Ms. Gertrude Carter: A Case Study

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Ms. Gertrude Carter: A Case Study



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Interment will be in New Bethlehem Cemetery. Permission granted by the photographer, Cecil E. Her lineage: Laura M. Visitation is a. Graveside services are 11 a. Tuesday in Lakewood Memorial Park. King was a lifelong resident of Jackson. She was a graduate of Central High School. She was an employee of Miss. Chapter, Dunbarton Dr. Jackson, MS Funeral services will be held Sunday at 2 p m. Alford, 68, at William and Lord Chapel. Burial will be in New Hope Cemetery near Carrollton. Alford was a hotel clerk. Born in Carroll County, he had lived in Greenwood for 15 years. Vineda Lucus of Tulsa, Okla. Alford of Greenwood; H. Alford of Lexington and J.

Alford of Sidon; two sisters, Mrs. Agnes Mims and Mrs. Elgie Stanrod of Greenwood. Permission granted by the photographer, Beth Austin. Alford, and Verbon Alford in this compilation. His lineage: Laurie L. See the obituary of her husband, Ray Gilbert Alford, which includes a photo of their shared gravestone, in this compilation. Graveside services are 10 a. Monday in Lakewood Memorial Park. Visitation is after 9 a. Monday at Lake-wood Funeral Home.

See the obituary of her husband, Millard Ray Alford Sr. John E. Stephens Chapel. She married James Earl Alford on July 23, and they lived together for over 60 years until his death. She enjoyed fishing, tending to her cows and especially her family. Alford was a member of Sandtown United Methodist Church. Alford was preceded in death by her parents, Verna Z. Services for Mrs. Lavurn Cannon Alford were held Tuesday, March 19, , at 2 p. Burial followed in Sandtown Cemetery. Stephens Chapel Funeral Services is in charge of arrangements. Alford, 92, died Saturday, March 16, , at her residence in the Sandtown Community.

She was preceded in death by her parents, Verna Z. Cannon; and numerous grandchildren. Alford and Bobby Simpson Jr. He leaves an aged wife and daughter, Mrs. Kinnebrew [ sic: Kinabrew], of New Orleans, whose husband, until his retirement a few years ago, was one of the oldest passenger conductors on the I. Alford, a promising young lawyer of Tylertown. Deceased also left an only brother, B. Alford, of this place, father of J. Permission granted by the photographer, Larry Ray. Burial will be in the Harrisonville M. Church Cemetery in Oxford.

Hodges Funeral Home is in charge of the arrangements. Hodges Funeral Home has charge. Services for Lee Marcus Alford will be held Tuesday at 1 p. Burial will be in Zion Hill Cemetery. Alford, 86, of Meridian, died Wednesday, July 25, , in Meridian. Permission granted by the photographer, Jennifer Stallings. Permission granted by the photographer, Thomas. See the obituaries of his son, Charles E. Alford; and sister Mattie Alford in this compilation. This African-American family is listed on the census in Lauderdale Co. All were b. She was a former Vicksburg resident.

Burial was in Midway Cemetery. Halford died Friday, April 30, in Shreveport, La. She was born Dec. She was the widow of L. Halford and was a member of Porters Chapel Methodist in Vicksburg. She had taught school and been a homemaker. See the obituary of her husband, Larry Webster Halford, in this compilation. It includes a photo of their shared gravestone. Permission granted by the photographer, NatalieMaynor. Alford, 55, married for two months, was accidentally killed by her husband Sunday morning after he returned from shooting squirrels in their yard in rural Hinds County.

She died instantly. Services are 10 a. Halford was born Oct. She was a member of Center Ridge Baptist Church. She was preceded in death by spouse, Emmett Halford and daughter, Chris Kirk. Permission granted by the photographer, Margaret Webb. See the obituary of her sister Mary Eva Martin Halford in this compilation. They had 6 children. John was born 20 Aug in Kemper Co. All and their parents were b. Holford, age 39 b. Aug in MS parents b. TN and MS , saleman, m. July in MS, 4 children, 4 living; children, all b. Nov Emmet L. Apr , Bradly B. Dec , and Lawrence 1 b. Aug ; sister-in-law Minnie Piteford 43 b. Jan in MS, single; and niece Grace A. Neal 18 b. Jan in MS. Carthage , Leake Co. Halford, age 30 MS; children, all b. MS: William B. Halford, age 28 b.

TN, and Mary Halford, 22 b. Next door is the family of his brother, R. Halford, 37 b. NC, who is Robert Edward Halford. He married Mary M. Hutchens on 10 Oct in Leake Co. They had 12 children. Bradley died 25 Sept Bradley served as sheriff and constable in Lawrence County on a variety of occasions between and He apparently was an active civil servant. He was elected in to the House of 20th General Assembly for the state of Tennessee for the term. He represented Lawrence, Wayne, and Hardin Counties. He lost his re-election bid in Services are a. Survivors include: husband, John Willie; daughters, Louise Grimes of Carthage and Doris Langston of Picayune; and seven grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren. She was 83 years old, born 23 Oct in Leake Co.

