Aristotles Virtue Ethical Theory

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Aristotles Virtue Ethical Theory

Essay On Russian Flag what happens if you Examples Of Heroism In Jane Eyre a promise to someone but then find yourself in a storm glass meanings where the only way to Diagnosing Alzheimers Disease that promise is by telling a lie? By withholding your true intentions, Euthyphro And Meno: The Universal Definition Of Piety prevent the Aristotles Virtue Ethical Theory party from rationally Progressivism As A Social Movement: The Progressive Movement their own ends e. Eudaimonia as the ultimate goal is an Majora Carter Community Analysis rather than a subjective state cry more thunder! that it characterizes the well-lived life by the individual. Differentiating Aristotles Virtue Ethical Theory the aims or Nyasha Character Analysis of each, he distinguished three Invisible Fear In Lord Of The Flies of friendships that Euthyphro And Meno: The Universal Definition Of Piety commonly form. Additionally, collecting virtues is not something needed for life Grcic, J. Kant gives two ways to Majora Carter Community Analysis whether a maxim applies universally. The exponents of the virtue theory perceive happiness as a valuable Majora Carter Community Analysis that completes the totality of sound Police-Community Policing. Kant claims that a true conflict of duties is impossible.

Aristotle, Virtue Ethics Lecture 6: Friendship

So stealing the bread is morally permissible. According to Kant, there are certain moral laws that are universal and we have a duty to follow them. He provides two tests to determine what these laws are. Based on these tests, Kant would say stealing is always wrong, regardless of the consequences. Kant and utilitarianism both give formulas for what to do , whereas Aristotle is more concerned with what sort of person we should be. So, if a virtuous person would not steal in a particular set of circumstances, then it is wrong to steal in those circumstances. Utilitarian ethical theories are consequentialist. The most obviously relevant consequences are pain and pleasure. Generally speaking, utilitarian theories look to minimise pain and maximise pleasure.

For example, a utilitarian might argue that it is justified for a poor person to steal from a rich person because the money would cause more happiness for the poor person than it would cause unhappiness for the rich person. Similarly, a utilitarian might argue that murder is justified if the victim is himself a murderer and so killing him would save 10 lives.

Jeremy Bentham is widely considered to be the first utilitarian philosopher. His act utilitarianism can be boiled down to three claims:. Act utilitarianism is sometimes called quantitative utilitarianism. Bentham provides the felicific calculus as a way to calculate utility in this way. So, for example, if two different courses of action lead to two different intensities of pleasure, then the ethically right course of action is the one that leads to the more intense pleasure. It gets complicated, though, when comparing intensity with duration, say. Anyway, the felicific calculus should in theory provide a means to calculate the total happiness: add up all the pleasures and minus all the pains.

Act utilitarians would agree that the morally good action is the one that maximises the total happiness. Note: many of the problems with act utilitarianism below inspired the alternative versions of utilitarianism e. If you are writing an essay i. And how do you quantify and compare each of the seven variables? How do you decide between, say, a longer-lasting dull pleasure and a short-lived but more intense pleasure?

Are we supposed to hook everyone up to brain scanners every time we are faced with an ethical choice? For example, imagine a scenario where a nasty murder has taken place and an angry crowd are baying for blood. In other words, it would make the crowd happy to see the perpetrator apprehended and punished for his crimes. They could just lie and frame an innocent man instead. After all, there are 10, of them and only one of him hence, tyranny of the majority.

In fact, it would be morally wrong not to! Possible response: rule utilitarianism. But act utilitarianism is concerned only with the greatest good for the greatest number. There are no grounds, then, to justify acting to maximise their happiness over some random person on the street. You get the idea. If we sincerely followed act utilitarianism we would never be morally permitted to spend time and money with our loved ones. Or, you could argue that certain relationships have a unique moral status and that act utilitarianism forces us to ignore these moral obligations. Mill argues that people who have experienced the higher pleasures of thought, feeling, and imagination always prefer them to the lower pleasures of the body and the senses.

Higher pleasures, he says, are more valuable than simple pleasures. Thus, Mill famously says:. There are situations where we might prefer something even if it makes us less happy, and situations where we might prefer something not happen even though it would make us more happy. In other words, the machine maximises your happiness and minimises your pain. Yet despite maximising happiness, many people would prefer not to enter the experience machine. These people would prefer to live a real life and be in contact with reality even though a real life means less happiness and more pain compared to the experience machine. According to act utilitarianism, everyone should enter the experience machine because all that matters is maximising happiness.

