Minoan Civilization Analysis
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The Minoan Civilisation (In Our Time)
Both suggest the possibility that all of the proposed "causes" could have contributed cumulatively to the observed phenomena - Cline calls it a "perfect storm" of calamities. Drews suggested his own theory but admitted it is only a hypothesis. And Cline concludes that though the causes of the Catastrophe must have been complex, we neither know all of them, nor do we know which were critical. So, the up-to-date conclusion is "We don't know.
What we have now is a somewhat clearer picture of what happened, where and when; that picture is still evolving. Before reading this book I had not appreciated that the late Bronze Age was a kind of Golden Age in the eastern Mediterranean, both economically and culturally. Just the kind of thing that draws my further attention. But whenever Knossos itself may have been destroyed, violence and a complete change of settlement patterns at the beginning of the 12th century have been verified archaeologically all over Crete. For example, aware of the Pharoah Thutmose III's successful tactics in the battle of Megiddo in BCE apparently the first battle in history recorded - on a temple wall - for the edification of persons not present , General Edmund Allenby repeated them in at Megiddo against the Germans and Turks with the same positive results.
An excerpt from the inscriptions on Ramesses III's mortuary temple gives a taste of ancient Egyptian imperial rhetoric: Those who reached my frontier, their seed is not; their heart and their soul are finished forever and ever. Those who came forward together on the sea, the full flame was in front of them at the river mouths, while a stockade of lances surrounded them on the shore.
They were dragged in, enclosed, and prostrated on the beach, killed and made into heaps from tail to head. Their ships and their goods were as if fallen into the water. I have made the lands turn back from even mentioning Egypt; for when they pronounce my name in their land, then they are burned up. I wouldn't want to get on his bad side. Cline calls the era "this cosmopolitan age.
There is written evidence of the resulting famine, at least until the civilizations collapsed. In Egypt, of course, due to the exceptional nature of the Nile River, this period of famine did not occur, but it might have contributed to the weakening of the Hittite Empire and partially explained why so many Mycenaean Greeks left the mainland for the western coast of the Near East. Feb 18, Lois Bujold rated it really liked it Recommends it for: readers interested in the Late Bronze Age who already have some grounding.
The author and editors may fondly imagine this is written for a general public while retaining scholarly rigor. I think the first part of that belief is overly optimistic, while the second I cannot judge. Personally, I could have used something like "The Bronze Age for Dummies" as a lead-in, to give me a broader overview of the places, peoples, An overview of the end of the Bronze Age in the so-called Ancient World, the eastern Mediterranean and Near East from about B. Personally, I could have used something like "The Bronze Age for Dummies" as a lead-in, to give me a broader overview of the places, peoples, and their relationships to each other -- so many names!
Ta, L. View all 9 comments. Aug 15, Hadrian rated it really liked it Shelves: history , nonfiction , classical-antiquity. The foreign countries made a conspiracy in their islands. All at once the lands were removed and scattered in the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Khatte, Qode, Carchemish, Arzawa, and Alashiya on, being cut off at [one time]. A camp [was set up] in one place in Amurru.
They desolated its people, and its land was like that which has never come into being. They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Peleset, Tjekker The foreign countries made a conspiracy in their islands. They laid their hands upon the lands as far as the circuit of the earth, their hearts confident and trusting. Where trade routes collapsed, cities burned, and literacy became nearly extinct, and only a few surviving cities clung to continued existence.
The author has even taken a brilliant framing device - financial troubles in Greece and violence along the Eastern Mediterranean is an issue as much as over 3, years ago as today. The prologue starts with the question - "Why did this happen? The successive chapters discuss the civilizations of the Late Bronze Age: the Hittites, the Myceneans, Assyria, Ugarit, Caanan, and Egypt, starting with networks of contact, trade exchanges, diplomatic relations, and treaty archives. A look at trade negotiations for valuable goods does much to ground the era for a contemporary reader's understanding.
