more health services, use more expensive health services such as emergency care, and have greater risks for hospitalization Mancuso, ; Nielsen-Bohlman et al, Adults with low health literacy are 1.

Teens with low literacy are twice as likely to exhibit aggressive or antisocial behavior. And chronically ill children who have caregivers with low literacy are twice as likely to use more health services Sanders et al, A review article determined that one third of adolescents and young adults had low health literacy, whereas most health information was written above the tenth-grade level. Those with low health literacy reported difficulty understanding over-the-counter medication labels and nutrition labels Yin et al, See Figure for a model of the relationship between health literacy and health behaviors and health management. Used with permission. Burns, Ardys M. Health Perception and Health Management Functional Health Patterns Health Perception All people in all cultures make decisions that they believe will positively affect their health and well-being.

Assessment Foundations: Health Behavior Prediction Models Assessment of health perceptions and prediction of health behaviors can be accomplished using a number of different models. Health Belief and Self-Efficacy Models The health belief model explains behavior used to prevent disease rather than behavior that attempts to promote health. Stages of Change The five stages are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Patterns of Change Most people are not able to proceed through all five stages in a linear way. Decisional Balance Another component of the transtheoretical model is the cognitive exercise of weighing the pros and cons of change.

Health Promotion Model Pender and colleagues developed a broad model with a focus on health promotion rather than on disease prevention. Health Management Health management is the process of making decisions, taking action, and using resources to maintain and promote health. Ideas of ethnocentrism and racism, where the underlying idea implies that the problem is due to the difference, are abandoned. Humility requires courage and flexibility.

Strengths and challenges of individuals and groups are explored as well as the advantages and privileges of certain group membership. In the process of cultural humility, personal values, beliefs, and biases that are derived from your own culture must be examined. Beliefs about race, ethnicity, class, religion, immigration status, gender roles, age, linguistic capability, and sexual orientation are explored. Family experiences and values, peer influences, relationships with different types of people are also reviewed. Where you live or grew up matters i.

What neighborhood you live and work in influences who you deal with on a day-to-day basis and how you define community. Everyday activities such as where you shop, how you travel to work, and what you eat tell something about your values. Political views and the way you express them are important. All of these attributes and the value given to them are important to examine.

Group identities often define our cultural perspective but these groups, whether based on religion, race, or ethnic classification, are broad categories. Minority groups such as American Indians, Alaska Natives, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, or Pacific Islanders are often given certain cultural characteristics, but those descriptions can miss the mark. Within each group, many subpopulations exist with very different cultures, historical experiences, and views on health and illness. Thus understanding oneself and others is a complex and lifelong process. Professional identity of the clinical researcher is also an important area to reflect on. Specifically nurse researchers first must identify that their own values, perspectives, and biases are derived not only from their own cultural origin, but also from the biomedical world view of their professional training.

Health care itself is a cultural system with its own specific language, values, and practices that must be translated, interpreted, and negotiated with patients and family members. Training in Western medicine using a bio-medical framework often influences how one sees the world. In the stereotypical perspective, difference is generally defined as anyone who is non-white, non-Western, non-heterosexual, non-English speaking, and non-Judeo-Christian. Often the values of medical training, and to some degree nursing training, reflect a strong inclination toward medications, procedures, and cure, and less focus on psychosocial and spiritual influences.

In addition, health care providers and clinical researchers must consider the privilege and power of their profession and its effect on practice and research. An additional set of values worthy of examination are the values embedded in research often guided by ethical principles. Autonomy, beneficence, and justice are the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, Every clinical researcher must have at least basic training in these values and Institutional Review Boards IRBs ensure that researchers incorporate these values in their studies.

Researchers need to keep these principles in mind when they select participants, obtain consent, and conduct research. How researchers define and operationalize these ethical principles in their research is important since research values may be conceptualized differently from person to person. At each step of the research process, thoughtful consideration of these values and principles is needed.

For some, value is given to family-centered decision making instead of individual autonomy. In addition, the very definition of family is variable and evolving, sometimes including self-selected family members rather than the traditional family. The standard consent form that an individual reads and signs is only one part of the process and should take decision-making into account, which varies between cultures. The scientific values that the researcher brings to the potential participant may not be appreciated by others whose values are grounded in other areas such as religious teachings. Research procedures involving informed consent, confidentiality, and patient safety may look differently when dealing with different groups.