There were seven grandchildren and eleven great grandchildren. John Willie Alford, still living in Leake Co. He is their sixth child out of sixteen. Lena Pearl had been in ailing health for a long time and had been in and out of the hospital many times. She lived at home though with help from the daughters and friends. Lum and Mollie Alford moved to Leake Co. John Willie Alford and I are first cousins: our fathers were brothers. Stephens Funeral Home. Leon Ernest Halford and his wife, Leona Halford. Leona Halford, 70, of Meadville will be held today at 2 p. She is survived by her daughters, Mrs. Lorine Norris and Mrs. Winnie M. Montgomery, both of Meadville, and Mrs. Odie L. Middleton of Vidor, Texas; her sisters, Mrs.

Alice Blackwell of Vicksburg, Mrs. Rhoda Halford of Natchez and Mrs. She is also survived by four grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Permission granted by the photographer, Dee. Services are 2 p. Card Funeral Home is handling arrangements. He served with the Greenville and Rosedale police departments. Card Funeral Home has charge. In his family is in Beat 5, Tallahatchie Co. Alford, 30, age 24 at first marriage; his wife Olla L. Lee Alford, 80, of W. Maywood Circle, a retired certified public accountant, died of cancer Sunday [July 20] at his home. Alford was a native of Roundaway in Coahoma County. He had lived in Jackson since He was a member of Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity. In , Mr. Alford enlisted in the U. Marines and earned the rank of major.

He was a member of the Military Order of World Wars. Hosch of Natchez said. He worked hard and played hard. Alford and Jessie P. Services for Leroy Alford will be held Friday at 11 a. Alford, 55, of Meridian, died Friday, Oct. He was an employee of Wesley Winston Postal Services. He was preceded in death by his mother See the obituary of his probable father, James Alford, in this compilation. Saturday at Victory Baptist Church, Greenville.

He died Dec. He died on his birthday. Sylvester was born about in Mississippi. If this is the correct connection, this is an African American family for which we have no further information. Burial will be in Thornhill Cemetery in Tylertown. Sims was born March 20, , in old Pike County. She was preceded in death by her parents and her husband, Dudley S. She is survived by one son Julius T. Sims SS issued in MS. Alford and Lillie Rushing, were married in Pike Co.

In the family is listed in Beat 2, Pike Co. Alford, no occupation, age 29 b. Dec , m. Nov , 1 child, 1 living; son Auther L. Sept ; and mother Statia P. Alford 65 widow b. June All and their parents were born in MS. Nearby are several Rushing families. In they are still in Beat 2, Pike Co. Again, several Rushing families are nearby. In Statira Alford, widow age 84 b. MS, is living with the family of her son B. Brumfield in Tylertown, Walthall Co. In she is age 15, living with her probable mother, Lucinda Lennon, in Pike Co. In they are still Pike Co.

Brumfield, 25; Benjamin F. In this same family group in still in Pike Co. In they are still in Pike Co. Allford 9. Williams b. Jan 14, , and had 2 ch. Stayra Leonard Brumfield, and she had two sons by a former marriage. She is listed in the Walthall Co. Brumfield Alford However, Statira is living in , listed on the census with her son Benjamin. Brumfield are also buried in the cemetery. Services for Pat Alford, 65, were held Monday, April 19, , at p. He was a member of the Vaiden Presbyterian Church. He had made his home near Vaiden all of his life and had worked for the city until recent illness. Survivors include his wife, Alma Alford; two daughters, Mrs.

Mary Alice Belk, Ft. Deposit [Lowndes Co. Mattie Joyce Palmertree, Vaiden; two sisters, Mrs. Lance Roby, Memphis, Mrs. Winona, Montgomery Co. Permission granted by the photographer, Ronnie Lee Collins. In , Zilpha, Attala Co. Alford, farmer age 40, married 8 years; his wife Lela 37; and daughter Mary Alice 7. Services are at 2 p. Lakewood Funeral Home is handling arrangements. He was an honorary life member of the administrative board. Alford was chief accountant with the U. Postal Service for 37 years. He loved to fish and was a score keeper for the Little League baseball.

After retirement, he was an avid golfer. Survivors include: wife, Nell; sons, Lewis Alford Jr. Wilcox Funeral Home is handling arrangements. Survivors include: son, James A. See the obituary of his brother David Crawley Alford in this compilation. She preceded him in death. David E. Ellis Alford, both born in Greene Co. James Floyd Alford born and Sarah J. Ellis Alford born Liggie Alford and I were second cousins as my grandfather was a brother to his grandfather. The older ones of this line are just about all gone but there are plenty of younger ones left to carry on the Alford name in Mississippi!

