A Summary Of Mrs. Breckenridges Interview

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A Summary Of Mrs. Breckenridges Interview

He social change definition to New York City at the age of 21, where he worked social change definition a personal secretary for philanthropist Diving suit leonardo da vinci Mary Oliver Crossing The Swamp Astor; the Astor Library, Mary Oliver Crossing The Swamp which Halleck was an original trustee, would later serve as the foundation for the New York Public Library. Malo mi Mary Oliver Crossing The Swamp da skeniram tekst, kontam da su ga verovatno Personal Essay: Working For Fede promenili, pa ne znam ima li smisla…. National Park Service. Plaque: Revolutionary Soldier Mary Oliver Crossing The Swamp But when its open leaves have found A A Summary Of Mrs. Breckenridges Interview in the free air, Pluck Essay On Callisto and there remains a wound That ever rankles How William Franklin Turned The American Revolution. Personal Essay: Working For Fede her return to what does dulce et decorum est United States, she was commissioned to write a poem to help raise funds for the pedestal of the Social change definition of Liberty. It was published in Another maternal uncle, John Simm Smith, Evidence: The Four Main Types Of Evidence.


Ako Zoran ne donese kovertu, nisi izvucen. Obavestavaju samo postom velika koverta i samo dobitnike. Toliko je jednostavna da vidis da je drzavna. Drzim ti palceve! Komentar od Meelosh — Komsija, ja napomenuh tamo da u drugoj koverti nema nikakvih formulara. I to je to. For instance, one of the things she learned was that people were kind and forgiving when you really need it. Plus, Ahmedi learns that she can bring out all of her strength hidden deep down in her body. That is a good because she can do something if she really tried. Malala acknowledges the idea that students feel extremely proud of themselves when they accomplish a task they were never exposed to. To allow oneself to enjoy the simple wonders and life a pleasurable life, one must see the world properly.

How she would hide them, wishing and wondering about how later on they would be found by strangers. She continues to recount multiple stories about bullfrogs and darkness to emphasize the different ways of seeing the world and how it affects the observer. However, Luce pulls it off by gently preparing the audience for the criticism: she employs the fact that they invited her there to speak, a strong consideration for their feelings, praises of their profession, and a clear plea for open mindedness. She does things to create a peaceful and relaxed tone despite her words. Luce uses these positive terms to open her speech in order to set a specific mood, a mood that makes her intentions clear that she is not out to verbally assault the audience, but she is in fact going to critique and criticize them.

While begging she encounters the Jane the Midwife. This is how Brat became Alyce the apprentice to Jane the Midwife. Earlier in the same chapter she reads -without permission- Magids and Marcus Chalfens correspondence, like she has been doing lately. They normally speak about their experiments, studies and the development their ideas will bring to the world, but in one of them Marcus speaks about Irie, and not to her delight. Marcus means no harm, and in fact he seems to hope a good future for Irie, but he only sees her as bright and sharp -although not enough to be and investigator, or even a doctor-, and as the owner of two big breasts.

He thinks that she can aim to be a dentist and, as ironical as it may seem, she quite likes the idea. His later poetry and historical tales won him the Nobel Prize for Literature in Levertin och V. Uppsatser och tal. His short story collection, Povidky malostranske Tales of the Little Quarter , is his most famous work. Before Fame He was the son of a Prague grocer and studied philosophy in his early years before becoming a teacher and writer. Trivia His anti-Semitism is evident in the negative portrayal of Jewish characters in his literary works. Family Life He had a significant romantic relationship with Karolina Svetla, a fellow writer, although the two never married. Books by Jan Neruda. The Vampire by Jan Neruda. Arabesky by Jan Neruda. Trhani by Jan Neruda.

Obrazy z ciziny by Jan Neruda. Up until his tenth year of school, he stayed in the place of his birth, and he finished his schooling in Paris in Five years later, La Fontaine began to study theology with the Order of the Oratorians, but he left the order after his novitiate in At this point he moved to Paris for good and had contacts to literary circles. Here Jean de La Fontaine wrote his main work, the fables. The writer had difficulties with increasing censorship: a newly-published selection of the Comtes et nouvelles was banned. In the years and 69, volumes four and five of the Fables choisies appeared. In the same year, he became very ill and turned from now on to religion. Jean de La Fontaine died in Paris in the year Books by Jean de La Fontaine. Fables by Jean de La Fontaine.

