Pros And Cons Of Industrialization In Japan
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They introduced new traditions, languages, and cultures to the city, creating a diversified society as a result. The years — marked the largest migration of African Americans to Pittsburgh during the Great Migration from the rural South to industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest. These migrants came for industrial jobs, education, political and social freedom, and to escape racial oppression and violence in the South. Migrants going to Pittsburgh and surrounding mill towns faced racial discrimination and restricted housing and job opportunities. The black population in Pittsburgh jumped from 6, in to 27, in Many took highly paid, skilled jobs in the steel mills.
Pittsburgh's black population increased to 37, in 6. They succeeded in building effective community responses that enabled the survival of new communities. The newly established Black communities nearly all endured, apart from Johnstown where blacks were expelled in Joe Trotter explains how the Blacks built new institutions for their new communities in the Pittsburgh area:. It became an important jazz mecca because jazz greats such as Duke Ellington and Pittsburgh natives Billy Strayhorn and Earl Hines played there. The teams dominated the Negro National League in the s and s.
Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold starting in the s,  and the Republican governments provided jobs and assistance for the new immigrants in return for their votes. The Democratic victory of meant an end to Republican patronage jobs and assistance. As the Depression worsened, Pittsburgh ethnics voted heavily for the Democrats, especially in , making the city a stronghold of the New Deal Coalition. By , Democratic programs for relief and jobs, especially the WPA , were so popular with the ethnics that a large majority voted for the Democrats. Joseph Guffey , statewide leader of the Democrats, and his local lieutenant David Lawrence gained control of all federal patronage in Pittsburgh after Roosevelt's landslide victory in and the election of a Democratic mayor in Guffey and Lawrence used the New Deal programs to increase their political power and build up a Democratic machine that superseded the decaying Republican machine.
Guffey acknowledged that a high rate of people on relief was not only "a challenge" but also "an opportunity. Pittsburgh was at the center of the " Arsenal of Democracy " that provided steel, aluminum, munitions and machinery for the U. Pittsburgh's mills contributed 95 million tons of steel to the war effort. The increased production output created a workforce shortage, which resulted in African Americans moving en masse during the Second Great Migration from the South to the city in order to find work. David Lawrence , a Democrat, served as mayor of Pittsburgh from to and as Pennsylvania's governor from to However, enforcement placed a substantial burden on the city's working-class because smoky bituminous coal was much less expensive than smokeless fuels.
One round of protests came from Italian-American organizations, which called for delay in enforcing it. Enforcement raised their cost of living and threatened the jobs of their relatives in nearby bituminous coal mines. Despite dislike of the smoke abatement program, Italian Americans strongly supported the reelection of Lawrence in , in part because many of them were on the city payroll. Rich and productive, Pittsburgh was also the "Smoky City," with smog sometimes so thick that streetlights burned during the day  as well as rivers that resembled open sewers. Civic leaders, notably Mayor David L. Lawrence , elected in , Richard K. Mellon , chairman of Mellon Bank and John P.
Robin   began smoke control and urban revitalization, also known as Urban Renewal projects that transformed the city  in unforeseen ways. Title One of the Housing Act of provided the means in which to begin. By , vast swaths of buildings and land near the Point were demolished for Gateway Center. In the late s and early s, the lower Hill District , an area inhabited predominantly by people of African descent, was completely destroyed. Ninety-five acres of the lower Hill District were cleared using eminent domain , forcibly displacing hundreds of small businesses and more than 8, people 1, black families, white , to make room for a cultural center that included the Civic Arena , which opened in In the early s, the neighborhood of East Liberty was also included in Renaissance I Urban Renewal plans, with over acres 0.
In the span of just a few years during the mids, East Liberty became a blighted neighborhood. There were some businesses in East Liberty in , but only in , and just 98 in Preservation efforts by the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation , along with community neighborhood groups, resisted the demolition plans. The neighborhoods containing rich architectural heritage, including the Mexican War Streets , Allegheny West , and Manchester , were spared.