Funeral services for Mrs. Lilla Barnes, age 82, were conducted at 3 p. Interment followed in the Homewood Methodist Cemetery. She was a native of Smith County, having lived most of her life in the Hollywood Community and had lived with her daughter Mrs. Leon Herrington at Lake for the past eight years. She was a member of the Homewood Methodist Church. Hendry Audie of Hattiesburg, and Mrs. Leon Herrington Jean of Lake; 13 grandchildren; 15 great-grandchildren, one sister, Mrs.

Effie Vaughn of Rt. We included the obituary of her brother Arthur Daniel Alford Sr. The death date on her gravestone, 16 July , is a Saturday, different than her obituary. Lillian Alford Ellis died at her home in Black Hawk this morning. Services will be held Wednesday at 2 p. Olive church. Burial will be in Harmony cemetery with Williams and Lord in charge.

Ellis, who was 83, was a lifelong resident of the community. She was a Baptist. She leaves four sons, J. Coward of Black Hawk; R. Ellis, Marvin Ellis of Vaiden; G. Ellis of Cruger; four daughters, Mrs. Carpenter of Winona; Mrs. Daves of Coila; Mrs. Robertson of Black Hawk and Mrs. Arant of Longview, Texas; also 39 grandchildren, 38 great grandchildren and 2 great great grandchildren. Pallbearers will be J. Coward, Jr. Robertson, Billy Daves and George F. Photo from Harmony Cemetery, Carroll Co.

Permission granted by the photographer, Sally Bennett. Graveside services at a. Moore Funeral Home in Sardis. Permission granted by the photographer, Panola County Gal. In the census, Amite Co. Alford All were born in MS. In the house next door is the family of Henry C. Crutchfield 57 TX; his wife, probably the mother of the children, is Mary A. Alford 12 MS, Dennis H. Alford 8 MS, and Mary A. Alford 5 MS. In earlier censuses, the last name of members of this family seems to be Halford:. Alford, Mrs. She resided at Liberty [Amite Co. Hermon, La. Friday, conducted by Rev. Charles Brock of the Liberty Baptist Church.

Interment in the Magnolia Cemetery, at Magnolia, Miss. Survivors include two daughters, Mrs. Mildred Nunnery of Liberty, Miss. Florence Rice of Baton Rouge and Mrs. Ivy Hart of Mt. Hermon; two brothers, Hubert Westmoreland of Mt. Hermon and Albert Westmoreland of Franklinton, and three grandchildren. She is listed as Nancy Lillian Westmoreland in Ancestry family trees. Her first husband and father of her children was Iverson G. They are listed on the and censuses in Amite Co.

Linda Conerly Alford, 69, of Tylertown, died Oct. Visitation is 5 to 9 p. Burial will be in Tylertown Cemetery II. She was a teacher for 49 years in Louisiana and Mississippi. She was preceded in death by her parents, and one sister, Mary Jo Conerly. Survivors include her husband, Billy F. See the obituary of her husband, Billy Elton Alford, in this compilation. Holland Funeral Directors. She worked many years as a seamstress in the garment manufacturing industry.

Linda was a loving mother and sister. She enjoyed growing flowers and vegetables as long as she was able. She loved her furry companion her dog, Annabell. She was preceded in death by her parents and two sisters, Carolyn Skaggs and Rhonda Hammett. See the obituary of her second husband, Verner Franklin Alford, in this compilation. On the census his birth date is listed as May Alford was born on Jan.

Josh and Mark Frith served as honorary pallbearers. Permission granted by the photographer, Sarah Ketchum. Survivors include two daughters, Suzanna Alford Baker of Hattiesburg and Virginia Alford Warren of Jackson; and seven grandchildren and six great-grandchildren. Lizzie Sterling Alford, 84, of Magnolia, died Oct. Visitation will be from 9 a. Monday at Magnolia Cemetery. Hartman Funeral Home of McComb is in charge of arrangements. Alford was born Dec. She was a homemaker. She is preceded in death by her parents, three sisters and three brothers. Permission granted by the photographer, Howard Gary. Linda was their only child. Alford passed away Saturday [June 8] in the home of his son, R.

He had been a farmer and a member of the Homewood Methodist Church. The survivors are three daughters, Mrs. Gibson of Dallas, Texas, Mrs. Hegwood of Biloxi, and Mrs. Wall of Meridian; three sons, R. Alford, J. Alford, both of Route 2, Forest, and C. Alford of Dallas, Texas; two sisters, Mrs. Ben Barnes of Hattiesburg, and Mrs. Vaughn [Effie] of Forest; three brothers, R. Alford of Lancaster, Calif. Permission granted by the photographer, Robert Heinsch. Nowell Funeral Service of Ackerman has charge. Phelps leaves six daughters, Mrs. Leola Cole, Mrs. Patricia Hartley and Mrs. Peggy Orman, all of Vicksburg, Mrs. Margie Fulgham of Maben, Mrs. Sue Nevels of Elk City, Okla.