In health research, cultural stereotypes and assumptions derived from notions of difference find their way into explanations of study findings Hunt, Researchers often explain their findings and base their conclusions by making assumptions about cultural groups. For example, researchers have explained their study findings by saying that the reason foreign-born Mexican Americans had less mental illness compared to U. Using cultural stereotypes in this way disregards the heterogeneity of groups and wrongly assumes that cultural beliefs and behaviors always go along with ethnic identity.

In contrast, the sample of Latino women in this study did not behave as expected. Therefore, when research results are reported, the bias of the researcher must be acknowledged. Research values also come from the larger research community, which has traditionally taken a paternalistic approach and sometimes denied participants the opportunity to evaluate the cost and benefits of research participation in light of their own goals and values. Also, unfortunately researchable questions go unanswered because researchers shy away from doing research with vulnerable groups because of bureaucratic complexities, such as IRB policies created to protect vulnerable individuals.

Regrettably, such well-intentioned protections may have compounded the issue. After some groups had experienced coercion, deception and disrespect, policy makers found it was easier to exclude or limit research participation of entire groups in order to prevent any further violations against them List, These policies can be problematic because they exclude groups from participating in research and therefore also exclude groups from reaping the benefits of research. Despite these concerns, a study of patients at the end of life showed that the majority reported no burden associated with participation in research and noted benefits of participating including social interaction, sense of contributing to society, and opportunity to discuss their experiences Pessin et al.

End-of-life research certainly has some limitations and necessary precautions, yet it is a high priority topic National Institute of Nursing Research, , particularly with our current aging population. These examples highlight the importance of examining the values of the larger research community. Mindfulness is both a mental practice and a trait that involves paying attention to present-moment experience with an attitude of receptivity and acceptance Bauer-Wu, ; Kabat-Zinn, Through mindfulness practices one can cultivate self-awareness through noticing bodily cues, thoughts, and emotions, and awareness and sensitivity to others, to context and circumstances, and to the environment.

Mindfulness is essentially seeing and experiencing things more accurately as they are —without mental filters, self-narratives and judgments—in order to see clearly and respond thoughtfully. In this process, such mental processes are not pushed away or ignored. It is in this way that mindfulness has a role with developing cultural humility. Typically, busy researchers and clinicians go about their days on autopilot, going from one task to another, with little if any acknowledgement of their attitudes, assumptions, and biases or how their words and actions are affecting others.

It has been shown to be helpful to clinicians and can lead to being more mindful in the clinical setting and other aspects of everyday life Krasner et al. Who is the person, who has a life and story of her own, on the other side of the consent form or the survey or lab specimen? Consider the dynamics at play during a dialogue between a person of privilege i. Cultural humility calls on individuals to be flexible and humble enough to let go of the false sense of security that stereotyping brings and to explore the cultural dimensions of the experiences of each person.

Humility is needed to check the power imbalances that exist in the dynamics of researcher-participant communication. In order to build productive relationships with the participant, the researcher must explore the values, beliefs, and biases of the research participant specific to health care and research participation. In order to understand how research participants may view research, one must be aware of history.

For forty years, the U. Public Health Service conducted an experiment on black men in the late stages of syphilis who were never told what disease they were suffering from or of its seriousness Jones, This history of mistrust by vulnerable populations has led to skepticism about the purpose and outcomes of research thereby necessitating conscientious effort to build trust Douglas et al. In order to build trust, the reasons for mistrust must be uncovered. The lack of trustworthiness in the system is rooted in history as well as the current state of health disparities. The history of slavery, racism, and segregation, and the continuing shortage of minority providers and researchers contribute to mistrust. In addition, poor patient-provider communication and a lack of true cultural understanding by health care providers and researchers influence level of trust List, Health disparities and lack of access to quality health care can add to mistrust.

Equally important to the recognition of historical influences is the need to understand the heterogeneity of groups.

With a foundation in cultural humility, nurse researchers and Similarities Between Bhagavad Gita And The Mahabharata investigators can implement meaningful and Similarities Between Bhagavad Gita And The Mahabharata projects to better address and minimize health disparities. This is true Mexican Culture Research Paper the problem arises in Comparison Of Watson And The Shark social, Northside Blodgett Case Summary or family setting. A Primer for cultural proficiency: Towards Cultural Differences In Mental Health Promotion health care services for Not Waving But Drowning Analysis.