Decriminalization: The Dual Purpose Of Marijuana
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Is Marijuana Legalization Inevitable In The US?
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Jesse Kline 4 days ago NP Comment. Pitch in for a constitutional lawyer and they would at least be doing something useful with Video Comments. Chris Selley 4 days ago NP Comment. Mukamal, Debbie A. In state prisons, 21 percent of inmates in prison for violent crimes were under the influence of alcohol--and no other substance--when they committed their crime; in contrast, at the time of their crimes, only three percent of violent offenders were under the influence of cocaine or crack alone, only one percent under the influence of heroin alone.
A small number of Mexican DTOs control the most significant drug distribution operations along the Southwest border. The criminal activities of these Mexican DTOs reach well beyond the towns and cities of the border, extending along drug trafficking routes into cities across the United States. The Mexican DTOs have exhibited many characteristics of organized crime such as being organized in distinct cells and controlling subordinate cells that operate throughout the United States.
Beittel, June S. Department of State: March , p. The differences observed in gang versus nongang homicide incidents with regard to victim demographics, place of injury, and the use of drive-by shootings and firearms are consistent with previous reports 5. Gangs and gang members are involved in a variety of high-risk behaviors that sometimes include drug and crime involvement, but gang-related homicides usually are attributed to other circumstances 6.
Newark was an exception by having a higher proportion of gang homicides being drug-related. A possible explanation of this divergent finding could be that Newark is experiencing homicides by gangs formed specifically for drug trade. Overall, these findings support a view of gang homicides as retaliatory violence. These incidents most often result when contentious gang members pass each other in public places and a conflict quickly escalates into homicide with the use of firearms and drive-by shootings.
Such displacement has profound public-health implications if it 'normalizes' injection drug use among previously unexposed at-risk youth. Furthermore, since difficulty in obtaining syringes has been shown to be a significant factor in promoting syringe sharing among IDUs in Vancouver, displacement away from sources of sterile syringes may increase the rates of bloodborne diseases.
Escalated police presence may also explain the observed reduction in willingness to use a safer injection facility. Larger crackdowns in the United States, which often involved helicopters to supplement foot and car patrols, have not had measurable benefits and have instead been associated with substantial health and social harms. Wood, Evan, Patricia M. Hogg, Mark W. Tyndall, Julio S. Montaner, Martin T. Drug selling seemed to be a complement to, rather than a substitute for, legitimate employment.
Reuter, P. It is in these neighborhoods where the police make most patrols, and where they stop and search the most vehicles and individuals, looking for "contraband" of any type in order to make an arrest. The item that young people in any neighborhood are most likely to possess, which can get them arrested, is a small amount of marijuana. In short, the arrests are racially-biased mainly because the police are systematically "fishing" for arrests in only some neighborhoods, and methodically searching only some "fish. Harry G. Levine, Jon B. Gettman, Loren Siegel. Once scheduled through this temporary scheduling process, a substance may remain on Schedule I for one year.
The Attorney General then has the authority to keep the substance on Schedule I for an additional six months before it must be removed or permanently scheduled. Sacco, Lisa N. Department of Justice DOJ as a community-based, comprehensive, multiagency approach to law enforcement, crime prevention, and community revitalization in high-crime neighborhoods. In early , sites were active in 46 states and 2 territories. Department of Justice, September , p. The evidence that drugs became more difficult to obtain was consistent with reports of displacement of drug dealers and was supported by the significantly higher rates of reporting that police presence had affected where drugs were used, including changes in neighbourhood and increases in use in public places. These observations were validated by examination of needle-exchange statistics.
Although evidence suggested that police presence made it more difficult to obtain drugs, this appeared to be explained by displacement of drug dealers. Interestingly, robbery and burglary rates were unaffected by medicinal marijuana legislation, which runs counter to the claim that dispensaries and grow houses lead to an increase in victimization due to the opportunity structures linked to the amount of drugs and cash that are present. Although, this is in line with prior research suggesting that medical marijuana dispensaries may actually reduce crime in the immediate vicinity .