Linda Crowder of Pensacola, Fla. Photo from Fellowship Cemetery, Choctaw Co. Services for Lois Elaine Halford, of Meadville, are 2 p. Community Funeral Services is in charge of arrangements. She was born in McCall Creek on Dec. She was a high school graduate. She was a member of Ramaha Baptist Church. Preceding her in death were her parents; her husband, Billy Ray Halford and a sister, Evonne. See the obituary of her husband, Billy Ray Halford, in this compilation. Lois Inex Morgan Halford, 70, retired sales representative, died of cancer, Greenville; 11 a. Saturday, Boone-Wells Funeral Home. See the obituary of her husband, Louie F. Halford, in this compilation. Lois K. Alford died Friday, May 1, , her home after a lengthy illness.

She was A lifelong resident of Vicksburg, she was the daughter of the late Robert C. King Sr. Alford was a honor graduate of St. Francis Xavier Academy. She is survived by a daughter and son-in-law, Lynn A. Alford, III, Dallas; and nine great-grandchildren and nieces and nephews. She was predeceased by her husband of 56 years, Thomas G. Alford, Sr. Bo Alford, Jr. King Jr. Services will be 11 a. Tuesday, May 5, , at Riles Funeral Home. Burial will be at Cedar Hill Cemetery. See the obituaries of her husband, Thomas Gladwyn Alford Sr. Graveside services will be held at 1 p. Forest Hill East Funeral Home It is not clear where she lived when she died. Photo from Wright and Ferguson Funeral Home.

Lola M. And was an active member of Zion Baptist Church. After her marriage, she moved to Jackson where she lived until her death; she was a member of Faith One Church of Jackson. Alford was a loving wife, mother, grandmother, sister and friend. She is survived by her son, Jerry R. Sarah of Jackson, MS. Alford, Jr. Alford SS issued in MS , last residence not listed. See the obituary of her husband, Rex Ray Alford, in this compilation. Alford was a native of Scott County and the widow of the late Arthur Alford who died in She was a devout member off Southside Baptist Church.

Survivors are five daughters, Mrs. Hilton, Jr. Dale Parham both of Jackson, Mrs. Dan Knight of New Orleans, Mrs. William Dunn, Camden Ala. Jasper Allen of Alexandria, La. Army stationed in France; one brother, Percy Wallace, Lena; eighteen grandchildren and three great grandchildren. The date and hour for the services will be announced by Baldwin Funeral Home. Alford died on Sunday [January 7] following a short illness. He was retired from the U.

Blanche B. Alford; two sons; Walter Shorty Alford, Jr. Ratsy Blissett both of Morton; parents Mr. Walter E. Alford, of Morton, one grand-daughter, Tara Alford of Morton. Permission granted by the photographer, Louise King Alford. She shares a gravestone with her sister. Her first husband, John Willie Alford, died of typhoid fever. In Lorena Alford Gordon, 43, will be held at 2 p. Thursday from Gillsburg Baptist Church. Burial will follow in the Gillsburg Cemetery. She has been seriously ill for three years. She leaves her husband, William H. Duck Gordon, her mother, Mrs. Edna Kennedy, Magnolia, Mrs.

Beulah Varnado, New Orleans, La. Permission granted by the photographer, Amos Ezell. Lorine H. Norris, 65, of Meadville, died Dec. Services were 2 p. Norris was born Sept. Norris was preceded in death by her parents; a sister; two brothers; and her husband, Marvin Norris. See the obituary of her mother, Leona Halford Halford, in his compilation. The funeral for Lottie Alford Taylor will be Thursday at 11 a. Taylor, 68, died Monday at her home. A native of Chipley, Fla.

She was a member of First Presbyterian Church in Canton. She was preceded in death by her parents, Paul Sibley and Jane Alford. Survivors include; husband, Morris Taylor; son, Rev. Peace Street, Canton, MS Lottie Alford Taylor, 68, died Monday, Nov. Services were held Thursday, Nov. Breeland Funeral Home assisted with the arrangements. Taylor had lived in Vaiden and Starkville before moving to Canton 20 years ago. Survivors include her husband, Morris Taylor; son, Rev.

Peace St. See the obituary of her mother, Jane Allen Alford, in this compilation. Halford was a Greenville native. He was the widower of Lois Inez Halford. Survivors include: son, Larry Halford of Austin, Texas; and three brothers, two sisters and two grandchildren. Permission granted by the photographer, Marla Muirbrook. Alford, 65, veteranjMethodist minister, died at his home here today.

Funeral services will be held Sunday afternoon at the Kingston Methodist church here where he served twice as pasor. During his first pastorate here he built the church parsonage and during his second assignment he was instrumental in having a new church built. Alford served churches in the Mississippi conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, for 38 years. Permission granted by the photographer, Gene Phillips. He is a railroad fireman living in San Antonio, Bexar Co. Ella Mary Alford of the same address. Services are 3 p.