The center of Allegheny City, with its culturally and socially important buildings, was not as lucky. All of the buildings, with the exception of the Old U. The city's industrial base continued to grow in the post-war era  partly assisted by the area's first agency entirely devoted to industrial development, the RIDC. Steel and its new division, the Pittsburgh Chemical Company and many other companies also continued robust operations through the s. Steel Tower and Three Rivers Stadium. Pittsburgh, however, was about to undergo one of its most dramatic transformations. Like most major cities, Pittsburgh experienced several days of rioting following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
There were no further major riots, although tension remained high in the inner-city black neighborhoods. During the s and s, the U. Manufacture in Germany and Japan was booming. Foreign mills and factories, built with the latest technology, benefited from lower labor costs and powerful government-corporate partnerships, allowing them to capture increasing market shares of steel and steel products.
Separately, demand for steel softened due to recessions, the oil crisis , and increasing use of other materials. Free market pressures exposed the U. In particular, Pittsburgh faced its own challenges. Local coke and iron ore deposits were depleted, raising material costs. The large mills in the Pittsburgh region also faced competition from newer, more profitable "mini-mills" and non-union mills with lower labor costs.
Beginning in the late s and early s, the steel industry in Pittsburgh began to implode along with the deindustrialization of the U. These closures caused a ripple effect, as railroads, mines, and other factories across the region lost business and closed. In the Homestead Works was demolished, replaced in by The Waterfront shopping mall. As a direct result of the loss of mill employment, the number of people living in Homestead dwindled. By the time of the census, the borough population was 3, The borough began financially recovering in , with the enlarging retail tax base. Top corporate headquarters such as Gulf Oil , Koppers , Westinghouse and Rockwell International were bought out by larger firms, with the loss of high paying, white collar headquarters and research personnel the "brain drain" as well as massive charitable contributions by the "home based" companies to local cultural and educational institutions.
At the time of the Gulf Oil merger in it was the largest buyout in world history involving the company that was No. Over 1, high paying white collar corporate and PhD research jobs were lost in one day. Today, there are no steel mills within the city limits of Pittsburgh, although manufacture continues at regional mills, such as the Edgar Thomson Works in nearby Braddock. Pittsburgh is home to three universities that are included in most under-graduate and graduate school national rankings, The University of Pittsburgh , Carnegie Mellon University and Duquesne University.
Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh had evolved in the midth century along lines that followed the needs of the heavy industries that financed and directed their development. The collapse of steel put pressure on those two universities to reinvent themselves as research centers in science and technology which acted to pull the regional economy toward high-technology fields.
Beginning in the s, Pittsburgh's economy shifted from heavy industry to services, medicine, higher education, tourism, banking, corporate headquarters, and high technology. Today, the top two private employers in the city are the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center 26, employees and the West Penn Allegheny Health System 13, employees. Despite the economic turmoil, civic improvements continued. In the mids, Arthur P. Ziegler, Jr. Landmarks acquired the former terminal buildings and yards of the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad , a 1-mile 1. Washington facing the City of Pittsburgh. In , Landmarks developed the site as a mixed-use historic adaptive reuse development that gave the foundation the opportunity to put its urban planning principles into practice.
Aided by an initial generous gift from the Allegheny Foundation in , Landmarks adapted five historic Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad buildings for new uses and added a hotel, a dock for the Gateway Clipper fleet, and parking areas. Now shops, offices, restaurants, and entertainment anchor the historic riverfront site on the south shore of the Monongahela River , opposite the Golden Triangle Pittsburgh. Station Square is Pittsburgh's premier attraction, generating over 3,, visitors a year.
In , Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation sold Station Square in to Forest City Enterprises which created an endowment to help support its restoration efforts and educational programs. Each year the staff and docents of Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation introduce more than 10, people — teachers, students, adults, and visitors — to the architectural heritage of the Pittsburgh region and to the value of historic preservation.