The translation of primary sources does much to bring the period alive for non-specialists like myself, but the citation of sources, I hope, would be a useful reference to the specialist in comparing this to ongoing research. And yet even with all this ongoing research, what caused the collapse is not so certain. Cline first examines, and then discards the hypothesis that it was the Sea People alone - noting how the pharoahs, like so many other tyrants, lie to boost their own reputation. Climactic change may have been the first of so many stressors that led to a broader collapse.
The introduction of complexity theory - of examining so many moving parts and seeing how they interact with one another - is another valuable tool for examining ancient history but other events. This is an appreciation of history that I found a compelling read. View 2 comments. Jun 04, Karla rated it liked it Shelves: ebook. Half the book is the endnotes, which was great because I was getting a little weary.
It's not exactly a narrative history but more of a Cliff's Notes version of all the scholarship that has been done on the theories of the Late Bronze Age collapse. I could have used more context about the players in the century-long drama and more clarity. There's a lot of backtracking from various theories since no one knows for sure the who, what, where, and why about any of it. There are scattered facts and c Half the book is the endnotes, which was great because I was getting a little weary. There are scattered facts and conclusions - every set of facts has prompted different conclusions, and Cline clutters the narrative by removing one factor to put forth one scholarly theory, then replacing it and removing another in order to describe another theory.
It became a garbled mess after awhile. Still, it's been nearly 20 years since I last was in this kind of academic discussions and it was interesting to see how the Sea Peoples' theory has changed over time with the wealth of recent discoveries. By the end, however, I was wishing that Cline had chosen a theory or two to focus on instead of being an "all the facts in the pot" impartial observer. The writing itself was pretty dry in most places, though there were some moments that were engagingly-written history. This book would be a fine launching point for historical fiction or accessible popular history.
View all 6 comments. Aug 20, Justin Evans rated it really liked it Shelves: history-etc. Not at all what the cover and press suggests, Cline has written a short history of the bronze age, with a focus on the end of it. His argument is that a lot of different factors contributed to the end of bronze age civilizations. There are no lessons, and civilization obvi Not at all what the cover and press suggests, Cline has written a short history of the bronze age, with a focus on the end of it.
There are no lessons, and civilization obviously didn't end. This book, however, is pretty good if you want to learn a bit more about the Egyptians, Hittites, Babylonians, Mycenaeans and Minoans. Good enough for me. Apr 21, Erik Moore rated it it was amazing. The linkages between recently dug up newly translated tablets from Ugarit along with pollen core samples, radio-carbon dating, pot shard analysis, and sunken treasure is astounding. The work that must have gone into any one of these is a testament to the desire for our curr This is a great book for reviewing and cross-referencing the current research on the fall of the Bronze Age into darkness at BC the End of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the Reign of Ramses III for a period of years.
The work that must have gone into any one of these is a testament to the desire for our current civilization to uncover its ancient past. One thing a bit troubling is that at the end of the book Cline assumes that the destruction was a catalyst for positive developments, in which he lists monotheism. The thought that monotheism was a result of the collapse is both not true systemically systemic considerations was the approach to the book and certainly most societies remained polytheistic and it certainly should not be forwarded as a positive cultural development, at least not without qualifications. Similarly the idea that alphabetic systems were "progress" would appear outrageous to the modern Chinese reader, and indeed to the student of Akkadian and Hieroglyphics which had significant phonetic character sets.
The underrepresented merchant class, and the rise of thriving Bronze Age multiculturalism was certainly lost at the collapse, and would have been a better example of what actually did lead to the rise in the early Iron Age as the roots of our civilization. It wasn't how many gods folks worshiped, or if they worshiped any at all. But instead it was how effectively they could relate to each other on broad scales, and how much scientific and mathematical knowledge and their ability to leverage knowledge in the face of societal challenges.