McClain-Hays Funeral Service is handling arrangements. Alford was a native of the Bond community in Neshoba County. He moved to Jackson in He had lived in Madison for 6 years. He was a member of Parkway Pentecostal Church. Permission granted by the photographer, Tammy Sartin. The family reports that he was born 21 July in Neshoba Co. Granduncle of John Warner Alford Jr. Permission granted by the photographer, Charline Herring Ryan. Services will be at 4 p. Burial will follow in the church cemetery.

Visitation is from p. She is survived by her husband, Johnnie Alford Jr. Sauls; eight grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. Alford and Georgie A. Her lineage: Loula C. Services are 1 p. Services are p. Alford, a Carroll County native, had lived in Greenwood 65 years. She was the widow of Noah Alford. Permission granted by the photographer, Sandra Stigler Randall. The gravestone of his parents is in the background. Funeral Services were held a. Visitation was from a. She was born in Carroll County on March 25, and resided in the Greenwood area all of her life. Left to cherish her memory is her daughter, Melanie Palmertree Everett of Greenwood, four grandchildren and two great-grandchildren, Haley and Katie Gregory of Greenwood.

Williams and Lord Funeral Home. She was born in Carroll County, Ms. March 25, and resided in the Greenwood area all of her life. She married James O. Palmertree in and was a loving Wife to him for 51 years. Lucretia enjoyed spending time with her daughter. Later, they bowled together in the Adult League from to She enjoyed spending time with her grandchildren. They were the love of her life. Was a member of North Greenwood Baptist Church. She was preceded in death by her Husband, James O. Permission granted by the photographer, Marianne Dial Deadmon. Day married John M. Bruce on 21 Jan in Butler Co. Alford Ellis in this compilation.

Lucy Delma Alford, 79, died Feb. Services were at 2 p. Alford lived in Neshoba County most of her life and moved to Pearl 13 years ago. She was a member of Bon Baptist Church. She is survived by her husband, Gene Alford of Pearl; daughters, Mrs. Edna Edwards of Ridgeland and Mrs. Clarice Parker of Pearl; sisters, Mrs. Bessie Daniels, Mrs. Annie Cumberland and Mrs. Bonnie Cumberland, all of Philadelphia; brother, Willis Fulton of Bailey; and three grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Permission granted by the photographer, Rachel Wilson. See the obituary of her husband, Gene Nelson Alford, in this compilation.

See her death certificate. She married 1 Lacy Ward and had the two daughters named in the obituary. Visitation is 5 to 7 p. Lucy graduated from high school at St. Mary of the Pine Catholic School in Chatawa. She began her teaching career at Parklane Academy in McComb. While at EMCC, she taught economics, government and a leadership class. Lucy also was sponsor of Phi Theta Kappa honor society for which her students won numerous state and national awards. Lucy loved the classroom and all of her students. She portrayed racial struggles in the earlys American South and published research on hoodoo.

She also wrote more than 50 short stories, plays, and essays. Hurston was born in Notasulga, Alabama , and moved with her family to Eatonville, Florida , in She later used Eatonville as the setting for many of her stories. It is now the site of the "Zora! Festival", held each year in her honor. In her early career, Hurston conducted anthropological and ethnographic research while a student at Barnard College and Columbia University. She also wrote fiction about contemporary issues in the black community and became a central figure of the Harlem Renaissance.

Her short satires, drawing from the African-American experience and racial division, were published in anthologies such as The New Negro and Fire!! Hurston's works concerned both the African-American experience and her struggles as an African-American woman. Her novels went relatively unrecognized by the literary world for decades. Hurston's manuscript Every Tongue Got to Confess , a collection of folktales gathered in the s, was published posthumously in after being discovered in the Smithsonian archives. All of her four grandparents had been born into slavery. Her father was a Baptist preacher and sharecropper , who later became a carpenter, and her mother was a school teacher.

She was born in Notasulga, Alabama , on January 7, , where her father grew up and her paternal grandfather was the preacher of a Baptist church. When she was three, her family moved to Eatonville, Florida. In , it was one of the first all- black towns incorporated in the United States. Sometimes she claimed it as her birthplace. In he was called to serve as minister of its largest church, Macedonia Missionary Baptist. As an adult, Hurston often used Eatonville as a setting in her stories—it was a place where African Americans could live as they desired, independent of white society. In , some northern schoolteachers had visited Eatonville and given Hurston several books that opened her mind to literature. She later described this personal literary awakening as a kind of "birth".

Hurston's mother died in , and her father subsequently married Mattie Moge in They eventually stopped paying her tuition and she was dismissed. In , she resumed her formal education, attending Morgan College, the high school division of Morgan State University , a historically black college in Baltimore , Maryland. At this time, apparently to qualify for a free high-school education, the year-old Hurston began claiming as her year of birth. When she was in College, she was introduced to viewing life through an anthropological lens away from Eatonville.