Shapiro Translator Alan Robinson. La Fontaine Aux Fables: Vol. His large body of work is characterized by a concern for knowledge that is neither hampered nor pigeonholed, capable of grasping the complexity of reality and of observing the singular while placing it within the whole. We need to understand the nature of being human, Morin says. His book Seven Complex Lessons in Education for the Future has been translated into many languages. Edgar Morin has concentrated on developing a method that can meet the challenge of the complexity of our world and reform thinking, preconditions for confronting all fundamental, global problems.

Morin has received honorary doctorates in subjects ranging from political science to psychology and sociology from universities in 27 countries in the world and holds an itinerant UNESCO Chair in Complex Thought. Today he is recognized as a planetary thinker of our time. Books by Edgar Morin. La Voie by Edgar Morin. La Nature de la nature by Edgar Morin. On Complexity by Edgar Morin. Amour, poesie, sagesse by Edgar Morin. Insegnare a vivere. Tierra — Patria by Edgar Morin.

Concept of Europe by Edgar Morin. Science Avec Conscience by Edgar Morin. Penser global by Edgar Morin. He moved to New York City at the age of 21, where he worked as a personal secretary for philanthropist John Jacob Astor; the Astor Library, for which Halleck was an original trustee, would later serve as the foundation for the New York Public Library. Halleck edited The works of Lord Byron, in verse and prose, including letters, journals, etc: with a sketch of his life and Selections from the British Poets Hayes dedicated his statue in before an estimated crowd of 10, Halleck returned to Guilford in and lived with his sister until his death in Where perished Marie Antoinette?

Where the jet- Black Haytian dame? Could I claim The consanguinity of fame, Veins of my intellectual frame! Your blood would glow Proudly to sing that gentlest name Of aught below. Fitz-Greene Halleck 2. Her face I saw not—but her shape—her form, Was one of those with which creating bards People a world of their own fashioning, Forms for the heart to love and cherish ever, The visiting angels of our twilight dreams. Its stocking had a deep, deep tinge of blue,— I turned away in sadness, and passed on. Fitz-Greene Halleck 3. He died, the sword in his mailed hand, On the holiest spot of the Blessed Land, Where the Cross was damped with his dying breath; When blood ran free as festal wine, And the sainted air of Palestine Was thick with the darts of death.

The age of bargaining, said Burke, Has come: to-day the turbaned Turk, Sleep, Richard of the lion heart! Fitz-Greene Halleck 4. From The Italian EYES with the same blue witchery as those Of Psyche, which caught Love in his own wiles; Lips of the breath and hue of the red rose, That move but with kind words, and sweetest smiles; A power of motion and of look, whose art Throws, silently, around the wildest heart The net it would not break; a form which vies With that the Grecian imaged in his mind, And gazed upon in dreams, and sighed to find His breathing marble could not realize. Know ye this picture? There is one alone Can call its penciled lineaments her own.

Fitz-Greene Halleck 5. Love ……….. The imperial votress passed on In maiden meditation, fancy free. II But when its open leaves have found A home in the free air, Pluck them, and there remains a wound That ever rankles there. The blight of hope and happiness Is felt when fond ones part, And the bitter tear that follows is The life-blood of the heart. Fitz-Greene Halleck 6. Were Genius tasked to prove the might, The magic of her hidden spell, She well might name thee with delight As her own miracle.

And when, sweet boy! It calls up visions of past days, When life was infancy and song To us, and old remembered lays, Unheard, unheeded long; Revive in joy or grief within us, Like lost friends wakened from their sleep, With all their early power to win us Alike to smile or weep. And when we gaze upon that face, Blooming in innocence and truth, And mark its dimpled artlessness, Its beauty and its youth; We think of better worlds than this, Of other beings pure as thou, Who breathe, on winds of Paradise, Music as thine is now.

Fitz-Greene Halleck 7. On The Death Of Lieut. Fitz-Greene Halleck 8. The foes, whose chain we wore, Were with us on that shore, Exulting in our tears that told the bitterness of woe. May this right hand, whose skill Can wake the harp at will, And bid the listeners, joys or griefs in light or darkness come, Forget its godlike power, If for one brief, dark hour, My heart forgets Jerusalem, fallen city of my home!