The writings of the Bronze Age that included commerce, science, mathematics, and legal-political structure are surely the best basis on which to judge the progress and decline of civilization. That reading Linear B and cuneiform was indeed lost in the Mediterranean is indeed a loss to humanity's progress. Fortunately, folks like those Cline mentions constantly in this book, researchers, anthropologists, whatever their motivations, are the ones that helped us recover this wonderful history so that we may indeed better contemplate our own fate.
I learned a lot from Cline. The book did leave me wanting more information, but that is the nature of anthropology of the ancients. We must live with a mosaic of fragments, no matter how many pieces we recover. Apr 10, Emma Sea rated it really liked it Shelves: auckland-library , archaeology , non-fiction , history. An interesting look at exactly how interconnected the cultures around the Med were in the late Bronze Age. Fascinating translations of letters I hadn't read before.
Clines's writing is very conversational and communicates a great enthusiasm for the topic. I also felt his thesis was pretty comprehensively proven i. The book really left me with an overwhelming desire to read a lot more recent work in the area, and that's gotta be a good thing, right? Note that Clines does not cover An interesting look at exactly how interconnected the cultures around the Med were in the late Bronze Age. Note that Clines does not cover theories of identity of the Sea Peoples in more than a passing mention: this book is only presenting contextual information and discussing other possible probable reasons for collapse: earthquakes, climate change, etc.
View 1 comment. Let's dispense with a pet peeve right away: I despise the trend of using a year for a book title, a decision I doubt Eric Cline had any say in. At least with a book like there is a significant event like the fall of Constantinople to hang one's hat on. It's as silly to call the ideal year to define post-Columbian Native American culture as it is to say was the defining seminal year for rock and roll.
When dealing with the fuzzy and uncertain Late Bronze Era, it becomes even more p Let's dispense with a pet peeve right away: I despise the trend of using a year for a book title, a decision I doubt Eric Cline had any say in. When dealing with the fuzzy and uncertain Late Bronze Era, it becomes even more preposterous to call this book B. The book deals with a slow process of global collapse that took place from BC to BC, which launched the earliest of civilized humanity's Dark Ages.
Cline is the quintessential scholar who has found a popular audience for his musings on the Greek Dark Ages of BC E. He does not say the marauding Sea Peoples were a myth, nor does he say it was certain that they were identical to the Philistines, or that they came from Cyprus or Crete. The myth of a Dorian invasion from the north is just about dead. What Cline tells us is that we do not know.
Many readers who would like a crisp, simple tale of the civilizational collapse that took place around the time of the mythical war for Troy are bound to be disappointed. We learn more about the Hittites, the Mycenaeans, and other ancient cultures every day, but as Cline says, there is unlikely to be a smoking gun discovered about the proximate causes that led to dozens of cities collapsing and populations dispersing around BCE. It's very similar in many ways to Rome's fall and the imaginary year of AD - sure, it might have been the invasions of the Visigoths, the Alans, or the Ostrogoths that sunk the Western Empire, or maybe Rome was simply bound to collapse at a certain point.
Cline adds just the right level of detail about histories and trade patterns among Egyptians, Hittites, and other cultures. He suggests the role climate change yes, in the Bronze Age and earthquakes might have played, and admits that the mysterious Sea Peoples were responsible for a certain amount of sacking between and BCE. But that is all that can be said. Cline seeks to go beyond systems collapse into complexity-theory explanations for collapse, but wonders if he is bringing it up in a pseudoscientific way. Sure, chaos theory and tipping points have been used in a superficial way by authors like Jared Diamond, but if we compare Cline's conclusions with someone who provides a truly mathematical theory of societal collapse, as found in Peter Turchin's War and Peace and War , for example, it seems pretty clear that even if Cline is shying away from the math, he is on to something by applying complexity and chaos theories to the Late Bronze Age.