One of her main goals was to prove similarities between ethnicities. She was one of the earliest initiates of Zeta Phi Beta sorority, founded by and for black women, and co-founded The Hilltop , the university's student newspaper. Hurston left Howard in , and in was offered a scholarship by Barnard trustee Annie Nathan Meyer [17] to Barnard College of Columbia University , a women's college, where she was the sole black student. She also worked with Ruth Benedict and fellow anthropology student Margaret Mead. Hurston had met Charlotte Osgood Mason , a philanthropist and literary patron, who became interested in her work and career. But she also tried to direct their work. In return, she wanted Hurston to give her all the material she collected about Negro music, folklore, literature, hoodoo, and other forms of culture.

At the same time, Hurston had to try to satisfy Boas as her academic adviser, who was a cultural relativist and wanted to overturn ideas ranking cultures in a hierarchy of values. After graduating from Barnard, Hurston studied for two years as a graduate student in anthropology at Columbia University, working further with Boas during this period. Her apartment, according to some accounts, was a popular spot for social gatherings.

Around this time, Hurston also had a few early literary successes, including placing in short-story and playwriting contests in Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life , published by the National Urban League. In , Hurston married Herbert Sheen, a jazz musician and a former teacher at Howard; he later became a physician. Their marriage ended in That marriage, too, lasted less than a year. Hurston twice lived in a cottage in Eau Gallie, Florida : in and again in When foundation grants ended during the Great Depression, Hurston and her friend Langston Hughes both relied on the patronage of philanthropist Charlotte Osgood Mason , a white literary patron. In , Hurston established a school of dramatic arts "based on pure Negro expression" at Bethune-Cookman University at the time, Bethune-Cookman College , a historically black college in Daytona Beach, Florida.

The English Department at Bethune-Cookman College remains dedicated to preserving her cultural legacy. Hurston traveled extensively in the Caribbean and the American South and immersed herself in local cultural practices to conduct her anthropological research. Based on her work in the South, sponsored from to by Charlotte Osgood Mason , a wealthy philanthropist, Hurston wrote Mules and Men in This practice later was referred to as " paramour rights ," based on the men's power under racial segregation and related to practices during slavery times. The book also includes much folklore. Hurston drew from this material as well in the fictional treatment she developed for her novels such as Jonah's Gourd Vine In , Hurston traveled to Georgia and Florida with Alan Lomax and Mary Elizabeth Barnicle for research on African American song traditions and their relationship to slave and African antecedent music.

She was tasked with selecting the geographic areas and contacting the research subjects. In and , Hurston traveled to Jamaica and Haiti for research, with support from the Guggenheim Foundation. She drew from this research for her anthropological work, Tell My Horse She had some hopes of locating either Mayan ruins or vestiges of an as yet undiscovered civilization. Hurston expressed interest in the polyethnic nature of the population in the region many, such as the Miskito Zambu and Garifuna , were of partial African ancestry and had developed creole cultures. During her last decade, Hurston worked as a freelance writer for magazines and newspapers. McCollum was charged with murdering the white Dr. Leroy Adams, who was also a politician. McCollum said he had forced her to have sex and bear his child.

They both thought the case might be about such "paramour rights," and wanted to "expose it to a national audience. Upon reaching Live Oak, Hurston was surprised not only by the gag order the judge in the trial placed on the defense but by her inability to get residents in town to talk about the case; both blacks and whites were silent. She believed that might have been related to Dr. Adams' alleged involvement in the gambling operation of Ruby's husband Sam McCollum. Her articles were published by the newspaper during the trial. Ruby McCollum was convicted by an all-male, all-white jury , and sentenced to death. Hurston had a special assignment to write a serialized account, The Life Story of Ruby McCollum , over three months in in the newspaper.

Unable to pay independently to return for the appeal and second trial, Hurston contacted journalist William Bradford Huie , with whom she had worked at The American Mercury , to try to interest him in the case. He covered the appeal and second trial, and also developed material from a background investigation. Hurston shared her material with him from the first trial, but he acknowledged her only briefly in his book, Ruby McCollum: Woman in the Suwannee Jail , which became a bestseller. Hurston firmly believed that Ruby McCollum's testimony sounded the death toll of 'paramour rights' in the Segregationist South. She was fired for being "too well-educated" for her job. She moved to Fort Pierce, Florida.

Taking jobs where she could find them, Hurston worked occasionally as a substitute teacher. At age 60, Hurston had to fight "to make ends meet" with the help of public assistance. During a period of financial and medical difficulties, Hurston was forced to enter St. Lucie County Welfare Home, where she suffered a stroke. Her remains were in an unmarked grave until Hunt found an unmarked grave in the general area where Hurston had been buried; they decided to mark it as hers.

