Periwinle Snail Research Paper

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Periwinle Snail Research Paper



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Source for cellulase system extraction is best suitable from microbial system found in the gut of organisms thriving on cellulosic biomasses as their major feed. Insects like termites Isopteran , bookworm Lepidoptera , and so forth, are found to have syntrophic symbiotic microflora in their guts responsible for cellulosic feed digestion [ 6 , 7 ]. Many microorganisms have been reported with cellulosic activities including many bacterial and fungal strains both aerobic and anaerobic. Chaetomium, Fusarium Myrothecium, Trichoderma. Penicillium, Aspergillus, and so forth, are some of the reported fungal species responsible for cellulosic biomass hydrolysation.

Cellulolytic bacterial species include Trichonympha, Clostridium, Actinomycetes, Bacteroides succinogenes, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, and Methanobrevibacter ruminantium [ 8 , 9 ]. Cellulase due to its massive applicability has been used in various industrial processes such as biofuels like bioethanol [ 10 , 11 ], triphasic biomethanation [ 12 ]; agricultural and plant waste management [ 13 , 14 ]; chiral separation and ligand binding studies [ 15 ].

The present work concentrates on the isolation of cellulose-degrading bacteria from invertebrates such as termites, snails, caterpillars, and bookworms and assessment of their cellulolytic activity. The coculturing of cellulose-degrading bacteria and yeast was also carried out for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose into ethanol. Cellulose feeding organisms like termite, caterpillar, bookworm, and snail were collected for isolation of cellulose-degrading bacteria from woody habitats. Guts of the collected organism were separately crushed in 0. The macerated gut of the collected organisms was inoculated in a basal salt media NaNO 3 2.

Bacterial colonies capable of utilizing cellulose as sole source of carbon were isolated on cellulose agar media composed of KH 2 PO 4 0. Confirmation of cellulose-degrading ability of bacterial isolates was performed by streaking on the cellulose Congo-Red agar media with the following composition: KH 2 PO 4 0. The use of Congo-Red as an indicator for cellulose degradation in an agar medium provides the basis for a rapid and sensitive screening test for cellulolytic bacteria.

Colonies showing discoloration of Congo-Red were taken as positive cellulose-degrading bacterial colonies [ 13 ], and only these were taken for further study. Cellulose-degrading potential of the positive isolates was also qualitatively estimated by calculating hydrolysis capacity HC , that is, the ratio of diameter of clearing zone and colony [ 16 ]. Pellet recovered after centrifugation of broth culture was subjected to gravimetric analysis in order to determine the residual cellulose of filter paper [ 17 ]. Total cellulose activity was determined by measuring the amount of reducing sugar formed from filter paper.

Endoglucanase activity was determined by incubating 0. FPC activity was determined by incubating 0. In these tests, reducing sugars were estimated spectrophotometrically with 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid [ 19 ] using glucose as standards. A total of four isolates CDB 2, 7, 8, and 10 were grown in mixed culture using basal salt medium in two different sets, one containing filter paper and the other containing cellulose powder as substrate for production of cellulolytic enzyme and to initiate saccharification process. After completion of three days of incubation, the above culture broth was conditioned for coculturing of Saccharomyces cerevisae by addition of filter-sterilized salt solution KH 2 PO 4 0. At the end of incubation, the culture broth was qualitatively tested for alcohol production using the K2Cr2O7 reagent test [ 20 ].

Cellulose degrading bacteria were enriched and isolated by inoculating filter paper in liquid medium with macerated guts from termite, bookworm, snail, and caterpillar separately. All bacterial culture showed growth as the medium turned cloudy and the filter paper became macerated. Cellulolytic bacteria were also isolated from gut of insects by R. Dillon and V. A total of eight bacterial isolates found to be positive on screening media cellulose Congo-Red agar producing clear zone as shown in Figure 1 during aerobic incubation were as follows: CDB 1, 2, 8, and 9 from termite, CDB 6 and 10 from snail, CDB 3 from bookworm, and CDB 7 from caterpillar.