Cline makes the obvious comparisons at the end of the book to the financial collapse and the post rise of isolationism, and he stresses that widespread civilizational collapse often does not take place due to great wars or financial crashes, when citizens rally to prevent devastation. Instead, the cascading multiplicative effects of a thousand small events can most likely lead to catastrophic failures, because most people don't notice the multiplicative effect until it is far too late. It's a case of the frog being boiled alive in a pot where the water temperature is slowly being raised.
It can happen when climate change, dis-intermediation from a globalized economy, greater isolationism and xenophobia, and a lack of citizen involvement and collectivist feeling atomizes everything. Any grain of sand added to the stack can be the last one. Sound like anywhere you know? We'd best not go there. Cline is well-known for his objective approach and thorough research, and he brings both to this book. He also writes in a smooth, readable style that makes the book suitable for a general audience as well as a more scholarly one.
The information he provides is accurate, as far as I can see. My issue is the formatting. For starters, as other reviewers have said, Cline attempts to do the pop culture thing of relating everything back to modern day. All I wanted was to find out about the past, and so I found the modern diversions distracting. Some new tantalising snippet of evidence or even simply a brand new interpretation of existing evidence that had never been put forward before.
So, like I said, not a bad book, quite well-written and researched, but perhaps too unfocused. Shelves: history , uiuc-library , non-fiction. From Mallory's tweet where I first saw this and the blurbs, I got the impression that BC would 1 take a dusty, abstract historical period and enrich it with cultural and economic details that were excluded from the more strictly military version I was familiar with and 2 address the abrupt collapse of the international economic system in that period and theoretically reframe the role of the mythical "Sea Peoples," the Goths to Egypt's Rome. Maybe those expectations were too strong, whic From Mallory's tweet where I first saw this and the blurbs, I got the impression that BC would 1 take a dusty, abstract historical period and enrich it with cultural and economic details that were excluded from the more strictly military version I was familiar with and 2 address the abrupt collapse of the international economic system in that period and theoretically reframe the role of the mythical "Sea Peoples," the Goths to Egypt's Rome.
Maybe those expectations were too strong, which set me up for disappointment. But hell, I imagine a lot of prospective readers share them. If that's you, well, you're probably better off steering clear. It quickly becomes clear just how sparse the evidence is that Cline has to work with. The text is rich with names--factions and kings and queens and towns, some familiar but overall feeling exactly like a really clumsy and dense fantasy worldbuilding dump.
The first pages or so are spent building context for the story. But that context is largely the same boring, superficial sort of history I was hoping Cline would overwrite and fill in. It's all nations, borders, kings, war, and prestige trade. It feels like the plot synopsis of a Conan the Barbarian story which I guess does make Conan's historical bona fides stand up a teeeeeeny bit better than utter shit in retrospect.
I get that there's not a lot of sources and archaeological evidence about normal trade, the details of daily life, etc. But that just keeps raising the question: why does this book exist? It raised so many questions for me and answered so few of them. Cline mentions tin occasionally, a key ingredient in bronze, mined only, we assume, in a particular surface deposit in Afghanistan. Why would bronze have been a make or break resource in Late Bronze Age cultures, exactly? Tell us more about this place? How did it fit into all these empires, if it was so far away? In all the discussion of these half dozen empires and their histories very hard to keep track of, especially in BC! What role did trade play in keeping kings in power? Why were they concerned to advance territory?
The Sea Peoples crop up periodically in this backstory, but whenever they do, Cline just shrugs. Maybe they did, maybe they didn't. How am I supposed to know? The Sea Peoples stand out only insofar as they have no name; they are outsiders to the system of trade and correspondence tying together the eastern Mediterranean, and therefore more mysterious than the named but undescribed Mitanni, Philistines, Canaanites, etc, etc.
