Citizen Of The World Analysis
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Community Snow Observations. Soundscapes to Landscapes. Air Quality Citizen Science. Federal Citizen Science Page. Citizen Science Association. Presentations from CitSciCon Follow Us. Solar System. Citizen Science News. Earth Science. Joshua "Josh" Hamilton. He regarded it as the prototype of Charles Foster Kane's sled. Mankiewicz had a bet on the horse in the Kentucky Derby , which he won, and McGilligan wrote that "Old Rosebud symbolized his lost youth, and the break with his family". In testimony for the Lundberg suit, Mankiewicz said, "I had undergone psycho-analysis, and Rosebud, under circumstances slightly resembling the circumstances in [ Citizen Kane ], played a prominent part. The News on the March sequence that begins the film satirizes the journalistic style of The March of Time , the news documentary and dramatization series presented in movie theaters by Time Inc.
Houseman claimed that banker Walter P. Thatcher was loosely based on J. Citizen Kane was a rare film in that its principal roles were played by actors new to motion pictures. Ten were billed as Mercury Actors, members of the skilled repertory company assembled by Welles for the stage and radio performances of the Mercury Theatre , an independent theater company he founded with Houseman in Not all of the cast came from the Mercury Players. Welles cast Dorothy Comingore , an actress who played supporting parts in films since using the name "Linda Winters",  as Susan Alexander Kane.
She characterized her own personal relationship with Welles as motherly. That was something new in Hollywood: nobody seemed interested in bringing in a group to rehearse before scenes were shot. But Orson knew it was necessary, and we rehearsed every sequence before it was shot. Welles later said that casting character actor Gino Corrado in the small part of the waiter at the El Rancho broke his heart.
Corrado had appeared in many Hollywood films, often as a waiter, and Welles wanted all of the actors to be new to films. Other uncredited roles went to Thomas A. Ruth Warrick died was the last surviving member of the principal cast. Sonny Bupp died , who played Kane's young son, was the last surviving credited cast member. Production advisor Miriam Geiger quickly compiled a handmade film textbook for Welles, a practical reference book of film techniques that he studied carefully.
He then taught himself filmmaking by matching its visual vocabulary to The Cabinet of Dr. After dinner every night for about a month, I'd run Stagecoach , often with some different technician or department head from the studio, and ask questions. Welles's cinematographer for the film was Gregg Toland , described by Welles as "just then, the number-one cameraman in the world. On June 29, —a Saturday morning when few inquisitive studio executives would be around—Welles began filming Citizen Kane.
Welles said that he would consider making the project but wanted to make a different film first. At this time he did not inform them that he had already begun filming Citizen Kane. The early footage was called "Orson Welles Tests" on all paperwork. The next scenes were the El Rancho nightclub scenes and the scene in which Susan attempts suicide. For these scenes Welles had Comingore's throat sprayed with chemicals to give her voice a harsh, raspy tone. During production, the film was referred to as RKO Most of the filming took place in what is now Stage 19 on the Paramount Pictures lot in Hollywood.
In the end of July, RKO approved the film and Welles was allowed to officially begin shooting, despite having already been filming "tests" for several weeks. Welles leaked stories to newspaper reporters that the tests had been so good that there was no need to re-shoot them. The first official scene to be shot was the breakfast montage sequence between Kane and his first wife Emily. To strategically save money and appease the RKO executives who opposed him, Welles rehearsed scenes extensively before actually shooting and filmed very few takes of each shot set-up.
When the journalists arrived Welles told them they had "just finished" shooting for the day but still had the party. Welles usually worked 16 to 18 hours a day on the film. He often began work at 4 a. Welles used this time to discuss the day's shooting with Toland and other crew members. The special contact lenses used to make Welles look elderly proved very painful, and a doctor was employed to place them into Welles's eyes. Welles had difficulty seeing clearly while wearing them, which caused him to badly cut his wrist when shooting the scene in which Kane breaks up the furniture in Susan's bedroom.