During this period, Pittsburgh also became a national model for community development , through the work of activists such as Dorothy Mae Richardson , who founded Neighborhood Housing Services in , an organization that became the model for the nationwide NeighborWorks America. Activists such a Richardson shared the aim of Landmarks to rehabilitate Pittsburgh's existing built landscape rather than to demolish and redevelop. The Pittsburgh Technology Center, home to many major technology companies, is planning major expansion in the area soon. Also in , Al Michaels revealed to a national TV audience how Pittsburgh had transformed itself from an industrial rust belt city. Present-day Pittsburgh, with a diversified economy , a low cost of living, and a rich infrastructure for education and culture , has been ranked as one of the World's Most Livable Cities.
The region has also become a leader in green environmental design, a movement exemplified by the city's convention center. In the last twenty years the region has seen a small but influential group of Asian immigrants, including from the Indian sub-continent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Pittsburgh in the American Civil War. Downtown Pittsburgh panorama, from Further information: Great Migration African American. For the basketball team, see Pittsburgh Rens.
Further information: Steel crisis. Internet Sacred Text Archive. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved November 5, Historic Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, The Story of an American City , 5th edition. Derrydale Press. ISBN The frontier forts of western Pennsylvania. Ray, state printer. Retrieved November 29, Note: pp. Everts and Co. History of Washington County, Pennsylvania , , pg. The Frontier Forts of Western Pennsylvania.
Fort Pitt Museum. Archived from the original on February 7, Retrieved April 14, Twohig, Dorothy ed. The Diaries of George Washington, Vol. University Press of Virginia. Cornell; et al. Standard History of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Fort Necessity National Battlefield. Retrieved April 17, Vintage Books. Lamb, A. Retrieved November 6, Through one hundred and fifty years: the University of Pittsburgh.
Kessinger Publishing. Monongahela, the River and Its Region. The Ziegler Company. Archived from the original on March 18, History of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Warner Co. Ballou's, Boston. February 21, Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business. ADB Institute. Brookings Institution. World Trade Organization. Trade Policies and Natural Resources ," Page American University International Law Review. World Economy Trade Policy. By Kimberly Amadeo. Learn about our editorial policies. Reviewed by Michael J Boyle. Article Reviewed April 06, Michael Boyle is an experienced financial professional with more than 10 years working with financial planning, derivatives, equities, fixed income, project management, and analytics.
Learn about our Financial Review Board. Key Takeaways Free trade agreements are contracts between countries to allow access to their markets. Their presence mainly serves to add another spicy catalyst onto the political chaos in Komi. Short-Lived Leadership : Komi during the "coup-countercoup" stage after the election has a special mechanic that shows the legitimacy of the ruling faction, a number that drains every day and can speed up or slow down depending on in-game events and player actions.
If the legitimacy bottoms out, then the ruling faction is couped by another faction. This legitimacy value drains out rather quickly, usually emptying out at around a month if nothing is done to manage it the player can pour oil on the flames by regularly using the "Withdraw Forces" decision that adds legitimacy drain rate, allowing a new coup to happen in as little as 10 days , meaning that the country can change ideologies several times over a short period.
It isn't uncommon to see Komi going from Social Democracy to National Socialism to something else entirely in a span of five minutes. Sliding Scale of Idealism vs. Cynicism : Komi's democracy is anything but stable, and is unlikely to last, for its numerous parties gunning for power are corrupt and more than willing to dismantle the democratic apparatus upon seizing power in order to maintain it.
Even pro-democracy parties are forced to resort to dirty tactics just to maintain power. In short, Komi is described as a cynical democracy. Smoky Gentlemen's Club : The Passionariyy Organization is a party of far-right thinkers legally operating as a book club of some sort. State Sec : Every faction in Komi has their own paramilitary wing, including the democrats. Street fighting between paramilitary squads of every ideology in Russia is a common sight in Syktyvkar. There are even paramilitary tank brigades. Sword of Damocles : Komi has some of the largest stockpiles of Soviet chemical weapons, which heavily discourages direct military confrontation with the Republic translating to a 20 percent bonus to combat if Komi's core territory is invaded.
Any other warlord who conquers Syktyvkar would be able to claim these chemical weapons for themselves. This Is My Name on Foreign : If the Passionariyy takes power prior to the regional stage, the Komi Republic will be renamed the State of Ust-Sysolsk, after the original Russian name of the capital city before the Komi version Syktyvkar was made official in both languages by the Soviets. Turbulent Priest : One event after the Passionariyy Organization cements its power will have a priest confront Gumilyov about his policies on whether or not their nation's oath will contain any reverence to God and the Church. More political influence is granted to a specific leader depending on the choice.