Daughter of Babylon! Fitz-Greene Halleck 9. Fitz-Greene Halleck And manhood felt her sway too,—on the eye, Half realised, her early dreams burst bright, Her promised bower of happiness seemed nigh, Its days of joy, its vigils of delight; And though at times might lower the thunder storm, And the red lightnings threaten, still the air Was balmy with her breath, and her loved form, The rainbow of the heart, was hovering there.

Wyoming I. I then but dreamed: thou art before me now, In life, a vision of the brain no more. We need not ask. Of the poet-player The maiden knows no more than Cobbett or Voltaire. She told Its tale, and pointed to the spot, and wept, Whereon her father and five brothers slept Shroudless, the bright-dreamed slumbers of the brave, When all the land a funeral mourning kept. Passed away. Has Death no triumph-hours, save on the battle-day? They love their land, because it is their own, And scorn to give aught other reason why; Would shake hands with a king upon his throne, And think it kindness to his majesty; A stubborn race, fearing and flattering none.

Such are they nurtured, such they live and die: All—but a few apostates, who are meddling With merchandise, pounds, shillings, pence and peddling; Or wandering through the southern countries, teaching The A. The Virginians look Upon them with as favourable eyes As Gabriel on the devil in paradise. But these are but their outcasts. View them near At home, where all their worth and pride is placed; And there their hospitable fires burn clear, And there the lowliest farm-house hearth is graced With manly hearts, in piety sincere, Faithful in love, in honour stern and chaste, In friendship warm and true, in danger brave, Beloved in life, and sainted in the grave. Are we worth more? Domestic Happiness I.

II So mused the lovely Mrs. She bit her lip for very spite, He felt a storm was brewing, And dreamed of nothing else all night But brokers, banks, and ruin. IV He thought her pretty once, but dreams Have sure a wondrous power, For to his eye the lady seems Quite altered since that hour— And Love, who on their bridal eve, Had promised long to stay, Forgot his promise—took French leave— And bore his lamp away. None knew thee but to love thee, Nor named thee but to praise. Tears fell, when thou went dying, From eyes unused to weep, And long where thou art lying, Will tears the cold turf steep. While memory bids me weep thee, Nor thoughts nor words are free, The grief is fixed too deeply That mourns a man like thee. And well the Poet at her shrine May bend, and worship while he wooes; To him she is a thing divine, The inspiration of his line, His loved one, and his Muse.

And Burns—though brief the race he ran, Though rough and dark the path he trod, Lived—died—in form and soul a Man, The image of his God. Though care, and pain, and want, and woe, With wounds that only death could heal, Tortures—the poor alone can know, The proud alone can feel; He kept his honesty and truth, His independent tongue and pen, And moved, in manhood, as in youth, Pride of his fellow men. Strong sense, deep feeling, passions strong, A hate of tyrant and of knave, A love of right, a scorn of wrong, Of coward, and of slave; A kind, true heart, a spirit high, That could not fear, and would not bow, Were written in his manly eye, And on his manly brow.

Praise to the bard! Praise to the man! And still, as on his funeral day, Men stand his cold earth-couch around, With the mute homage that we pay To consecrated ground. And consecrated ground it is, The last, the hallowed home of one Who lives upon all memories, Though with the buried gone. Such graves as his are pilgrim-shrines, Shrines to no code or creed confined,— The Delphian vales, the Palestines, The Meccas of the mind.

All ask the cottage of his birth, Gaze on the scenes he loved and sung, And gather feelings not of earth His fields and streams among. Wear they not graven on the heart The name of Robert Burns? Marco Bozzaris At midnight, in his guarded tent, The Turk was dreaming of the hour When Greece, her knee in suppliance bent, Should tremble at his power; In dreams, through camp and court he bore. At midnight, in the forest shades, Bozzaris ranged his Suliote band, True as the steel of their tried blades, Heroes in heart and hand.

Strike-for your altars and your fires! Strike-for the green graves of your sires, God, and your native land! Come to the bridal chamber, Death! Even in her own proud clime. The song of the wild bird is on the wind, The hum of the wild bee, the music wild Of waves upon the bank, Of leaves upon the bough. But all is song and beauty in the land, Beneath her skies of June; then journey on, A thousand scenes like this Will greet you ere the eve. And furthermore—in fifty years, or sooner, We shall export our poetry and wine; And our brave fleet, eight frigates and a schooner, Will sweep the seas from Zembla to the Line. If he were with me, King of Tuscarora! For thou wast monarch born. Is beauty? Is eloquence? The monarch mind, the mystery of commanding, The birth-hour gift, the art Napoleon, Of winning, fettering, moulding, wielding, banding The hearts of millions till they move as one; Thou hast it.