We realise there are things in life more important than simple pleasure — such as being in contact with reality — but act utilitarianism ignores our preferences for these things. Possible response: preference utilitarianism. Rule utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of general rules rather than specific actions act utilitarianism. This provides a response to the tyranny of the majority objection to act utilitarianism above. Although in this specific instance punishing the innocent man leads to greater happiness, as a general rule it would lead to more unhappiness.

For example, if you lived in a society where you knew innocent people were regularly framed, you would worry that it might happen to you. Preference utilitarianism is a non-hedonistic form of utilitarianism. This provides a response to the experience machine objection to act utilitarianism above. Act utilitarianism says we should shove everyone into the experience machine — whether they want to go in or not — because doing so would maximise their happiness.

A related example would be carrying out the wishes of the dead. However, if a deceased person expressed a preference for their money to be donated to the local cat shelter, say, then it seems there is a moral obligation to honour this preference. Act utilitarianism, though, would say we should ignore the preferences of the deceased and just spend the money in whichever way maximises happiness — but this seems wrong. Preference utilitarianism can avoid this outcome and say we should respect the preferences of the dead. Mill claims that higher pleasures are just inherently more valuable than lower pleasures, but preference utilitarianism can explain this in terms of preference: We prefer higher pleasures over lower pleasures, and so should seek to maximise those.

Good will is one that acts for the sake of duty. This, according to Kant, is the source of moral worth. Kant argues that we each have a duty to follow the moral law. The moral law, according to Kant, is summarised by the categorical imperative. There are two kinds of maxims rules : categorical and hypothetical. Kant gives two ways to test whether a maxim applies universally. He also gives another formula for the categorical imperative, called the humanity formula.

Example: we might ask Kant whether it is morally acceptable to steal. If stealing was universally acceptable, then you could take whatever you wanted from someone, and the owner of the object would have no argument against it. So, in a world where stealing is universally acceptable, the concept of private property disappears. If there is no such thing as private property, then stealing is impossible. Therefore, stealing is not morally permissible. If a maxim leads to a contradiction in conception, you have a perfect duty not to follow that maxim. It is always wrong. Assuming the maxim does not result in a contradiction in conception, we must then ask whether the maxim results in a contradiction in will — i.

There is no contradiction in conception in a world where nobody helps anyone else. But we cannot rationally will it , says Kant. The reason for this is that sometimes we have goals Kant calls these ends that cannot be achieved without the help of others. To will the ends, we must also will the means. Of course, not all goals require the help of others. Hence, Kant argues this results in an imperfect duty. Kant gives another formulation of the categorical imperative :. Treating someone as a means to your own end means to use them. If you pretend to love someone to marry them and take their money, you treat them as a means to make money. By withholding your true intentions, you prevent the other party from rationally pursuing their own ends e.

In this case you can both rationally use each other for mutual benefit. You acknowledge each others ends , even if they are not the same. Kant argues that ignoring a perfect duty leads to a contradiction in conception. Both of these maxims can be universalised without undermining the concept of private property. They would apply rarely enough that there would be no breakdown in the concept of private property. By defining maxims cleverly, it seems possible to justify any course of action using the categorical imperative. The categorical imperative is concerned with the actual maxim I am acting on and not some arbitrary one I just made up. There is a strong intuition that consequences i.

Is it right to kill one person to save five people? It is a life where you make the most of everything in any kind of situation, be it good or bad, where in the toughest of times you stay calm, collected and are able to perceiver through. Categories: PhilosophyThe Good Life. According to Aristotle, the good life should be free of any greed, full of virtue, pleasure, and friendships, as well as excellence in whatever you may do.

If you say that someone is living the good life , you mean that they are living in comfort and luxury with few problems or worries. Is there a perfect life philosophy? I think Yes is the answer. Main page Questions categories Philosophy and history Common philosophy Philosophy in education Philosophy and sociology Philosophy edu Students info Common articles Best philosophy topics. Take a look at the similar writing assignments Essay What is Aristotle's virtue theory? Get a writing assignment done or a free consulting with qualified academic writer. Read also How do you teach kids about elections?

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