While shooting the scene in which Kane shouts at Gettys on the stairs of Susan Alexander's apartment building, Welles fell ten feet; an X-ray revealed two bone chips in his ankle. The injury required him to direct the film from a wheelchair for two weeks. Paul Stewart recalled that on the ninth take the Culver City Fire Department arrived in full gear because the furnace had grown so hot the flue caught fire. When "Rosebud" was burned, Welles choreographed [ clarification needed ] the scene while he had composer Bernard Herrmann 's cue playing on the set.
Unlike Schaefer, many members of RKO's board of governors did not like Welles or the control that his contract gave him. When the executives would sometimes arrive on set unannounced the entire cast and crew would suddenly start playing softball until they left. Before official shooting began the executives intercepted all copies of the script and delayed their delivery to Welles.
They had one copy sent to their office in New York, resulting in it being leaked to press. Principal shooting wrapped October Welles then took several weeks away from the film for a lecture tour, during which he also scouted additional locations with Toland and Ferguson. The final day of shooting on November 30 was Kane's death scene. Wise was hired after Welles finished shooting the "camera tests" and began officially making the film. Wise said that Welles "had an older editor assigned to him for those tests and evidently he was not too happy and asked to have somebody else. I was roughly Orson's age and had several good credits. It was outstanding film day in and day out. Welles gave Wise detailed instructions and was usually not present during the film's editing.
During post-production Welles and special effects artist Linwood G. Dunn experimented with an optical printer to improve certain scenes that Welles found unsatisfactory from the footage. Stewart to re-do their work several times until he was satisfied. Welles hired Bernard Herrmann to compose the film's score. Where most Hollywood film scores were written quickly, in as few as two or three weeks after filming was completed, Herrmann was given 12 weeks to write the music.
He had sufficient time to do his own orchestrations and conducting, and worked on the film reel by reel as it was shot and cut. He wrote complete musical pieces for some of the montages, and Welles edited many of the scenes to match their length. Written and directed by Welles at Toland's suggestion, the theatrical trailer for Citizen Kane differs from other trailers in that it did not feature a single second of footage of the actual film itself, but acts as a wholly original, tongue-in-cheek , pseudo-documentary piece on the film's production. The trailer, shot by Wild instead of Toland, follows an unseen Welles as he provides narration for a tour around the film set, introductions to the film's core cast members, and a brief overview of Kane's character.
At the time, it was almost unprecedented for a film trailer to not actually feature anything of the film itself; and while Citizen Kane is frequently cited as a groundbreaking, influential film, Simon Callow argues its trailer was no less original in its approach. Callow writes that it has "great playful charm Teasing, charming, completely original, it is a sort of conjuring trick: Without his face appearing once on the screen, Welles entirely dominates its five [sic] minutes' duration. Film scholars and historians view Citizen Kane as Welles's attempt to create a new style of filmmaking by studying various forms of it and combining them into one.
However, Welles stated that his love for cinema began only when he started working on the film. When asked where he got the confidence as a first-time director to direct a film so radically different from contemporary cinema, he responded, "Ignorance, ignorance, sheer ignorance—you know there's no confidence to equal it. It's only when you know something about a profession, I think, that you're timid or careful. David Bordwell wrote that "The best way to understand Citizen Kane is to stop worshipping it as a triumph of technique.
But Bordwell asserts that the film did put them all together for the first time and perfected the medium in one single film. Griffith said, "I loved Citizen Kane and particularly loved the ideas he took from me. Arguments against the film's cinematic innovations were made as early as when French historian Georges Sadoul wrote, "The film is an encyclopedia of old techniques. Bazin stated that "even if Welles did not invent the cinematic devices employed in Citizen Kane , one should nevertheless credit him with the invention of their meaning.
Citizen Kane rejects the traditional linear, chronological narrative and tells Kane's story entirely in flashbacks using different points of view, many of them from Kane's aged and forgetful associates, the cinematic equivalent of the unreliable narrator in literature. The technique of flashbacks had been used in earlier films, notably The Power and the Glory ,  but no film was as immersed in it as Citizen Kane. Thompson the reporter acts as a surrogate for the audience, questioning Kane's associates and piecing together his life.
Films typically had an "omniscient perspective" at the time, which Marilyn Fabe says give the audience the "illusion that we are looking with impunity into a world which is unaware of our gaze". Citizen Kane also begins in that fashion until the News on the March sequence, after which we the audience see the film through the perspectives of others. Instead, the film's repetitions of events compels the audience to analyze and wonder why Kane's life happened the way that it did, under the pretext of finding out what "Rosebud" means.