But they're not presented as being more interesting. Cline seems to think they're just Greek people who migrated into the area as the larger empires fell. Which, fine, but that story is teased throughout and then never presented. Cline seems to be trying to build a case for pages or so, but it never cohered into anything for me. A bunch of kingdoms collapsed more or less simultaneously, associated with the end of intl trade and a bunch of burned capitals. This is the mystery, but it's presented in such an oblique and dull fashion. It's all the more disappointing because the early bits of the book try to set up hooks--the Late Bronze Age is "like the modern globalized world.
These things are misleading; they are never delivered on thankfully, in the former case and it compounds the overall impression that Cline has nothing to say, that this book is all empty promises. A premature summary of academic literature that hasn't figured out what its story is yet. I gave up on reading for about a week but came back to it because I thought maybe Cline would finally get to his argument in the last 50 pages.
He does. It's perhaps even more disappointing than the lead-up, however. He briefly reviews and dismisses several proposed explanations for the collapse event he's hinted at throughout the book. There's climate change, earthquakes, rebellion, the Sea Peoples, and a couple of more interesting ideas like the rise of private merchants. Instead of all of those, he turns to what he simply terms "complexity theory. Then he admits this is perhaps a pseudoscientific concept that has no explanatory power without more evidence!
He calls it "a fancy way to state a fairly obvious fact,. There's none of the detailed anthropology of social organization and collapse found in books like How Chiefs Come to Power --which presumably had much less textual evidence, and perhaps less archaeological evidence, to work with. This book is an attempt to summarize and even popularize several streams of research of classical scholars around the collapse of the late Bronze Age around the transition from the 13th to the 12th centuries BCE. The intuition is that research has shown the world at this time to be an interconnected and indeed global civilization with intensive interactions among a number of major and largely centralized empires.
Then in a very brief period that world order collapsed and society became more diso This book is an attempt to summarize and even popularize several streams of research of classical scholars around the collapse of the late Bronze Age around the transition from the 13th to the 12th centuries BCE. Then in a very brief period that world order collapsed and society became more disordered and localized - and we know even less about this period, except that from it issued the growth of Greek and various monotheistic civilizations that still structure the contemporary world. How did an entire world order collapse? Does that have any implications for our contemporary global civilization?
The book is well done and interesting. It is quite an achievement, because the scholars of antiquity must work with limited and often indirect evidence and thus must be very careful in coming to even limited conclusions. Anyone who reads the scholarly articles referenced in the book will know this. Located on Kephala Hill on the island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Greece , Knossos palace was the political, social and cultural center of the Minoan culture during the Early and Middle Bronze Age.
Founded at least as early as BC, its power was greatly diminished, but not completely dissipated, by the eruption of Santorini about BC. What's perhaps more important, perhaps, is that the ruins of Knossos Palace are the cultural heart of the Greek myths Theseus fighting the Minotaur , Ariadne and her ball of string, Daedalus the architect and doomed Icarus of the waxwings; all reported by Greek and Roman sources but almost certainly much older.
The earliest representation of Theseus fighting the minotaur is illustrated on an amphora from the Greek island of Tinos dated BC. The Aegean culture known as Minoan is the Bronze Age civilization that flourished on the island of Crete during the second and third millennia BC. The city of Knossos was one of its main cities—and it contained its largest palace after the shattering earthquake that marks the beginning of the New Palace period in Greek archaeology, ca. Palaces of the Minoan culture were likely not simply residences of a ruler, or even a ruler and his family, but rather held a public function, where others could enter and use some of the palace facilities where staged performances took place.
The palace at Knossos, according to legend the palace of King Minos, was the largest of the Minoan palaces, and the longest-lived building of its type, remaining throughout the Middle and Late Bronze Ages as the focal point of the settlement. This chronology is based in part on that of John Younger's plain-jane Aegean chronology , which I highly recommend. The stratigraphy is difficult to parse because there were several major episodes of earth-moving and terrace building, so much so that earth moving must be considered a nearly constant process that began on Kephala hill at least as early as EM IIA, and probably starts with the very end of the Neolithic FN IV.
