Julius Caesar How Did He Die

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Julius Caesar How Did He Die



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Assassination of Julius Caesar: Why and How DOCUMENTARY

If thou beest not immortal, look about you: security gives way to conspiracy. The mighty gods defend thee! My heart laments that virtue cannot live Out of the teeth of emulation. If thou read this, O Caesar, thou mayst live; If not, the Fates with traitors do contrive. O constancy, be strong upon my side, Set a huge mountain 'tween my heart and tongue! I have a man's mind, but a woman's might. How hard it is for women to keep counsel! Art thou here yet? Run to the Capitol, and nothing else? And so return to you, and nothing else?

Hark, boy! Enter the Soothsayer. Before the Capitol; the Senate sitting above. Soothsayer Ay, Caesar; but not gone. Come to the Capitol. Cassius, go you into the other street, And part the numbers. Those that will hear me speak, let 'em stay here; Those that will follow Cassius, go with him; And public reasons shall be rendered Of Caesar's death. First Citizen I will hear Brutus speak.

Second Citizen I will hear Cassius; and compare their reasons, When severally we hear them rendered. Enter Citizens. A house in Rome. But, Lepidus, go you to Caesar's house; Fetch the will hither, and we shall determine How to cut off some charge in legacies. Your master, Pindarus, In his own change, or by ill officers, Hath given me some worthy cause to wish Things done, undone: but, if he be at hand, I shall be satisfied. A word, Lucilius; How he received you, let me be resolved. There are no tricks in plain and simple faith; But hollow men, like horses hot at hand, Make gallant show and promise of their mettle; But when they should endure the bloody spur, They fall their crests, and, like deceitful jades, Sink in the trial.

Comes his army on? Low march within. You know that you are Brutus that speak this, Or, by the gods, this speech were else your last. What villain touch'd his body, that did stab, And not for justice? What, shall one of us That struck the foremost man of all this world But for supporting robbers, shall we now Contaminate our fingers with base bribes, And sell the mighty space of our large honours For so much trash as may be grasped thus?

I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon, Than such a Roman. Must I give way and room to your rash choler? Shall I be frighted when a madman stares? There is then a small hint at the friction between Antony and Octavius which characterises another of Shakespeare's Roman plays, Antony and Cleopatra. The main source of the play is Thomas North 's translation of Plutarch 's Lives. Shakespeare deviated from these historical facts to curtail time and compress the facts so that the play could be staged more easily. The tragic force is condensed into a few scenes for heightened effect.

Julius Caesar was originally published in the First Folio of , but a performance was mentioned by Thomas Platter the Younger in his diary in September The play is not mentioned in the list of Shakespeare's plays published by Francis Meres in Based on these two points, as well as a number of contemporary allusions, and the belief that the play is similar to Hamlet in vocabulary, and to Henry V and As You Like It in metre, [12] scholars have suggested as a probable date. The text of Julius Caesar in the First Folio is the only authoritative text for the play. The Folio text is notable for its quality and consistency; scholars judge it to have been set into type from a theatrical prompt-book.

The play contains many anachronistic elements from the Elizabethan era. The characters mention objects such as doublets large, heavy jackets — which did not exist in ancient Rome. Caesar is mentioned to be wearing an Elizabethan doublet instead of a Roman toga. At one point a clock is heard to strike and Brutus notes it with "Count the clock". Maria Wyke has written that the play reflects the general anxiety of Elizabethan England over succession of leadership.

At the time of its creation and first performance, Queen Elizabeth , a strong ruler, was elderly and had refused to name a successor, leading to worries that a civil war similar to that of Rome might break out after her death. Many have debated whether Caesar or Brutus is the protagonist of the play, because of the title character's death in Act Three, Scene One. But Caesar compares himself to the Northern Star , and perhaps it would be foolish not to consider him as the axial character of the play, around whom the entire story turns.

Intertwined in this debate is a smattering of philosophical and psychological ideologies on republicanism and monarchism. One author, Robert C. Reynolds, devotes attention to the names or epithets given to both Brutus and Caesar in his essay "Ironic Epithet in Julius Caesar ". Reynolds also talks about Caesar and his "Colossus" epithet, which he points out has its obvious connotations of power and manliness, but also lesser known connotations of an outward glorious front and inward chaos. Caesar is deemed an intuitive philosopher who is always right when he goes with his instinct; for instance, when he says he fears Cassius as a threat to him before he is killed, his intuition is correct.

Brutus is portrayed as a man similar to Caesar, but whose passions lead him to the wrong reasoning, which he realises in the end when he says in V. Joseph W. Houppert acknowledges that some critics have tried to cast Caesar as the protagonist, but that ultimately Brutus is the driving force in the play and is therefore the tragic hero. Brutus attempts to put the republic over his personal relationship with Caesar and kills him.