Flag of the Russian Reconstruction Authority. Nikolai Voznesensky. In-Game Biography: Click to Show Originally only a middle-level Soviet statesman, Nikolai Alekseevich Voznesensky found himself as the only guarantor of democracy, flawed as he is, in a small piece of the former Soviet Union. Being remarkable among his peers for extraordinary talents in the economic science and administrative work, Voznesensky was chosen by the Red Army Stavka on the eve of the West Russian War to oversee the recovery mission in the Komi ASSR.
For his service to the Soviet province, Voznesensky acquired a considerable popularity among the people of Komi, who saw him as the benevolent statesman wishing to put the benefit of a common man ahead of the bickering and intrigues between the power-hungry Soviet cliques. As the result of endless power plays between the Front and the hardline Communist bureaucrats in Syktyvkar, the now-president of the Komi ASSR Voznesensky remained as the sole figurehead in the Republic who could boast about the public support.
Disillusioned with the Orthodox Marxist dogma and remaining bitter about the incompetence and pettiness of the Soviet higher-ups that nearly brought Komi to destruction, he reshaped the political system of the Republic into a representative democracy, where the voice of every man or woman can be heard and will be heard, breaking away with the single-party dictatorship. Although the hard efforts of Voznesensky brought daily bread and a sense of confidence for average Komi citizens, the reputation of Syktyvkar brought many unsavory people to the city who seek nothing but eliminate the democracy of Komi through her own institutions. But challenges to Voznesensky come not only from the extremists, but also from his fellow democratic politicians, who question the capability of Voznesenky to maintain the republican values, citing his abrasive and inappropriate behavior for a man of his position and his embarrassing ties to various Socialist groups.
However, despite the political pressure, Voznesensky is not a person who wants to abandon the system he envisioned without a fight. Svetlana Stalina. Ideology: Authoritarian Democracy, Despotism. In-Game Biography: Click to Show Svetlana Iosifovna Stalina has been praised by her supporters as one of the few voices of stability or sanity in western Russia, and by her enemies as an authoritarian in denial, an opportunist who would take any chance she could to destroy the perceived radicalism she so hates.
Whatever the case, Stalina's success as a politician is as unmatched as her story tragic. Her father, Iosif Stalin, was a Soviet bureaucrat and early supporter of Bukharin, who had died in an industrial accident rumored to be orchestrated on the orders of the Soviet government. In the long period following the death of Stalin, she has lost more and more - her mother, in the Great Patriotic War, her husband, purged by the West Russian Revolutionary Front, and her eldest brother, killed by friendly fire during the collapse of the Front at the end of the West Russian War. Indeed, Stalina claims that the war is where she first tasted the bite of radicalism, and when she vowed to oppose it at all costs.
Stalina's party, the Sovereign Democratic Party, or PSD, gained prominence in the Komi Republic as a big tent comprised of big tents, a place for all who valued a safe and stable Russia over all else. Though Stalina's policies often borrow from left-wing populist principles, it would be most unwise to mistake her for a Marxist, as her father was. The basis for her political stances exists in the principles of "sovereignty, democracy, and patriotism" - the construction of a strong, independent Russia through an assertive foreign policy, heavy support for public welfare, and a strong, modern military.
Through the democratic process she fought so long to protect, the people have given Stalina their mandate, and the Lady of Steel stands prepared to defend her beloved Motherland from all enemies that may assail it - even if that danger is the unchecked will of the people itself. Although her father vanished from the historical record during the Great Patriotic War, Svetlana was able to safely survive the chaotic evacuation of Moscow and came to find refuge in Sykvytkar, capital of the fledgling Komi Republic. While her father was infamous in Party circles for being a hardliner and socialist ideologue, his parenting seems to have driven Svetlana in the opposite direction, and she quickly associated herself with Komi's rapidly growing political center.