The film then returns to the omniscient perspective in the final scene, when only the audience discovers what "Rosebud" is. The most innovative technical aspect of Citizen Kane is the extended use of deep focus ,  where the foreground, background, and everything in between are all in sharp focus. Cinematographer Toland did this through his experimentation with lenses and lighting. Toland described the achievement in an article for Theatre Arts magazine, made possible by the sensitivity of modern speed film:.
New developments in the science of motion picture photography are not abundant at this advanced stage of the game but periodically one is perfected to make this a greater art. Of these I am in an excellent position to discuss what is termed "Pan-focus", as I have been active for two years in its development and used it for the first time in Citizen Kane. Through its use, it is possible to photograph action from a range of eighteen inches from the camera lens to over two hundred feet away, with extreme foreground and background figures and action both recorded in sharp relief. Hitherto, the camera had to be focused either for a close or a distant shot, all efforts to encompass both at the same time resulting in one or the other being out of focus.
This handicap necessitated the breaking up of a scene into long and short angles, with much consequent loss of realism. With pan-focus, the camera, like the human eye, sees an entire panorama at once, with everything clear and lifelike. Another unorthodox method used in the film was the low-angle shots facing upwards, thus allowing ceilings to be shown in the background of several scenes. Every set was built with a ceiling  which broke with studio convention, and many were constructed of fabric that concealed microphones. He became fascinated with the look of low angles, which made even dull interiors look interesting. One extremely low angle is used to photograph the encounter between Kane and Leland after Kane loses the election.
A hole was dug for the camera, which required drilling into the concrete floor. Welles credited Toland on the same title card as himself. Citizen Kane ' s sound was recorded by Bailey Fesler and re-recorded in post-production by audio engineer James G. Welles used techniques from radio like overlapping dialogue. The scene in which characters sing "Oh, Mr. Kane" was especially complicated and required mixing several soundtracks together. Welles used an aural technique from radio called the "lightning-mix". Welles used this technique to link complex montage sequences via a series of related sounds or phrases. For example, Kane grows from a child into a young man in just two shots.
As Thatcher hands eight-year-old Kane a sled and wishes him a Merry Christmas, the sequence suddenly jumps to a shot of Thatcher fifteen years later, completing the sentence he began in both the previous shot and the chronological past. Other radio techniques include using a number of voices, each saying a sentence or sometimes merely a fragment of a sentence, and splicing the dialogue together in quick succession, such as the projection room scene. Kane was the first, in fact the only, great film that uses radio techniques. A lot of filmmakers know enough to follow Auguste Renoir 's advice to fill the eyes with images at all costs, but only Orson Welles understood that the sound track had to be filled in the same way.
On an early tour of RKO, Welles met Seiderman in the small make-up lab that he created for himself in an unused dressing room. He made a plaster mold of Welles's body down to the hips. The castings were then fully painted and paired with the appropriate wig for evaluation. Before the actors went before the cameras each day, the pliable pieces were applied directly to their faces to recreate Seiderman's sculptural image. Over that was applied liquid grease paint, and finally a colorless translucent talcum. The make-up included appliances to age Welles's shoulders, breast, and stomach.
You could see how Kane's silk shirt clung wetly to the character's body. It could not have been done any other way. Seiderman worked with Charles Wright on the wigs. These went over a flexible skull cover that Seiderman created and sewed into place with elastic thread. When he found the wigs too full, he untied one hair at a time to alter their shape. Kane's mustache was inserted into the makeup surface a few hairs at a time, to realistically vary the color and texture. The lenses took a long time to fit properly, and Seiderman began work on them before devising any of the other makeup. The major studios gave screen credit for make-up only to the department head. When RKO make-up department head Mel Berns refused to share credit with Seiderman, who was only an apprentice, Welles told Berns that there would be no make-up credit.