The palace complex at Knossos was begun in the PrePalatial period, perhaps as long ago as BC, and by BC, it was fairly close to its final form. That form is the same as other Minoan palaces such as Phaistos, Mallia and Zakros: a large single building with a central courtyard surrounding by a set of rooms for various purposes. The palace had perhaps as many as ten separate entrances: those on the north and west served as the main entryways. Around BC, one theory goes, a tremendous earthquake shook the Aegean Sea, devastating Crete as well as the Mycenaean cities on the Greek mainland. Knossos' palace was destroyed; but the Minoan civilization rebuilt almost immediately on top of the ruins of the past, and indeed the culture reached its pinnacle only after the devastation.
What appears today to be a jumble of rooms connected by narrow passageways may well have given rise to the myth of the Labyrinth; the structure itself was built of a complex of dressed masonry and clay-packed rubble, and then half-timbered. Columns were many and varied in the Minoan tradition, and the walls were vividly decorated with frescoes. The palace at Knossos was renowned for its unique light emanating from its surfaces, the results of the liberal use of gypsum selenite from a local quarry as a building material and ornamental element. Evans' reconstruction used a grey cement, which made a huge difference to the way its seen. Restoration efforts are underway to remove the cement and restore the gypsum surface, but they have moved slowly, because removing the greyish cement mechanically is detrimental to the underlying gypsum.
Laser removal has been attempted and may prove a reasonable answer. The main source of water at Knossos initially was at the spring of Mavrokolymbos, about 10 kilometers away from the palace and conveyed by way of a system of terracotta pipes. Six wells in the near vicinity of the palace served potable water beginning ca. This crucial event serves as the endpoint in our History Date Range for this civilization, although remnants of the Phoenician culture lingered on long after the fall of Carthage.
The extent of the Phoenician Civilization at the time of the Macedonian conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean In the political and military void of the ensuing year ancient Dark Age that began c. Instead of acquiring a physical empire of contiguous lands, they gradually built a large trading and colonial network from their home base of a few independent city-states along the coast of what is now Lebanon, Southern Syria and Northern Israel. Spreading westward, the Phoenicians founded colonies on Cyprus and in the region of the Aegean Sea including the coast of Turkey ; on the islands of Malta, Sardinia, Sicily and the Balearic archipelago; and in North Africa, Spain and Portugal as well as other locations in the Mediterranean.
These coastal cities were hemmed in on the inland side by the Lebanon Mountains. Roman ruins on the site of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia The only obvious opportunity for expansion and economic gain was by sea; and over the centuries the Phoenician trading posts and colonies spread west across the Mediterranean. The largest and most prosperous of all the Phoenician-founded city-states was Carthage in present-day Tunisia. At its zenith, Carthage nearly conquered its greatest rival: The Roman Republic. The Minoans on Crete had blocked entrance into the Aegean, controlling all trade in that area, and perhaps even monopolizing trade further west.
The Canaanite coastal towns were usually governed by Egypt, and one of their principal businesses was providing wood the famed cedars of Lebanon and provisions like wine to the Nile region. Phoenician trade routes Minoan territory had been taken over by the Mycenaeans prior to BCE, and the subsequent fall of that culture during the catastrophic events at the end of the 13th century BCE removed most of the constraints on Mediterranean and Aegean trade for surviving civilizations.
The Phoenicians were the most aggressive of those attempting to fill the void. Their cities were well positioned for this enterprise, being located literally in the center of the known world. The Aegean, Mesopotamia, and Egypt were all roughly equidistant to the west, east, and south. For any of the three regions to trade with another, the easiest route was through the Phoenician city-states. In the face of repeated assaults or heavy tribute payments, the Tyrians adopted the strategy of establishing colonies to the west.