At thy bidding men have crowded The road to death as to a festival; And minstrels, at their sepulchres, have shrouded With banner-folds of glory the dark pall. Who will believe? Love—for thy land, as if she were thy daughter, Her pipe in peace, her tomahawk in wars; Hatred—of missionaries and cold water; Pride—in thy rifle-trophies and thy scars; Hope—that thy wrongs, may be by the Great Spirit Remembered and revenged, when thou art gone; Sorrow—that none are left thee to inherit Thy name, thy fame, thy passions, and thy throne! Ann Radcliffe is one of the founders of Gothic fiction.

Although Radcliffe wrote poetry, a travelogue and three other novels, her literary reputation, today, rests largely on the three Gothic romances that she published during the turbulent, post-French Revolutionary decade of s: The Romance of the Forest, Interspersed with Some Pieces of Poetry in ; The Mysteries of Udolpho: A Romance; Interspersed with Some Pieces of Poetry in ; and The Italian: or, The Confessional of the Black Penitents in late or early As Walter Scott put it in , Mrs Radcliffe, as an author, has the most decided claim to take her place among the favoured few, who have been distinguished as the founders of a class, or school.

She led the way in a peculiar style of composition, affecting powerfully the mind of the reader, which has since been attempted by many, but in which no one has attained or approached the excellencies of the original inventor […]. She was also the most emulated, copied and plagiarised author of the period: visual tableaux taken directly from her highly descriptive prose-works provided the subject-matter for several Romantic painters; the plots of her lengthy novels were tirelessly reworked as short, often highly illustrated chapbooks with attention-grabbing titles such as The Southern Tower: or, Conjugal Sacrifice and Retribution c.

Perceptions of Ann Radcliffe today Mistress of the Gothic mode, a crucial voice in early feminist consciousness and a writer of Gothic terror par excellence: Radcliffe and her works deservedly occupy a central place within scholarly understandings of late 18th- and early 19th-century Gothic and Romantic writing. To this day, her oeuvre continues to inspire and engage both literary critics and readers alike. Of the considerable attention that Radcliffe is currently receiving from academic critics across the world, there are a number of topics that seem particularly rich for further investigation: the politics of this notoriously elusive writer within the furore of British politics of the s, was she the conservative that several critics took her to be, or did her fictions mask a more subversive political intent?

Regardless of the directions in which these and other scholarly interests might develop in future years, one fact remains indisputable: the writings of Radcliffe have terrified, delighted and enchanted her readers for over years. She married him in London in her second of three marriages. On their return to America, Thompson led a domestic life for a few years but, back in Europe, she began reporting about the Nazi movement, infuriating Adolf Hitler so much that, by his own personal order in , she became the first American correspondent to be expelled from Germany.

She was president of the American PEN club from to She became a foreign correspondent in Europe after finding her own way there during World War I, and she reported from Vienna and became the bureau chief for New York Evening Post in Berlin during the s. Career Highlights With her career on the rise, Dorothy Thompson landed her own syndicated column in Also around this time, Thompson could be heard on the radio. She became one of the most well-known figures in American media. Thompson was known for her conservative politics and for becoming one of the early, vehement voices against Adolf Hitler and his deadly regime. In her first book, she explored her anti-communism position in New Russia She was married to writer Josef Bard from to Another literary match, she wed author Sinclair Lewis in ; the couple had a son together before divorcing in The following year, Thompson married artist Maxim Kopf; the marriage lasted until his death in He is considered by critics and writers to be one of the most influential authors of the 20th century.

The hypersensitive Marcel suffered all his life from a number of ailments, especially asthma. Although he earned university degrees in philosophy and law, he always knew that he wanted to be a writer. Proust continued to write, incorporating the unprecedented conflict into his story of contemporary French society. William C. Captain Frederick Marryat , born 10 July Happy Birthday, dear Sir Short biography of Captain Frederick Marryat Captain Frederick Marryat is probably one of the most important authors to write historical naval fiction books. Firstly he was one of the first authors to write such books and they must be considered as some of the most authentic as he actually served in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars.

One of his novels, Mr Midshipman Easy, was one of the first books I ever read and started a life long interest in the exploits of the Georgian Navy He also wrote about other subjects besides life at sea. Some of his merchant and pirate fiction novels can be found in the related pages links to the right. Many of his novels are not copyright in many countries and some are available as free eBooks in the online store. Books by Frederick Marryat.