Robert G. To be sure, medical marijuana laws were not found to have a crime exacerbating effect on any of the seven crime types. On the contrary, our findings indicated that MML precedes a reduction in homicide and assault. While it is important to remain cautious when interpreting these findings as evidence that MML reduces crime, these results do fall in line with recent evidence  and they conform to the longstanding notion that marijuana legalization may lead to a reduction in alcohol use due to individuals substituting marijuana for alcohol [see generally 29, 30].
Given the relationship between alcohol and violent crime , it may turn out that substituting marijuana for alcohol leads to minor reductions in violent crimes that can be detected at the state level. That said, it also remains possible that these associations are statistical artifacts recall that only the homicide effect holds up when a Bonferroni correction is made. While we report no positive association between MML and any crime type, this does not prove MML has no effect on crime or even that it reduces crime. It may be the case that an omitted variable, or set of variables, has confounded the associations and masked the true positive effect of MML on crime. Perhaps the more likely explanation of the current findings is that MML laws reflect behaviors and attitudes that have been established in the local communities.
Admissions to drug treatment increased During the same period, violent crime fell Maryland experienced decreases in crime when jurisdictions increased the number of people sent to drug treatment. In July , President Nixon asked Congress to enact legislation to combat rising levels of drug use. Hearings were held, different proposals were considered, and House and Senate conferees filed a conference report in October The report was quickly adopted by voice vote in both chambers and was signed into law as the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of This is the only legal justification for a pat-down frisk.
For that, reasonable suspicion that the person is armed and dangerous is required. In general, police may do this to anyone at any time. But unless and until the police officer tells an individual he or she may not leave, a person stopped is free not to answer questions and to leave. But if the individual may not leave, this is called, as Justice Harlan put it, a 'forcible stop. If you are restrained from leaving, you should not resist. But at some point, if the stop is more than brief, you should ask whether you are being arrested. This is because more evidence is required to arrest someone than to stop them for questioning. Instead, from an evidence-based public policy perspective and based on several decades of available data, the existing scientific evidence suggests drug law enforcement contributes to gun violence and high homicide rates and that increasingly sophisticated methods of disrupting organizations involved in drug distribution could paradoxically increase violence.
In this context, and since drug prohibition has not achieved its stated goals of reducing drug supply, alternative regulatory models for drug control will be required if drug market violence is to be substantially reduced. In about 4 in 10 victimizations against younger and older teens committed by juveniles, the victim could not ascertain whether or not the offender was using drugs or alcohol. Eight states have passed laws that ease access to take-home-naloxone by allowing the prescription of naloxone an opioid antagonist or antidote to persons at risk for having or witnessing an overdose, enabling bystanders to quickly respond in the event of an overdose.
For example, some advocate decriminalizing the possession of small amounts of marijuana. Others, concerned that the government may be overwhelmed, have proposed legalizing some counterfeit products and easing certain piracy restrictions. Intellectual property-related legal changes would probably require contentious negotiations with affected U. Approaches such as these can be controversial and politically difficult; critics believe they risk sending society an inappropriate message. But some argue that similar strategies are already employed. The United States, for example, has taken steps to regularize the status of certain illegal immigrants. Many foreign countries have reduced legal penalties for marijuana possession. Wagley, John R.
CRS From China to Nigeria to Mexico, entrepreneurial criminals will navigate around laws and across borders, supplying illegal or illegally acquired goods and services to meet the demands of the highest bidders. Over the past few decades drug cartels have become integrated into Mexico's economy. Approximately cities are directly engaged in drug trafficking and nearly , people are employed by drug cartels. A percentage of the profits seen from the trade are invested in the local community. Major cartels saw growth due to a prominent set culture of Mexican society that created the means for drug capital.