They welcomed her as a stabilizing force in a chaotic political system, and she quickly became a figurehead for the fragile center to rally around. Now that the political situation in Komi has deteriorated, Stalina has stepped up and decided to take the reins of state herself. Although she has resorted to some rather authoritarian methods to maintain order, she insists that they are temporary measures in the name of stability, and that she will soon fully restore democracy to Komi. Some are skeptical of her claims, but her actions still trend toward the center, and she is a far more pleasing candidate for many than the alternatives.
Alexander Yakovlev. Born to a peasant family in Korolyova, Yakolev's father was a Red Cavalryman during the Civil War and an important leader in the local agricultural commune. Raised in such an environment, at a young age he became an ideological adherent to Marxist-Leninism. Under normal circumstances, he might have even become an important local politician, and maybe even beyond. But the German invasion changed all that. Conscripted in the Red Army, Yakovlev saw how easily Marxist-Leninism fell to the hoards of German soldiers, crushed beneath the tire treads of Panzers, then, after it was all done, shattered into a thousand bickering generals and warlords.
Such destruction forced Yakovlev to view socialism through a different, more independent lens - a view that placed human dignity above ideological purity. A firm member of his party's left flank, he has made himself famous as an orator of populist values. Now, as President and successor to Voznesensky, he intends to take both the party and the Republic in a different direction, and to ensure, once and for all, that all citizens are happy and free. Konstantin Katushev. In-Game Biography: Click to Show Known throughout the Republic as the 'Iron Governor,' Konstantin Fyodorovich Katushev was, originally, an engineer and industrialist in Gorky, working to administer one of the vast factory complexes there under the purview of General Averin and his brigade of armored raiders.
With their collapse, and the re-integration of the now-renamed Nizhny Novgorod into the Republic, he quickly entered politics, winning the endorsement of the Young Reformers and election as the region's Governor. A phenomenally skilled organizer, administrator, and perhaps most importantly, orator, Katushev quickly grew to dominate his party, centralizing operations in Nizhny Novgorod and shaping its policies along staunchly liberal lines. He was elected party leader in short order, and soon after stood for President. Once again demonstrating his talent as a politician, he led the Reformers to victory, and was elected as President. Now so empowered, he intends absolutely to put his lberal policies into practice, shifting the Reformers - and the country - away from their and its socialist roots, and towards a liberal future he considers far superior.
Flag of the Russian Soviet Republic Suslov. Flag of the Russian Soviet Republic Bukharina. Flag of the United Soviet Federation Zhdanov. Mikhail Suslov. In-Game Biography: Click to Show Despite his humble origins, having been born in a rural community near the Volga, Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov has made a name for himself in his homeland. Starting from the Communist Youth, Suslov quickly became a prominent member of the Bolsheviks in Rostov and even managed to entangle himself in the local administration of the Party. When the Germans attacked, Suslov was designated to orchestrate guerrillas in the Caucasus. With the arrival of Wehrmacht forces, he was nowhere to be seen.
There were rumours that he continued fighting in the woods, or that he was hanged by the garrison, but these rumours were soon proved false for the people of Arkhangelsk, as the man appeared in the city so far away from his home. Soon, just like when he was young, he entered the political stage of the West Russian Revolutionary Front. Climbing up the hierarchy, he became one of the most prominent WRRF politicians, and soon, was granted the prestigious position of Minister of Foreign Affairs. With the passage of time, Suslov was becoming even more influential and it was believed he could be the next Premier.
Then, the West Russian War happened. Together, they carefully created the Komi Republic, but soon this uneasy pact would end as each side had a different vision for the country.A human rights violations B piracy and counterfeiting C high The Role Of Winston In George Orwells 1984 care costs D Pros And Cons Of Industrialization In Japan problems. Join as Associate Editor. Which one of the 3 players in any economical The Role Of Winston In George Orwells 1984 government, producers, consumers is leading in the Robber Barons In The Gilded Age traditional economy and which Pros And Cons Of Industrialization In Japan is Atticus Finch Analysis in the 'new' network economy? Kitts The Role Of Winston In George Orwells 1984 Nevis, Dual Federalist System. The kinet