Although credited as an assistant, the film's art direction was done by Perry Ferguson. Ferguson would take notes during these discussions and create rough designs of the sets and story boards for individual shots. After Welles approved the rough sketches, Ferguson made miniature models for Welles and Toland to experiment on with a periscope in order to rehearse and perfect each shot. Ferguson then had detailed drawings made for the set design, including the film's lighting design. The set design was an integral part of the film's overall look and Toland's cinematography. DeMille films and Intolerance. To save costs Ferguson and Welles re-wrote scenes in Xanadu's living room and transported them to the Great Hall. A large staircase from another film was found and used at no additional cost.
Walls were built to fold and furniture could quickly be moved. The film's famous ceilings were made out of muslin fabric and camera boxes were built into the floors for low angle shots. Although neither worked with Welles again, Toland and Ferguson collaborated in several films in the s. For example, the scene in which the camera in the opera house rises dramatically to the rafters, to show the workmen showing a lack of appreciation for Susan Alexander Kane's performance, was shot by a camera craning upwards over the performance scene, then a curtain wipe to a miniature of the upper regions of the house, and then another curtain wipe matching it again with the scene of the workmen.
Other scenes effectively employed miniatures to make the film look much more expensive than it truly was, such as various shots of Xanadu. Some shots included rear screen projection in the background, such as Thompson's interview of Leland and some of the ocean backgrounds at Xanadu. Optical effects artist Dunn claimed that "up to 80 percent of some reels was optically printed. Welles decided to superimpose snow falling to mask the graininess in these shots. Any time deep focus was impossible—as in the scene in which Kane finishes a negative review of Susan's opera while at the same time firing the person who began writing the review—an optical printer was used to make the whole screen appear in focus, visually layering one piece of film onto another. In the background, Kane and another man break into the room, while simultaneously the medicine bottle and a glass with a spoon in it are in closeup in the foreground.
The shot was an in-camera matte shot. The foreground was shot first, with the background dark. Then the background was lit, the foreground darkened, the film rewound, and the scene re-shot with the background action. The film's music was composed by Bernard Herrmann. The score established Herrmann as an important new composer of film soundtracks  and eschewed the typical Hollywood practice of scoring a film with virtually non-stop music. Instead Herrmann used what he later described as "radio scoring", musical cues typically 5—15 seconds in length that bridge the action or suggest a different emotional response.
Herrmann realized that musicians slated to play his music were hired for individual unique sessions; there was no need to write for existing ensembles. This meant that he was free to score for unusual combinations of instruments, even instruments that are not commonly heard. In the opening sequence, for example, the tour of Kane's estate Xanadu, Herrmann introduces a recurring leitmotif played by low woodwinds, including a quartet of alto flutes.
Music enthusiasts consider the scene in which Susan Alexander Kane attempts to sing the famous cavatina "Una voce poco fa" from Il barbiere di Siviglia by Gioachino Rossini with vocal coach Signor Matiste as especially memorable for depicting the horrors of learning music through mistakes. In , Herrmann said, "I was fortunate to start my career with a film like Citizen Kane , it's been a downhill run ever since! Some incidental music came from other sources. Welles heard the tune used for the publisher's theme, "Oh, Mr. Kane", in Mexico. All of the music used in the newsreel came from the RKO music library, edited at Welles's request by the newsreel department to achieve what Herrmann called "their own crazy way of cutting". One of the editing techniques used in Citizen Kane was the use of montage to collapse time and space, using an episodic sequence on the same set while the characters changed costume and make-up between cuts so that the scene following each cut would look as if it took place in the same location, but at a time long after the previous cut.
In the breakfast montage, Welles chronicles the breakdown of Kane's first marriage in five vignettes that condense 16 years of story time into two minutes of screen time. Welles was influenced by the editing theories of Sergei Eisenstein by using jarring cuts that caused "sudden graphic or associative contrasts", such as the cut from Kane's deathbed to the beginning of the News on the March sequence and a sudden shot of a shrieking cockatoo at the beginning of Raymond's flashback. The News on the March newsreel presents Kane keeping company with Hitler and other dictators while he smugly assures the public that there will be no war.
Roosevelt was laboring to win public opinion for entering World War II. Journalist Ignacio Ramonet has cited the film as an early example of mass media manipulation of public opinion and the power that media conglomerates have on influencing the democratic process. He believes that this early example of a media mogul influencing politics is outdated and that today "there are media groups with the power of a thousand Citizen Kanes. Comparisons have also been made between the career and character of Donald Trump and Charles Foster Kane. To ensure that Hearst's life's influence on Citizen Kane was a secret, Welles limited access to dailies and managed the film's publicity.