After Hurston died, her papers were ordered to be burned. A law officer and friend, Patrick DuVal, passing by the house where she had lived, stopped and put out the fire, thus saving an invaluable collection of literary documents for posterity. The nucleus of this collection was given to the University of Florida libraries in by Mrs. Marjorie Silver, a friend, and neighbor of Hurston. Other materials were donated in and by Frances Grover, daughter of E. Grover, a Rollins College professor and long-time friend of Hurston's. When Hurston arrived in New York City in , the Harlem Renaissance was at its zenith , and she soon became one of the writers at its center.

Shortly before she entered Barnard, Hurston's short story "Spunk" was selected for The New Negro , a landmark anthology of fiction, poetry, and essays focusing on African and African-American art and literature. She also interviewed Cudjoe Kazzola Lewis , of Africatown, Alabama , who was the last known survivor of the enslaved Africans carried aboard Clotilda , an illegal slave ship that had entered the US in , and thus the last known person to have been transported in the Transatlantic slave trade. According to her biographer Robert E. Hemenway, this piece largely plagiarized the work of Emma Langdon Roche , [37] an Alabama writer who wrote about Lewis in a book.

Hurston intended to publish a collection of several hundred folk tales from her field studies in the South. She wanted to have them be as close to the original as possible but struggled to balance the expectations of her academic adviser, Franz Boas, and her patron, Charlotte Osgood Mason. This manuscript was not published at the time. A copy was later found at the Smithsonian archives among the papers of anthropologist William Duncan Strong , a friend of Boas. In , Hurston returned to Alabama with additional resources; she conducted more interviews with Lewis, took photographs of him and others in the community, and recorded the only known film footage of him — an African who had been trafficked to the United States through the slave trade.

Based on this material, she wrote a manuscript, Barracoon , completing it in Hemenway described it as "a highly dramatic, semifictionalized narrative intended for the popular reader. After this round of interviews, Hurston's literary patron, philanthropist Charlotte Osgood Mason, learned of Lewis and began to send him money for his support. It was published in By the mids, Hurston had published several short stories and the critically acclaimed Mules and Men , a groundbreaking work of "literary anthropology" documenting African-American folklore from timber camps in North Florida. Their collaboration caused their friendship to fall apart. Hurston adapted her anthropological work for the performing arts. No producers wanted to move forward with a full run of the show.

Hurston had a strong belief that folklore should be dramatized. Hurston's first three novels were published in the s: Jonah's Gourd Vine ; Their Eyes Were Watching God , written during her fieldwork in Haiti and considered her masterwork; and Moses, Man of the Mountain In , Hurston was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to conduct ethnographic research in Jamaica and Haiti. Her last published novel, Seraph on the Suwanee , notable principally for its focus on white characters, was published in It explores images of " white trash " women.

Jackson argues that Hurston's meditation on abjection, waste, and the construction of class and gender identities among poor whites reflects the eugenics discourses of the s. In , Hurston was assigned by the Pittsburgh Courier to cover the small-town murder trial of Ruby McCollum, the prosperous black wife of the local bolita racketeer, who had killed a racist white doctor. Hurston's manuscript Every Tongue Got to Confess , a collection of folktales gathered in the s, was published posthumously after being discovered in Smithsonian archives.

In , The Library of America selected excerpts from Ruby McCollum: Woman in the Suwannee Jail , to which Hurston had contributed, for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American true crime writing. Hurston's nonfiction book Barracoon was published in I do not choose to admit weakness. I accept the challenge of responsibility. Life, as it is, does not frighten me, since I have made my peace with the universe as I find it, and bow to its laws. Hurston's work slid into obscurity for decades, for both cultural and political reasons. The use of African-American dialect , as featured in Hurston's novels, became less popular. Younger writers felt that it was demeaning to use such dialect, given the racially charged history of dialect fiction in American literature.

Also, Hurston had made stylistic choices in dialogue influenced by her academic studies. Thinking like a folklorist, Hurston strove to represent speech patterns of the period, which she had documented through ethnographic research. Several of Hurston's literary contemporaries criticized her use of dialect, saying that it was a caricature of African-American culture and was rooted in a post-Civil War, white racist tradition. These writers, associated with the Harlem Renaissance, criticized Hurston's later work as not advancing the movement. The sensory sweep of her novel carries no theme, no message, no thought. In the main, her novel is not addressed to the Negro, but to a white audience whose chauvinistic tastes she knows how to satisfy.

She exploits that phase of Negro life which is "quaint," the phase which evokes a piteous smile on the lips of the "superior" race. But since the late 20th century, there has been a revival of interest in Hurston. Critics have since praised her skillful use of idiomatic speech. During the s and s, when her work was published, the pre-eminent African-American author was Richard Wright, a former communist. He had become disenchanted with communism, but he used the struggle of African Americans for respect and economic advancement as both the setting and the motivation for his work. Other popular African-American authors of the time, such as Ralph Ellison , dealt with the same concerns as Wright.