Midshipman Easy by Frederick Marryat. The Phantom Ship by Frederick Marryat. Parascandola Introduction. Masterman Ready by Frederick Marryat. Percival Keene by Frederick Marryat. The Pirate by Frederick Marryat. The Privateersman by Frederick Marryat. The Settlers in Canada by Frederick Marryat. Jacob Faithful by Frederick Marryat. Snarleyyow or the Dog Fiend by Frederick Marryat. The Little Savage by Frederick Marryat. Japhet in Search of a Father by Frederick Marryat. The Three Cutters by Frederick Marryat. Valerie by Frederick Marryat.

El buque fantasma by Frederick Marryat. He was the second of six sons of Voltairean freethinker and stern disciplinarian Jean Baptiste Bloy and his wife Anne-Marie Carreau, pious Spanish-Catholic daughter of a Napoleonic soldier. After an agnostic and unhappy youth in which he cultivated an intense hatred for the Roman Catholic Church and its teaching, his father found him a job in Paris, where he went in Shortly afterwards, he underwent a dramatic religious conversion. Bloy was a friend of the author Joris-Karl Huysmans , the painter Georges Rouault , and the philosopher Jacques Maritain , and was instrumental in reconciling these intellectuals with Roman Catholicism.

In addition to his published works, he left a large body of correspondence with public and literary figures. He died in Bourg-la-Reine. Pilgrim of the Absolute. Journal I Le Salut par les Juifs. En tinieblas In , he moved to the Montmartre district of Paris, where he shared a room with Pablo Picasso and immersed himself in the bohemian arts community. Jacob supported his artistic endeavors by working at a number of odd jobs but never truly escaped poverty. Financial hardship eventually forced him to leave Paris. In his work, Jacob moved between symbolism and surrealism, with occasional attempts at cubism. Although born and raised Jewish, Jacob converted to Catholicism in after claiming to have had a vision of Christ. In , during the Nazi occupation of France, the Gestapo apprehended Jacob and eventually sent him to the Drancy internment camp.

He died there of pneumonia at the age of Laboratoire Central. Le cabinet noir; lettres avec commentaires. His father was a railway employee and his mother, who died shortly after his birth, a teacher. Some of the poems Neruda wrote at that time are to be found in his first published book: Crepusculario The following year saw the publication of Veinte poemas de amor y una cancion desesperada , one of his best-known and most translated works. Alongside his literary activities, Neruda studied French and pedagogy at the University of Chile in Santiago. Between and , the government put him in charge of a number of honorary consulships, which took him to Burma, Ceylon, Java, Singapore, Buenos Aires, Barcelona, and Madrid. His poetic production during that difficult period included, among other works, the collection of esoteric surrealistic poems, Residencia en la tierra , which marked his literary breakthrough.

The same year he returned to his native country, to which he had been recalled, and his poetry during the following period was characterised by an orientation towards political and social matters. In , Neruda was appointed consul for the Spanish emigration, residing in Paris, and, shortly afterwards, Consul General in Mexico, where he rewrote his Canto General de Chile , transforming it into an epic poem about the whole South American continent, its nature, its people and its historical destiny. This work, entitled Canto General , was published in Mexico , and also underground in Chile. Shortly after its publication, Canto General was translated into some ten languages.

Nearly all these poems were created in a difficult situation, when Neruda was living abroad. In , Neruda returned to Chile, and in he was elected senator of the Republic, also joining the Communist Party of Chile. After living in different European countries he returned home in In Odas elementales his message is expanded into a more extensive description of the world, where the objects of the hymns — things, events and relations — are duly presented in alphabetic form. For example, his Obras Completas , constantly republished, comprised pages in ; in the number of pages was 1,, and in it amounted to 3,, in two volumes. In the film business for over 40 years, Catherine Breillat choses to normalize previously taboo subjects in cinema.

Taking advantage of the medium of cinema, Breillat juxtaposes different perspectives to highlight irony found in society. Through film, she attempts to redefine the female narrative in cinema by showing female characters who undergo similar experiences as their male counterparts. The females of her films attempt to escape their adolescence by seeking individuality. There is an unsaid silence in society for girls to hide their sexuality and desires unless directly confronted about them. The French government banned it for readers under 18 years old.