A December feature story in Stage magazine compared the film's narrative to Faust and made no mention of Hearst. Gossip columnist Hedda Hopper an arch-rival of Louella Parsons, the Hollywood correspondent for Hearst papers showed up to the screening uninvited. Most of the critics at the preview said that they liked the film and gave it good advanced reviews. Hopper wrote negatively about it, calling the film a "vicious and irresponsible attack on a great man" and criticizing its corny writing and old fashioned photography.
Friday magazine ran an article drawing point-by-point comparisons between Kane and Hearst and documented how Welles had led on Parsons. The magazine quoted Welles as saying that he couldn't understand why she was so nice to him and that she should "wait until the woman finds out that the picture's about her boss. Welles apologized to Parsons and assured her that he had never made that remark. Shortly after Friday ' s article, Hearst sent Parsons an angry letter complaining that he had learned about Citizen Kane from Hopper and not her.
The incident made a fool of Parsons and compelled her to start attacking Welles and the film. Parsons demanded a private screening of the film and personally threatened Schaefer on Hearst's behalf, first with a lawsuit and then with a vague threat of consequences for everyone in Hollywood. On January 10 Parsons and two lawyers working for Hearst were given a private screening of the film. Stewart was present at the screening and said that she walked out of the film. When Schaefer did not submit to Parsons she called other studio heads and made more threats on behalf of Hearst to expose the private lives of people throughout the entire film industry.
Hearst began preparing an injunction against the film for libel and invasion of privacy, but Welles's lawyer told him that he doubted Hearst would proceed due to the negative publicity and required testimony that an injunction would bring. The Hollywood Reporter ran a front-page story on January 13 that Hearst papers were about to run a series of editorials attacking Hollywood's practice of hiring refugees and immigrants for jobs that could be done by Americans. The goal was to put pressure on the other studios to force RKO to shelve Kane.
Once RKO's legal team reassured Schaefer, the studio announced on January 21 that Kane would be released as scheduled, and with one of the largest promotional campaigns in the studio's history. Schaefer brought Welles to New York City for a private screening of the film with the New York corporate heads of the studios and their lawyers. The cuts satisfied the corporate lawyers. Hearing about Citizen Kane enraged Hearst so much that he banned any advertising, reviewing, or mentioning of it in his papers, and had his journalists libel Welles.
The reviews for this screening were positive. A Hollywood Review headline read, "Mr. Time magazine wrote that "The objection of Mr. Hearst, who founded a publishing empire on sensationalism, is ironic. For to most of the several hundred people who have seen the film at private screenings, Citizen Kane is the most sensational product of the U. When Schaefer rejected Hearst's offer to suppress the film, Hearst banned every newspaper and station in his media conglomerate from reviewing—or even mentioning—the film. He also had many movie theaters ban it, and many did not show it through fear of being socially exposed by his massive newspaper empire. The film did decent business at the box office; it went on to be the sixth highest grossing film in its year of release, a modest success its backers found acceptable.
Nevertheless, the film's commercial performance fell short of its creators' expectations. Hearst's attacks against Welles went beyond attempting to suppress the film. Welles said that while he was on his post-filming lecture tour a police detective approached him at a restaurant and advised him not to go back to his hotel. A year-old girl had reportedly been hidden in the closet of his room, and two photographers were waiting for him to walk in. Knowing he would be jailed after the resulting publicity, Welles did not return to the hotel but waited until the train left town the following morning. Native Son received positive reviews, but Hearst-owned papers used the opportunity to attack Welles as a communist. Welles described his chance encounter with Hearst in an elevator at the Fairmont Hotel on the night Citizen Kane opened in San Francisco.
Hearst and Welles's father were acquaintances, so Welles introduced himself and asked Hearst if he would like to come to the opening. Hearst did not respond. That was his style—just as he finished Jed Leland's bad review of Susan as an opera singer. In , Hearst journalist Robert Shaw wrote that the film got "a full tide of insensate fury" from Hearst papers, "then it ebbed suddenly. With one brain cell working, the chief realized that such hysterical barking by the trained seals would attract too much attention to the picture.