Brutus makes the political mistakes that bring down the republic that his ancestors created. He acts on his passions, does not gather enough evidence to make reasonable decisions and is manipulated by Cassius and the other conspirators. Traditional readings of the play may maintain that Cassius and the other conspirators are motivated largely by envy and ambition, whereas Brutus is motivated by the demands of honour and patriotism. Certainly, this is the view that Antony expresses in the final scene.

But one of the central strengths of the play is that it resists categorising its characters as either simple heroes or villains. The political journalist and classicist Garry Wills maintains that "This play is distinctive because it has no villains". It is a drama famous for the difficulty of deciding which role to emphasise. The characters rotate around each other like the plates of a Calder mobile. Touch one and it affects the position of all the others. Raise one, another sinks. But they keep coming back into a precarious balance. The play was probably one of Shakespeare's first to be performed at the Globe Theatre.

After the theatres re-opened at the start of the Restoration era, the play was revived by Thomas Killigrew 's King's Company in Charles Hart initially played Brutus, as did Thomas Betterton in later productions. Julius Caesar was one of the very few Shakespeare plays that was not adapted during the Restoration period or the eighteenth century. One of the earliest cultural references to the play came in Shakespeare's own Hamlet.

Prince Hamlet asks Polonius about his career as a thespian at university, Polonius replies "I did enact Julius Caesar. I was killed i' th' Capitol. Brutus killed me. The police procedural combines Shakespeare, Dragnet , and vaudeville jokes and was first broadcast on The Ed Sullivan Show. The movie Me and Orson Welles , based on a book of the same name by Robert Kaplow , is a fictional story centred around Orson Welles ' famous production of Julius Caesar at the Mercury Theatre. In the Ray Bradbury book Fahrenheit , some of the character Beatty's last words are "There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats, for I am armed so strong in honesty that they pass me as an idle wind, which I respect not!

The play's line "the fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in ourselves", spoken by Cassius in Act I, scene 2, is often referenced in popular culture. The line gave its name to the J. The same line was quoted in Edward R. This speech and the line were recreated in the film Good Night, and Good Luck. The titles of Agatha Christie novel Taken at the Flood , titled There Is a Tide in its American edition, refer to an iconic line of Brutus: "There is a tide in the affairs of men, which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune.

Julius Caesar has been adapted to a number of film productions, including:. Modern adaptions of the play have often made contemporary political references, [44] with Caesar depicted as resembling a variety of political leaders, including Huey Long , Margaret Thatcher , and Tony Blair. Hartley , the Robinson Chair of Shakespeare Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte , states that this is a fairly "common trope" of Julius Caesar performances: "Throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, the rule has been to create a recognisable political world within the production.

And often people in the title role itself look like or feel like somebody either in recent or current politics. He was taught to venerate her as a child and observes that she was ultimately more of a queen than an elected official and that it is similar centralized power that a new civilization needs. Caesar is simply quickening what is the inevitable, logical conclusion of the once virtuous NCR.

Caesar also regards self-sacrifice as a necessary part of rebuilding civilization, as evidenced by the fact that he refuses the very notion of using the Securitrons hidden inside the bunker underneath his camp. Caesar rejects allowing his Legion to advance technologically, believing that life must be kept hard and filled with sacrifice in order to strengthen humanity.

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Explore Wikis Community Central. Register Don't have an account? View source. History Talk Cleanup Issue: ref split. To meet Nukapedia ' s quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. Please help by improving the article. And the teaching stuck. I was taught it was my responsibility to bring the torch of knowledge to the wastes. Finally, my Legion will have its Rome. The Colorado River is my Rubicon. The NCR council will be eradicated, but the new synthesis will change the Legion as well Kurtz, and Caesar?

Both are men of intelligence and education who traveled from a life of relative comfort, technological wizardry, and "civilization" into a wilderness full of warring people with relatively low education and a relatively "primitive" lifestyle. Both rose to power and were essentially deified for their intelligence, knowledge and leadership capabilities. Both cut off communication with the outside world and lived in their until now remote, savage kingdoms, using the most brutal means possible to deal with rare instances of dissent.

Both have an "unusual" way of looking at the world due to their cultural isolation. Unlike Mr. Kurtz, Caesar's reign continues for a long, long time. Charles Taylor is a real dude. For real. Go read some of the trial transcripts where his war crimes are detailed. For their own purposes, they engage in a variety of horrible practices that others have engaged in throughout history. I'm sure individual players might want to engage in ranking atrocities -- something I've never really found was productive in discussions about history -- but Caesar and his crew in the same league as other brutal warlords.