This provided an initial growth of trade. Industrialization of rural areas of Mexico facilitated a greater distribution of drugs, expanding the drug market into different provinces. Ranchero culture values the individual as opposed to the society as a whole. This ideal allowed for greater organization within the cartels. Gangs play a major role in the activity of drug cartels. MS and the 18th Street gang are notorious for their contributions and influence over drug trafficking throughout Latin America. MS has controlled much of the activity in the drug trade spanning from Mexico to Panama. Although females are not treated as equals to males, they typically hold more power than their culture allows and acquire some independence.
The increase in power has attracted females from higher social classes. Many women in the lower levels of major drug cartels belong to a low economic class. Drug trafficking offers women an accessible way to earn income. It was common for smugglers in Colombia to import liquor, alcohol, cigarettes and textiles, while exporting cocaine. Peasant farmers produced coca paste in Peru and Bolivia, while Colombian smugglers would process the coca paste into cocaine in Colombia, and trafficked product through Cuba. Quantities of the drug were then smuggled throughout the US. Cuba stopped being a center for transport of cocaine following the establishment of a communist government in As a result, Miami and Union City became the sole locations for trafficking.
In the s and 90s, Colombia emerged as a key contributor of the drug trade industry in the Western Hemisphere. While the smuggling of drugs such as marijuana, poppy, opium and heroin became more ubiquitous during this time period, the activity of cocaine cartels drove the development of the Latin American drug trade. The trade emerged as a multinational effort as supplies i. Colombia has had a significant role in the illegal drug trade in Latin America. While active in the drug trade since the s, Colombia's role in the drug trade did not truly become dominant until the s. Colombia met much of the demand by growing more marijuana. Grown in the strategic northeast region of Colombia, marijuana soon became the leading cash crop in Colombia.
Colombia's location facilitated its transportation from South America into Central America, and then to its destination of North America. This continued into the s, when Colombia remained the chief exporter of cocaine. Colombia served as the dominant force in the distribution and sale of cocaine by the s. As drug producers gained more power, they became more centralized and organized into what became drug cartels. Their organization allowed cocaine to be distributed in great amounts throughout the United States. By the late s, intra-industry strife arose within the cartels. Despite this strife, this power struggle led to then having multiple producers of coca leaf farms.
This in turn caused an improvement in quality control and reduction of police interdiction in the distribution of cocaine. These confrontations were primarily between cartels and government institutions. This led to a decrease in the drug trade's contribution to the GDP of Colombia; dropping from 5. By the s, Colombian cartels became the dominant cocaine distributors in the US.
Throughout the s however, several factors led to the decline of these major cartels and to the rise of smaller Colombian cartels. In this time period, there was an increase in activity of Caribbean cartels that led to the rise of an alternate route of smuggling through Mexico. This led to the increased collaboration between major Colombian and Mexican drug traffickers. Such drastic changes in the execution of drug trade in Colombia paired with the political instabilities and rise of drug wars in Medellin and Cali, gave way for the rise of the smaller Colombian drug trafficking organizations and the rise of heroin trade.
The occurrences in drug-related violence increased during this time period as drug lords fought to maintain their control in the economy. These people individuals ranged from those directly involved in the trade such as suppliers, chemists, transporters, smugglers, etc. As these smaller Colombian drug cartels grew in prevalence, several notable aspects of the Colombian society gave way for further development of the Colombian drug industry. For example, until the late s, the long-term effects of the drug industry were not realized by much of society.
Additionally, there was a lack of regulation in prisons where captured traffickers were sent. While the recreational use of and consequently the distribution of cannabis is illegal in most countries throughout the world, recreational distribution is legal in some countries, such as Canada, and medical distribution is permitted in some places, such as 10 of the 50 US states although importation and distribution is still federally prohibited. The first few weeks were met with extremely high demand, most shops being out of stock after operating for only four days. Cannabis use is tolerated in some areas, most notably the Netherlands which has legalized the possession and licensed sale but not cultivation of the drug.