But to this day the name of Orson Welles is on the official son-of-a-bitch list of every Hearst newspaper. Despite Hearst's attempts to destroy the film, since references to his life and career have usually included a reference to Citizen Kane , such as the headline 'Son of Citizen Kane Dies' for the obituary of Hearst's son. Schaefer stood by Welles and opposed the board of governors.
Schaefer managed to book a few theaters willing to show the film. Hearst papers refused to accept advertising. RKO still had problems getting exhibitors to show the film. For example, one chain controlling more than theaters got Welles's film as part of a package but refused to play it, reportedly out of fear of Hearst. Citizen Kane received acclaim from several critics. New York Daily News critic Kate Cameron called it "one of the most interesting and technically superior films that has ever come out of a Hollywood studio". Mosher of The New Yorker called the film's style "like fresh air" and raved "Something new has come to the movie world at last.
Count on Mr. Welles: he doesn't do things by halves. Upon the screen he discovered an area large enough for his expansive whims to have free play. And the consequence is that he has made a picture of tremendous and overpowering scope, not in physical extent so much as in its rapid and graphic rotation of thoughts. Welles has put upon the screen a motion picture that really moves. In the UK C. Lejeune of The Observer called it "The most exciting film that has come out of Hollywood in twenty-five years"  and Dilys Powell of The Sunday Times said the film's style was made "with the ease and boldness and resource of one who controls and is not controlled by his medium.
A few reviews were mixed. Otis Ferguson of The New Republic said it was "the boldest free-hand stroke in major screen production since Griffith and Bitzer were running wild to unshackle the camera", but also criticized its style, calling it a "retrogression in film technique" and stating that "it holds no great place" in film history. More power to Welles! Some prominent critics wrote negative reviews. In his review for Sur , Jorge Luis Borges famously called the film "a labyrinth with no center" and predicted that its legacy would be a film "whose historical value is undeniable but which no one cares to see again. Modern critics have given Citizen Kane an even more positive response. The site's critical consensus reads: "Orson Welles's epic tale of a publishing tycoon's rise and fall is entertaining, poignant, and inventive in its storytelling, earning its reputation as a landmark achievement in film.
It was widely believed the film would win most of its Academy Award nominations, but it received only the award for Best Original Screenplay. Variety reported that block voting by screen extras deprived Citizen Kane of Best Picture and Best Actor , and similar prejudices were likely to have been responsible for the film receiving no technical awards.
Citizen Kane was the only film made under Welles's original contract with RKO Pictures, which gave him complete creative control. In the new contract Welles was an employee of the studio  and lost the right to final cut, which later allowed RKO to modify and re-cut The Magnificent Ambersons over his objections. It was shown in France for the first time on July 10, at the Marbeuf theater in Paris. The film is in the past tense, whereas we all know that cinema has got to be in the present tense. In his essay "The Evolution of the Language of Cinema", Bazin placed Citizen Kane center stage as a work which ushered in a new period in cinema.
He has enriched his filmic repertory with new or forgotten effects that, in today's artistic context, take on a significance we didn't know they could have. Bazin's praise of the film went beyond film theory and reflected his own philosophy towards life itself. It portrayed the world as ambiguous and full of contradictions, whereas films up until then simply portrayed people's actions and motivations. The world of Citizen Kane , that mysterious, dark, and infinitely deep world of space and memory where voices trail off into distant echoes and where meaning dissolves into interpretation, seemed to Bazin to mark the starting point from which all of us try to construct provisionally the sense of our lives.
By Citizen Kane had run its course theatrically and, apart from a few showings at big city arthouse cinemas, it largely vanished and both the film's and Welles's reputation fell among American critics. In the United States, it was neglected and forgotten until its revival on television in the mid-to-late s. Three key events in led to its re-evaluation in the United States: first, RKO was one of the first studios to sell its library to television, and early that year Citizen Kane started to appear on television; second, the film was re-released theatrically to coincide with Welles's return to the New York stage, where he played King Lear ; and third, American film critic Andrew Sarris wrote "Citizen Kane: The American Baroque" for Film Culture , and described it as "the great American film" and "the work that influenced the cinema more profoundly than any American film since The Birth of a Nation.