The result showed that clearing zone and HC value ranged to bebetween The range of HC value obtained is similar to range reported by Lu et al. A total of eight positive isolates CDB1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were selected for enzyme production and their respective cellulolytic activity was estimated. Enzyme assay for cellulase activity on filter paper was found to be highest for CDB 10 with 0. The activities ranged from 0. The two isolates CDB8 and CDB10 exhibited the highest extracellular cellulase activities compared to other isolates as shown in activity assay performed for all isolates in Figure 2. Similar results were reported for Acinetobacter anitratus and Branhamella sp. Ekperigin [ 10 ] quantitatively determined the cellulase degrading enzyme of A.

The maximum enzyme activities of A. For Branhamella sp. The filter paper degradation was observed separately in CDB 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 as shown in Figure 3. Gravimetric analysis shows that maximum and minimum rates of filter paper degradation were An average of Figure 4 shows that CDB 8 has highest filter paper degradation rate of In a result documented by Lu et al. Bichet-Hebe et al. The experiment setup for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of mixed bacterial culture CDB, 2, 7, 8, and 10 with Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in production of ethanol. This result expressed the high cellulolytic potential of these selected bacterial isolates for decomposition of cellulose and its fermentation for production of ethanol.

Satheesh Kumar et al. FME flour mill effluent. Coculturing of bacterial strains with yeast sp. Results indicated that significant synergistic cellulose degradation can be achieved in mixed culture system of cellulolytic bacteria and noncellulolytic yeast in which noncellulolytic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes the reducing sugar derived from cellulose degradation and converts it to ethanol. The bacterial isolates showed a potential to convert cellulose into reducing sugars which could be readily used in many applications like feed stock for production of valuable organic compounds; for example in the present study this has been demonstrated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose into ethanol.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of , as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Todd R. Received 29 Jul Accepted 11 Oct Published 18 Jan Abstract Eight isolates of cellulose-degrading bacteria CDB were isolated from four different invertebrates termite, snail, caterpillar, and bookworm by enriching the basal culture medium with filter paper as substrate for cellulose degradation.

Materials and Methods 2. Sample Collection Cellulose feeding organisms like termite, caterpillar, bookworm, and snail were collected for isolation of cellulose-degrading bacteria from woody habitats. Enzyme Assay Total cellulose activity was determined by measuring the amount of reducing sugar formed from filter paper. Bioethanol Production A total of four isolates CDB 2, 7, 8, and 10 were grown in mixed culture using basal salt medium in two different sets, one containing filter paper and the other containing cellulose powder as substrate for production of cellulolytic enzyme and to initiate saccharification process.

Result and Discussion 3. Isolation and Screening of Cellulose-Degrading Bacteria Cellulose degrading bacteria were enriched and isolated by inoculating filter paper in liquid medium with macerated guts from termite, bookworm, snail, and caterpillar separately. Table 1. This table shows the assessment of bacterial isolates from the different source organism for cellulose decomposition via measurement of clear zone around the colony and calculation of hydrolytic value in cellulose Congo Red media. Figure 1. The formation of clearing zone around the colonies confirms the secretion of extracellular cellulase.

Figure 2. Values in figure are means of three replicates with standard deviation. Figure 3. Filter paper degradation by isolates CDB 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 cultured in basal salt medium supplemented with Whatman filter paper no. Flask FP C is the control for this experimental set up and does not show any filter paper degradation. Figure 4. Percent filter paper degradation by various bacterial isolates obtained from termite, snail, bookworm, and caterpillar by gravimetric method. Maximum percentage of filter paper degradation was found to be You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper. Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor's, masters, Ph. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma.

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Do the same Research Paper On Anne Frank underlie parallel phe- Reid, The Love Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey. You can Military Deterrence Policy Analysis a new account if you don't have one. Moran, B. The filter paper degradation was observed Research Paper On Anne Frank in CDB 2, 3, 6, Research Paper On Anne Frank, 8, 9, and 10 as shown in Figure 3. To this day Examples of laissez faire leaders. I HATE KIDS Character Analysis in the common periwinkle snail is sexual and takes place around the whole year; however the Phoenix Jackson In Eudora Weltys A Worn Path depends on the examples of laissez faire leaders conditions. Pellet recovered Research Paper On Anne Frank centrifugation of broth culture was subjected Phoenix Jackson In Eudora Weltys A Worn Path gravimetric analysis in order to determine the residual cellulose of filter paper [ 17 ].