Kurtz-like state of unmoored morality. Whatever moral framework he had as Edward Sallow among the Followers has disintegrated after years of being Caesar. Caesar in an intro slide. Things were more peaceful when I was growing up. When I was a young man, I went out into the world to do missionary work as all New Canaanites do. I traveled along the Long 15 and followed 89 south into Arizona. Along the way, I met two men from a group called the Followers of the Apocalypse. Edward Sallow and Bill Calhoun.

They came to teach the tribes. Calhoun was a good man. Edward was the one who got us into trouble down the road. My family lived not far from the great Boneyard. After Raiders killed my father, my mother sought the Followers' protection. I was two years old. She found work at their Library, cooking and cleaning. I learned how to read and soon I was taking courses, free of charge. I may have taken the torch part more literally than they intended. It was my first expedition, just me and a physician named Calhoun. As an anthropologist and linguist, my assignment was to learn the dialects of the Grand Canyon tribes. What a fucking waste of time!

Anyway, we met up with a Mormon missionary who already knew a bunch of dialects - Joshua Graham. He was supposed to teach me. But before that went too far, the Blackfoot tribe captured us, to hold us for ransom. They were a backward bunch. But the real problem was, they didn't know how to fight. But outnumbered like that, they weren't going to last long. It's one thing to be taken hostage, another to be lashed to a sinking ship. So over Calhoun's objections, I decided to take certain steps. They looked at me like I was some kind of a sorcerer. So I taught them how to make explosives, and started drilling them on small unit tactics.

If there's anything I learned as a Follower of the Apocalypse, it's that there's a lot of good information in old books. I led the Blackfoot against the Ridgers, their weakest enemy. When they refused to surrender, I ordered every man, woman, and child killed. When next we surrounded the Kaibabs and they likewise refused I took one of their envoys to the Ridgers' village and showed him the corpse piles. This was new for the tribes, you see. They played at war, raiding each other, a little rape and pillage here, a little ransoming there.

I showed them total warfare. Like I said, there's a lot you can learn from old books. I knew from the start I'd need to eradicate this plague of tribal identities, replacing them with a monolithic culture, a uniform identity. So that's what I did, once my confederation of tribes was large enough. I crowned myself Caesar and created a single Great Tribe - my Legion. I sent Calhoun, the Follower captured with me, back West with a message that I should not be interfered with. Joshua Graham, the Mormon interpreter, stayed with me and served as my first Legatus. I'd seen what had become of the NCR's attempts to emulate the culture of Pre-War America - the in-fighting, the corruption.

Rome was a highly militarized autocracy that effectively integrated the foreign cultures it conquered. It dedicated its citizens to something higher than themselves - to the idea of Rome itself. In Rome I found a template for a society equal to the challenges of the post-apocalyptic world - a society that could and would survive. A society that could prevent mankind from fracturing and destroying itself in this new world, by establishing a new Pax Romana. You got raiders all over the damn place, tribes of degenerates that'll eat you as soon as look at you, regional warlords Not too many decent places to stop and trade. New Canaan's one of the only ones left I know about. Decades of warfare, absorbing lesser tribes, gathering power.

Forging the dross into a vast, razor-sharp scythe. My Legion's expansion has never ceased. We have cities of our own, but nothing compared to Vegas. Long-term stability at all costs. The individual has no value beyond his utility to the state, whether as an instrument of war, or production. It's Hegelian Dialectics, not personal animosity. What are those? It's a philosophical theory, the kind you might encounter if you took time to read some books. The fundamental premise is to envision history as a sequence of "dialectical" conflicts. Each dialectic begins with a proposition, a thesis Thesis and antithesis. The conflict is inevitable. But the resolution of the conflict yields something new - a synthesis - eliminating the flaws in each, leaving behind common elements and ideas.

Just as with the ancient Republic, it is natural that a military force should conquer and transform the NCR into a military dictatorship. The NCR council will be eradicated , but the new synthesis will change the Legion as well The treaty was more than a resolution to welcome the Desert Rangers into the republic. It was a covenant to protect southern Nevada against Caesar's Legion and the tyranny of his regime.

Graham had been with Caesar since the beginning, but he had to set an example. The praetorians covered Graham in pitch, lit him on fire, and down into the Grand Canyon he went. Quite a man, if man he be. Caesar prides himself on selecting the right tool to overcome each new obstacle. In Lanius, he found his hammer. He's never been defeated in battle. Another five, rendered extinct.

His latest campaign in the wilds of the Utah has concluded, and he is en route. When he arrives, your doom arrives with him. Come back later - tomorrow! Let's hear what you've got to say. Something he is attempting to hide from his men. But it was obvious before we set out on this last mission.

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