During Expo 58 , a poll of over film historians named Kane one of the top ten greatest films ever made the group gave first-place honors to Battleship Potemkin. When a group of young film directors announced their vote for the top six, they were booed for not including the film. In the decades since, its critical status as the greatest film ever made has grown, with numerous essays and books on it including Peter Cowie's The Cinema of Orson Welles , Ronald Gottesman's Focus on Citizen Kane , a collection of significant reviews and background pieces, and most notably Kael's essay, "Raising Kane", which promoted the value of the film to a much wider audience than it had reached before.
The rise of art house and film society circuits also aided in the film's rediscovery. Roger Ebert called Citizen Kane the greatest film ever made: "But people don't always ask about the greatest film. They ask, 'What's your favorite movie? In Time Out conducted a reader's poll and Citizen Kane was voted 3rd best film of all time. Art director Perry Ferguson represents the behind-the-scenes craftsmen of filmmaking in the series; he is depicted completing a sketch for Citizen Kane. Citizen Kane was ranked number one in the American Film Institute 's polls of film industry artists and leaders in  and In , the Motion Picture Editors Guild published a list of the 75 best-edited films of all time based on a survey of its membership.
Citizen Kane was listed second. The website's critics consensus states: "Orson Welles's epic tale of a publishing tycoon's rise and fall is entertaining, poignant, and inventive in its storytelling, earning its reputation as a landmark achievement in film. Citizen Kane has been called the most influential film of all time. Cinematographer Arthur Edeson used a wider-angle lens than Toland and the film includes many long takes, low angles and shots of the ceiling, but it did not use deep focus shots on large sets to the extent that Citizen Kane did. Edeson and Toland are often credited together for revolutionizing cinematography in American filmmakers in the s combined these two approaches by using long takes, rapid cutting, deep focus and telephoto shots all at once.
The film's structure influenced the biographical films Lawrence of Arabia and Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters —which begin with the subject's death and show their life in flashbacks—as well as Welles's thriller Mr. Arkadin , as well as the theme of nostalgia for loss of innocence throughout Welles's career, beginning with Citizen Kane and including The Magnificent Ambersons , Mr. Arkadin and Chimes at Midnight. Rosenbaum also points out how the film influenced Warren Beatty 's Reds.
The film depicts the life of Jack Reed through the eyes of Louise Bryant, much as Kane's life is seen through the eyes of Thompson and the people who he interviews. Rosenbaum also compared the romantic montage between Reed and Bryant with the breakfast table montage in Citizen Kane. Akira Kurosawa 's Rashomon is often compared to the film due to both having complicated plot structures told by multiple characters in the film.
The films of Paul Thomas Anderson have been compared to it. Variety compared There Will Be Blood to the film  and called it "one that rivals Giant and Citizen Kane in our popular lore as origin stories about how we came to be the people we are. Above all, the performances are worthless. The amount of respect that movie has is absolutely unbelievable! William Friedkin said that the film influenced him and called it "a veritable quarry for filmmakers, just as Joyce 's Ulysses is a quarry for writers.
Welles's Oscar for Best Original Screenplay was believed to be lost until it was rediscovered in In , Mankiewicz's personal copy of the Citizen Kane script was auctioned at Christie's. The leather-bound volume included the final shooting script and a carbon copy of American that bore handwritten annotations—purportedly made by Hearst's lawyers, who were said to have obtained it in the manner described by Kael in " Raising Kane ". The composited camera negative of Citizen Kane is believed to be lost forever.
The most commonly-reported explanation is that it was destroyed in a New Jersey film laboratory fire in the s. However, in , Nicolas Falacci revealed that he had been told "the real story" by a colleague, when he was one of two employees in the film restoration lab which assembled the "restoration" from the best available elements. Falacci noted that throughout the process he had daily visits in from an unnamed "older RKO executive showing up every day — nervous and sweating". According to Falacci's colleague, this elderly man was keen to cover up a clerical error he had made decades earlier when in charge of the studio's inventory, which had resulted in the original camera negatives being sent to a silver reclamation plant, destroying the nitrate film to extract its valuable silver content.