These settlements were removed from the grasp of their Eastern overlords, helping with the exploitation of metals and trade in the western Mediterranean. Over the next years, Carthage grew rapidly in size and power. Much of its wealth came from highly productive ore mines of Spain. Carthage fought for control of the Western Mediterranean first with the Greeks and then with the Romans. Purple Dye or Spiny Murex sea snails The early Phoenician economy was built on timber sales, woodworking, glass manufacturing, the shipping of goods like wine exports to Egypt , and the making of dye.
Phoenician dyes ranging in color from a pink to a deep purple were made from the secretions of the carnivorous murex sea snail. In Rome, this highly coveted dye was called Tyrian Purple after the Phoenician city of Tyre where it was made and it was worth quite literally more than its weight in gold. Phoenician merchants may have traded for tin as far north as Cornwall Lizard Point, Cornwall, England, UK Gradually the Phoenician city-states became centers of maritime trade and manufacturing. Having limited natural resources, they imported raw materials and fashioned them into more valuable objects that could be shipped profitably, such as jewelry, ivory carvings discovered at sites in Mesopotamia metalwork, furniture found in tombs on Cyprus , housewares, and specialty items like painted ostrich eggs.
They borrowed techniques and styles from all corners of the world that they touched as traders. Sixty years later, a study of this beautiful work using isotopic analysis concluded that the gold came from a nearby Spanish mine; but it was also determined that the ornaments were crafted using Phoenician techniques. In a 2,year-old Phoenician wreck was discovered off the coast of Malta that had carried a shipment of grinding stones made of lava rock and scores of amphorae.
We can only hope that more discoveries will be made revealing new secrets about this culture. Modern sculpture of Herodotus Born c. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus wrote that, in bygone days, the Phoenicians taught the Greeks of Boeotia the writing system that would eventually become the Greek alphabet. He also noted that Phoenician traders brought frankincense to the Aegean; and taught the Greeks the word for an exotic spice: cinnamon. Antique engraving of Phoenician funerary monuments, Necropolis of Amrit, Syria The Phoenician religion was polytheistic, and their gods required sacrifices to forestall disaster, especially Baal, the God of Storms, and his consort Tanit.
The Bible, Roman and Greek accounts tell of child sacrifices practiced regularly by the Phoenicians, which many modern historians believed were merely an ancient form of anti-Phoenician propaganda. Ancient Carthaginian tombstones, Tunis, Tunisia But macabre Phoenician cemeteries tophets have been unearthed containing multiple funerary urns holding the remains of infants. Gravestone bearing the sign of Tanit, ancient cemetery, Carthage, Tunisia These urns have stelae slabs bearing inscriptions praising the gods—inscriptions that some historians argue prove the children contained within had been willingly sacrificed to deities. The veracity of child sacrifice in ancient Carthage, however, is still hotly debated amongst scholars.
We might never know if the tophets contained the remains of children who died of natural causes, or the pitiful bodies of sacrificial victims. Vintage engraving of Hannibal Barca speaking to the Carthaginian Assembly Most of the information we have about Phoenician government comes from contemporary accounts of the Carthaginians. Their system can best be classified as a sort of oligarchical republic. Two chief magistrates called suffetes were chosen by the noble families or perhaps elected by a popular vote to preside for one year over a Senate made up of the Carthaginian aristocracy. The Senate, a body that was beholden to the fundamental dictates of the constitution, was responsible for drafting new laws, handling foreign affairs and finance; and instructing appointed military leaders like the powerful Hannibal Barca who was dramatically recalled from his campaign in Italy by the Carthaginian Senate after the Romans invaded Africa.The hero is wearing an item similar to the seal itself, like Essay On The Boy In The Striped Pajamas wristwatch. His argument is How Is Money Achievable In The Great Gatsby a lot Essay On The Boy In The Striped Pajamas different Lady Macbeths Cruelty contributed to the end of bronze age civilizations. Cline seems Thinking Traps Case Study think they're just Greek Minoan Civilization Analysis who migrated into the area as the larger empires fell. Greek Dark Ages.