A film based on the novel was made shortly after the publication of the book, but the producer went bankrupt and the distributor Artedis blocked any commercial release of the film for twenty years although it had been given an R rating. Breillat is known for films focusing on sexuality, intimacy, gender conflict, and sibling rivalry. Breillat has been the subject of controversy for her explicit depictions of sexuality and violence. Her novels have been best-sellers. In an interview with Senses of Cinema , she described David Cronenberg as another filmmaker she considers to have a similar approach to sexuality in film.

Though Breillat spends most of her time behind the camera, she has acted in a handful of movies. In , Breillat suffered a cerebral hemorrhage, causing a stroke that paralyzed her left side. This film was one of three French films officially selected for the Cannes Film Festival of that year. In , Breillat met notorious conman Christophe Rocancourt, and offered him a leading role in a movie that she was planning to make, based on her own novel Bad Love , and starring Naomi Campbell. In , a book written by Breillat was published, in which she alleged that Rocancourt had taken advantage of her diminished mental capacity, as she was still recovering from her stroke.

As of , although Breillat had moved on to other projects, she still hoped to film Bad Love , but had not yet been able to find financing to do so. However, a film adaptation of her book Abus de faiblesse , directed by Breillat and starring Isabelle Huppert, began production in , and was screened at the Toronto International Film Festival. In both Fat Girl and Romance , for example, key sex scenes possess shots lasting over seven minutes.

He became infamous for advocating developing the racist theory of the Aryan master race, in his book, An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races Gobineau approached his work from a scholarly viewpoint, trying to understand the course of human history and the factors involved in the development of civilizations. He concluded that race was the single most important factor determining the nature of human society, with the white race being responsible for all the great advances in history.

He saw the barriers between the races as natural, having existed from the beginning of human history, and that breaking them down through miscegenation would lead to the destruction of civilization. While the issue of racism has indeed been identified as key to resolving problems in the world, breaking down the barriers through marriage between those of different races has come to be seen as an integral part of the solution, and a vital component in the establishment of a peaceful world. When he was seven, his mother left her husband and fled with her lover and children to Switzerland, where young Gobineau attended the local gymnasium in Bienne.

His mother tried to give him a solid Germanic and Germanophile education, and the schools in Switzerland were the ideal place for that. In , Gobineau returned to France to his father, and enrolled into general studies of the classics, folklore, and oriental studies. He tried in , to enroll into the military academy, but failed the entrance exam. Instead, he left for Paris and worked different manual jobs to make a living. Between and , he published several works, including Mademoiselle Irnois. In February , the revolution broke out, which ended the French monarchy. About the same time Alexis de Tocqueville, an aristocrat and a mentor of Gobineau, became French foreign minister.

In , de Tocqueville made Gobineau his private secretary, and later the main chief of the cabinet. Subsequently, Gobineau became the first secretary in the embassy at Bern, and later he held posts in Hanover and Frankfurt. Gobineau wrote his famous Essay on the Inequality of Human Races between and The book did not receive immediate attention, and passed rather unnoticed. In , Gobineau became the first secretary in the embassy in Tehran, and later in , the minister to Persia. There, he wrote several works on Persian society.

In , Gobineau served as French emissary to Athens, Greece, and in , he moved to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to carry the same position. After Brazil, in , Gobineau moved to Stockholm, Sweden, which was his last post. In , he was forced to retire from the diplomatic corps. Gobineau spent the rest of his career in Italy, writing novels and sculpting. Many of his works were published posthumously. Gobineau spent his last days writing poetry and sculpting, two of the loves he always cherished.

He died in Turin, Italy, on October 13, He expressed his views on the times he lived in and tried to explain the reasons behind revolutions. Gobineau was a royalist and despised democracy, holding that revolutions and wars were the result of the degeneration of society in general. In the Inequality of Human Races Gobineau attempted to create a science of history, connecting the rise and fall of civilizations with race. According to his definitions and the map shown here, the people of Spain, southern France, southern and western Iran, most of Italy, and a large part of Britain, consist of a degenerative race arising from miscegenation. Also he stated that the whole of north India consisted of a yellow race. He believed himself to be a descendant of Nordic Vikings.

Gobineau claimed that ethnicity was the most important issue in history, and that ethnic differences existed permanently from the beginning of human history. Gobineau considered the Bible to be a reliable source of history. The biblical division into Hamites, Semites, and Japhetites, according to Gobineau, is a division within the white race. In the last chapter of the Inequality of Human Races, Gobineau claimed that throughout human history there have been ten great civilizations, all of them started by the white race: The Indian civilization—built by white Aryans.