Falacci's account is impossible to verify, but it would have been fully in keeping with industry standard practice for many decades, which was to destroy prints and negatives of countless older films deemed non-commercially viable, to extract the silver. Subsequent prints were derived from a master positive a fine-grain preservation element made in the s and originally intended for use in overseas distribution. RKO kept the non-broadcast television rights to its library. In , when home video was in its infancy, entrepreneur Snuff Garrett bought cassette rights to the RKO library for what United Press International termed "a pittance".
It was a hobby with me which became big business. This version had an improved transfer and additional special features, including the documentary The Legacy of Citizen Kane and Welles's early short The Hearts of Age. Turner Broadcasting System acquired broadcast television rights to the RKO library in  and the full worldwide rights to the library in It was simultaneously released on VHS. In , Welles's daughter Beatrice Welles sued Turner Entertainment, claiming the Welles estate is the legal copyright holder of the film. She claimed that Welles's deal to terminate his contracts with RKO meant that Turner's copyright of the film was null and void.
In she was allowed to proceed with the lawsuit, overturning the decision in favor of Turner Entertainment on the issue of video rights. The state can manipulate and exploit, fake the truth, keeping us all under control without us even knowing. Ideas such as freedom of speech, non conformism and individual expression are not entertained, not even understood. Auden's poem is an excellent starting point for debates about society and the individual's role within the system. The Unknown Citizen is both satirical and disturbing, written by Auden to highlight the role of the individual and the increasingly faceless bureaucracy that can arise in any country, with any type of government, be it left-wing or right-wing.
The tone of the poem is impersonal and clinical, the speaker more than likely a suited bureaucrat expressing the detached view of the state. The unknown citizen is reduced to a mere number, a series of letters; there is no name, no birthplace or mention of loved ones. He maintained the standards expected of him by those in power. He worked hard, was part of the union but never strayed or broke the rules. Only the war interrupted his working life which made him a popular member of the workforce.
There is mention of the Social Psychology department, part of the state who no doubt investigated his background when he died, and found all was normal according to his mates. He bought a newspaper each day, that is, he read the propaganda dished out by the bias press, and had no adverse reaction to the advertisements in that paper. There is some sound corporate brain-washing going on here and this citizen has one of the cleanest in the Greater Community. He's not a critical thinker but a solid type of guy who you would want living next door.
He keeps up with his household goods, he adheres to all societal rules. This man is an average Joe, a perfect citizen who is conditioned to routine and will never question the settled life, unless the state call on him for purposes of war. This citizen is treated like a little boy himself, patted on the head for being a good if unquestioning person. But note that the speaker mentions the Eugenist - a person who investigates eugenics, the genetic make up of this man's family - and coldly says that his 5 children was the 'right number' for his generation.
As if the state was counting, making sure they had enough fresh conformists to carry on in the Greater Community. The speaker knows that those in power have put in place all that is necessary to nullify the citizen - effective propaganda being their main tool. This is how they get rid of critical thinking, of freedom of speech, of social unrest and protest. So Auden's poem is a reminder of the potential dangers inherent in any system of government, in any bureaucracy anywhere, anytime - the individual can lose their unique identity, become a non-person, without a voice, without a say in how things are run.
The Unknown Citizen is a single stanza of 29 lines, most of them long and hardly able to carry the full rhymes that form part of an unusual rhyme scheme:. Some of the lines are so long that the rhymes at the end tend to produce a comic effect, which is exactly what the poet aimed for - the reader has to work really hard to get the full effect of the rhyming words. The rhyme scheme shows that, while some of the rhymes are close together - in couplets, triplets or in alternate lines - other rhyming lines are far apart.
For example, lines 8 and 13 Inc. Note that year is a slant rhyme with the other two, not full rhyme. Why have rhymes that are far apart?Competitive advantage of nations Obiano of Anambra State Nevertheless, the film's commercial performance fell short The Importance Of Father Paul In The Man To Send Rain Clouds its creators' expectations. Jackson: The Importance Of Father Paul In The Man To Send Rain Clouds Press of Mississippi, Landslide Reporter. This section needs was oj found guilty citations for verification. At this time he did not inform them that he had how does dyslexia affect a person begun filming Citizen Kane.