Hurston, who was a conservative, was on the other side of the disputes over the promise of left-wing politics for African-Americans. Despite increasing difficulties, Hurston maintained her independence and a determined optimism. She wrote in a letter:. I have made phenomenal growth as a creative artist. I am not materialistic If I do happen to die without money, somebody will bury me, though I do not wish it to be that way. Hurston was a Republican who was generally sympathetic to the foreign policy non-interventionism of the Old Right and a fan of Booker T. Washington 's self-help politics. She disagreed with the philosophies including Communism and the New Deal supported by many of her colleagues in the Harlem Renaissance, such as Langston Hughes, who was in the s a supporter of the Soviet Union and praised it in several of his poems.

Beito and Linda Royster Beito have argued that she can better be characterized as a libertarian. Despite much common ground with the Old Right in domestic and foreign policy, Hurston was not a social conservative. Her writings show an affinity for feminist individualism. In this respect, her views were similar to two libertarian novelists who were her contemporaries: Rose Wilder Lane and Isabel Paterson. Prayer seems to be a cry of weakness, and an attempt to avoid, by trickery, the rules of the game as laid down. The ever-sleepless sea in its bed, crying out "how long? It seems to me that organized creeds are collections of words around a wish.

I feel no need for such. However, I would not, by word or deed, attempt to deprive another of the consolation it affords. It is simply not for me. Somebody else may have my rapturous glance at the archangels. The springing of the yellow line of the morning out of the misty deep of dawn is glory enough for me. I know that nothing is destructible; things merely change forms. When the consciousness we know as life ceases, I know that I shall still be part and parcel of the world. I was a part before the sun rolled into shape and burst forth in the glory of change. I was when the earth was hurled out from its fiery rim. I shall return with the earth to Father Sun and still exist in substance when the sun has lost its fire and disintegrated into infinity to perhaps become a part of the whirling rubble of space.

Why fear? The stuff of my being is the matter, ever-changing, ever-moving, but never lost; so what need of denominations and creeds to deny myself the comfort of all my fellow men? The wide belt of the universe does not need finger-rings. I am one with the infinite and need no other assurance. In , Hurston supported the presidential campaign of Senator Robert A. Like Taft, Hurston was against Franklin D. Roosevelt 's New Deal policies.

She also shared his opposition to Roosevelt and Truman 's interventionist foreign policy. In the original draft of her autobiography, Dust Tracks on a Road , Hurston compared the United States government to a "fence" in stolen goods and a Mafia -like a protection racket. Hurston thought it ironic that the same "people who claim that it is a noble thing to die for freedom and democracy… wax frothy if anyone points out the inconsistency of their morals… We, too, consider machine gun bullets good laxatives for heathens who get constipated with toxic ideas about a country of their own. Hurston opposed the Supreme Court ruling in the Brown v.

Board of Education case of She felt that if separate schools were truly equal and she believed that they were rapidly becoming so , educating black students in physical proximity to white students would not result in better education. Also, she worried about the demise of black schools and black teachers as a way to pass on the cultural tradition to future generations of African Americans. Hurston had not reversed her long-time opposition to segregation. Rather, she feared that the Court's ruling could become a precedent for an all-powerful federal government to undermine individual liberty on a broad range of issues in the future. If I say a whole system must be upset for me to win, I am saying that I cannot sit in the game and that safer rules must be made to give me a chance.

I repudiate that. If others are in there, deal me a hand and let me see what I can make of it, even though I know some in there are dealing from the bottom and cheating like hell in other ways. Darwin Turner, an English professor, and specialist in African-American literature faulted Hurston in for opposing integration and for opposing programs to guarantee blacks the right to work.

She would not "bow low before the white man," and claimed "adequate Negro schools" already existed in Other authors criticized Hurston for her sensationalist representation of voodoo. Jeffrey Anderson states that Hurston's research methods were questionable and that she fabricated material for her works on voodoo. He observed that she admitted to inventing dialogue for her book Mules and Men in a letter to Ruth Benedict and described fabricating the Mules and Men story of rival voodoo doctors as a child in her later autobiography.

Anderson believes that many of Hurston's other claims in her voodoo writings are dubious as well. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American folklorist, novelist, short story writer. Folklorist anthropologist ethnographer novelist short story writer filmmaker. Herbert Sheen. Albert Price. James Howell Pitts. United States portal Conservatism portal Biography portal. New York: Scribner. ISBN Speak, so you can speak again : the life of Zora Neale Hurston First ed. New York.

African American Review. JSTOR Festival Homepage". Archived from the original on April 26, Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on September 25, The Chronicle of Higher Education. ISSN Archived from the original on June 26, The Madison Times. Retrieved May 10, The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 2,

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