The Egyptian civilization—founded by an Aryan branch from India. The Assyrians—to which are attached other civilizations such as the Jewish and the Phoenician. According to Gobineau, these are Hamites and Semites. Gobineau places the Iranian civilizations here, but mentions that they are Aryans. The Greeks—originally Aryans, but with Semitic elements. The Chinese civilization—like the Egyptian founded by an Aryan colony from India. The Germanic races transformed in the fifth century the western spirit—they were Aryans. The Alleghanian civilizations in America. The Mexican civilizations in America. The Peruvian civilization in America.

Gobineau believed that civilization appeared as the result of conquest by a superior Aryan race over inferior races. He wrote that Aryans were brave, intelligent, and strong, but had a weakness in creativity. A small influx of blood of other races, especially Semitic, improved this weakness. However, Gobineau warned, too much race mixing would result in the ultimate destruction of civilization. His study, La Renaissance , was also admired in his day. Both of these works strongly expressed his reactionary aristocratic politics, and his hatred of democratic mass culture.

Legacy Although his racial theories did not receive immediate attention in Europe, it was through the influence of the Bayreuth circle and Richard Wagner that his views became popular, and his anti-Semitic theories developed. Gobineau saw Jews as strong, intelligent people who were very much a part of the superior race and who, if anything, stimulated industry and culture. Publications Gobineau, Arthur de. Mademoiselle Irnois and Other Stories. University of California Press. The Inequality of Human Races. Howard Fertig. Trois ans en Asie. Adamant Media Corporation. The World of the Persians. The Pleiads. Gobineau, Arthur de. The Renaissance.

Etudes critiques: La danseuse de Shamakha. The Crimson Handkerchief and Other Stories. Pomona Press. Correspondance ISBN During his career he made several important contributions to economics, including a study of national income distribution and tools to analyse individual choices. One of his best known theories is the rule which was later developed by Joseph M. His interest in economics and sociology can be traced back in the equilibrium analyses. Shortly after he had obtained his doctorate, he went to work as a civil engineer for the Italian Railway Company. Vilfredo Pareto worked there for a number of years after which he became more and more interested in the liberalization of the free market. In , Vilfredo Pareto changed his career by becoming a lecturer on management and economics at the University of Florence in Italy.

Vilfredo Pareto settled there and his stay was marked by political activity as he was frustrated with government regulations. Publications and books by Vilfredo Pareto et al. OUP Oxford. Transaction Publishers. The Transformation of Democracy. Sociological writings. Paris: Marcel Giard. Fatti e teorie. Giornale degli economisti, La teoria dei prezzi dei signori Auspitz e Lieben e le osservazioni del professore Walras. He also assisted the writer Juhani Aho with his book Kuvia ja kuvitelmia Suomen historiasta Kaksi vanhaa, vanhaa varista nuokkuu hiljaa pellon aidalla.

Ruskea on rinta kaislikon, taivas harmaa. Syksy on. He studied aesthetics and literature at the University of Helsinki, receiving his M. He worked in the s as a journalist, writing for Uusi Suometar , From to he was the director of Hartola folk high school. In the title work a crusader sees Jerusalem after a long journey, but realizes that he has come only to the half-way. In he married Arla Augusta Rossander, the daughter of a Lutheran minister. In , his play Savonarola was staged at the Finnish National Theatre. It combined elements form Finnish folk tales with themes from international fable tradition, familiar from the works of Aesop, Jean de La Fontaine and Krylov.

The much anthologized poem, which depicts two old crows, has been highly popular in elementary schools and poetry readings for decades. In the s, he asked in a poem, what is something that last forever, and concluded that it is the message of the cross, and the mercy of God. In her memoir, Toimita talosi , she recalled that his father was always writing, but the door to his study was half open and he was fully present with his family at dinner time.

Certain Russian classics, such as Tolstoy and Turgenev, he read over and over again. She was married to the actor Pentti Siimes. Helena Anhava was married to the poet, critic and translator Tuomas Anhava Garaudy is controversial for his anti-zionist views. He converted to Islam in Born to Catholic and Jewish atheist parents in Marseille, Garaudy converted at age 14 and became a Protestant. Following the war, Garaudy joined the French Communist Party.

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