Argumentative Essay: Putting Prayer In Public Schools
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Argumentative Essay: Should Smartphone Be Allowed In School.
This view is thus in line with the Buddha's injunction in the Kalama Sutta not to accept anything on mere tradition or scripture. The time of the Gautama Buddha was a lively intellectual culture with many differing philosophical theories. KN Jayatilleke , in his "Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge", uses the Pali Nikayas to glean the possible epistemological views of the historical Buddha and those of his contemporaries. The Buddha rejected the first view in several texts such as the Kalama sutta , arguing that a claim to scriptural authority sadda was not a source of knowledge, as was claimed by the later Hindu Mimamsa school. According to Jayatilleke, in the Pali Nikayas , this term refers "primarily to denote the reasoning that was employed to construct and defend metaphysical theories and perhaps meant the reasoning of sophists and dialecticians only in a secondary sense".
The Buddha's epistemological view has been a subject of debate among modern scholars. Some such as David Kalupahana , have seen him first and foremost as an empiricist because of his teaching that knowledge required verification through the six sense fields ayatanas. However, the Buddha's view of truth was also based on the soteriological and therapeutic concern of ending suffering. Jayatilleke sees Buddha's epistemological view as a kind of empiricism which also includes a particular view of causation dependent origination : "inductive inferences in Buddhism are based on a theory of causation.
These inferences are made on the data of perception. What is considered to constitute knowledge are direct inferences made on the basis of such perceptions. He also notes that Coherentism is also taken as a criterion for truth in the Nikayas, which contains many instances of the Buddha debating opponents by showing how they have contradicted themselves. These are variously identified with the testimony of sense experience, introspective or intuitive experience, inferences drawn from these two types of experience, and some form of coherentism, which demands that truth claims remain consistent across the entire corpus of doctrine. Thus, to the extent that Buddhists employ reason, they do so primarily in order further to advance the empirical investigation of phenomena.
The Early Buddhist Texts show that during this period many different kinds of philosophers often engaged in public debates vivada. The early texts also mention that there was a set procedure patipada for these debates and that if someone does not abide by it they are unsuitable to be debated. Other nigrahasthanas included arthantaram or "shifting the topic", and not giving a coherent reply.
According to Jayatilleke, ' pure reasoning ' or ' a priori ' reasoning is rejected by the Buddha as a source of knowledge. In contrast to his opponents, the Buddha termed himself a defender of 'analysis' or ' vibhajjavada '. He held that after proper rational analysis, assertions could be classified in the following way: . This view of analysis differed from that of the Jains , which held that all views were anekamsika and also were relative, that is, they were true or false depending on the standpoint one viewed it from anekantavada.
The early texts also mention that the Buddha held there to be 'four kinds of explanations of questions". The Buddha also made use of various terms which reveal some of his views on meaning and language. The Buddha also divided statements bhasitam into two types with regards to their meaning: those which were intelligible, meaningful sappatihirakatam and those meaningless or incomprehensible appatihirakatam. According to Jayatilleke, these "four forms of predication" can be rendered thus: . The Buddha in the Nikayas seems to regard these as "'the four possible positions or logical alternatives that a proposition can take". The Buddhists in the Nikayas use this logical structure to analyze the truth of statements and classify them.
When all four were denied regarding a statement or question, it was held to be meaningless and thus set aside or rejected but not negated. But when he is pointing out the misleading implications of speech or using language without these implications, his meaning is plain and direct and nothing is to be inferred nitattha-. The later commentarial and Abhidharma literature began to use this distinction as an epistemic one.
They spoke of two levels of truth , the conventional samutti , and the absolute paramattha. Its date is debated by scholars but it might date to the time of Ashoka C. Schayer and following him A. Warder , have argued that there is an "anticipations of propositional logic" in the text. These help clarify the attitude of someone towards their thesis in the proceeding argumentative process. Jonardon Ganeri outlines the process thus:. In the way forward, the proponent solicits from the respondent the endorsement of a thesis and then tries to argue against it. On the way back, the respondent turns the tables, soliciting from the proponent the endorsement of the counter-thesis, and then trying argue against it.
In the refutation, the respondent, continuing, seeks to refute the argument that the proponent had advanced against the thesis. In describing the art of debate and dialogue, Nagasena states:. When scholars talk a matter over one with another, then is there a winding up, an unravelling, one or other is convicted of error, and he then acknowledges his mistake; distinctions are drawn, and contra-distinctions; and yet thereby they are not angered. The various elements outlined here make up the standard procedure of Buddhist debate theory. There is an 'unravelling' or explication nibbethanam of one's thesis and stances and then there is also a 'winding up' ending in the censure niggaho of one side based on premises he has accepted and the rejoinders of his opponent.
The Buddhist Abhidharma schools developed a classification of four types of reasoning which became widely used in Buddhist thought. The Mahayana philosopher Asanga in his Abhidharma-samuccaya , outlines these four reasons yukti that one may use to inquire about the nature of things. According to Cristian Coseru these are: . According to Coseru "what we have here are examples of natural reasoning or of reasoning from experience, rather than attempts to use deliberative modes of reasoning for the purpose of justifying a given thesis or arguing for its conditions of satisfaction.
The text systematically lays out logical rules for argumentation in the form of a five-step schema and also sets forth a theory of epistemology. First, it began a shift away from interest in argumentation and debate towards the formal properties of sound inference. Music of the past vs music of the present. Should abortion be legalized? Should domestic abuse and child abuse victims be granted clemency for killing their abuser? Paranormal Research: Real?
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