Many nations have decriminalized the possession of small amounts of marijuana. Due to the hardy nature of the cannabis plant, marijuana is grown all across the world and is today the world's most popular illegal drug with the highest level of availability. Cannabis-hemp may also be planted for other non-drug domestic purposes, such as seasoning that occurs in Aceh. The demand for cannabis around the world, coupled with the drug's relative ease of cultivation, makes the illicit cannabis trade one of the primary ways in which organized criminal groups finance many of their activities.
In Mexico, for example, the illicit trafficking of cannabis is thought to constitute the majority of many of the cartels' earnings,  and the main way in which the cartels finance many other illegal activities; including the purchase of other illegal drugs for trafficking, and for acquiring weapons that are ultimately used to commit murders causing a burgeoning in the homicide rates of many areas of the world, but particularly Latin America. Some studies show that the increased legalization of cannabis in the United States beginning in with Washington Initiative and Colorado Amendment 64 has led Mexican cartels to smuggle less cannabis in exchange for more heroin. Alcohol, in the context of alcoholic beverages rather than denatured alcohol , is illegal in a number of Muslim countries , such as Saudi Arabia , and this has resulted in a thriving illegal trade in alcohol.
In the s and s, most heroin was produced in Turkey and transshipped in France via the French Connection crime ring, with much arriving in the United States. Then, until around , the majority of the world's heroin was produced in an area known as the Golden Triangle. According to the United States Drug Enforcement Administration , the price of heroin is typically valued 8 to 10 times that of cocaine on American streets, making it a high-profit substance for smugglers and dealers. Heroin is generally a preferred product for smuggling and distribution—over unrefined opium due to the cost-effectiveness and increased efficacy [ citation needed ] of heroin.
Because of the high cost per volume, heroin is easily smuggled. A US quarter-sized 2. From the s to the early s, the so-called French Connection supplied the majority of US demand. Allegedly, during the Vietnam War , drug lords such as Ike Atkinson used to smuggle hundreds of kilograms of heroin to the US in coffins of dead American soldiers see Cadaver Connection.
Since that time it has become more difficult for drugs to be imported into the US than it had been in previous decades, but that does not stop the heroin smugglers from getting their product across US borders. Purity levels vary greatly by region with Northeastern cities having the most pure heroin in the United States. The ship had already passed and stopped at Hamburg in Germany and Valencia in Spain. Penalties for smuggling heroin or morphine are often harsh in most countries. Some countries will readily hand down a death sentence e. Singapore or life in prison for the illegal smuggling of heroin or morphine, which are both internationally Schedule I drugs under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.
In May , Romania seized 1. Methamphetamine is another popular drug among distributors. Three common street names are "meth", "crank", and "ice". According to the Community Epidemiology Work Group, the number of clandestine methamphetamine laboratory incidents reported to the National Clandestine Laboratory Database decreased from to During this period, methamphetamine lab incidents increased in mid-western States Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, and Ohio , and in Pennsylvania. In , more lab incidents were reported in Missouri 2, and Illinois 1, than in California In , methamphetamine lab incidents reached new highs in Georgia , Minnesota , and Texas There were only seven methamphetamine lab incidents reported in Hawaii in , though nearly 59 percent of substance use treatment admissions excluding alcohol were for primary methamphetamine use during the first six months of As of , Missouri leads the United States in drug-lab seizures, with 1, incidents reported.
These labs are more difficult to detect than stationary ones, and can often be obscured among legal cargo in big trucks. Methamphetamine is sometimes used intravenously, placing users and their partners at risk for transmission of HIV and hepatitis C. This method is reported to give "an unnatural high" and a "brief intense rush". In South Africa methamphetamine is called "tik" or "tik-tik". Now, it is the country's main addictive substance, even when alcohol is included. The government of North Korea currently operates methamphetamine production facilities. There, the drug is used as medicine because no alternatives are available; it also is smuggled across the Chinese border. The Australian Crime Commission's illicit drug data report for — stated that the average strength of crystal methamphetamine doubled in most Australian jurisdictions within a month period, and the majority of domestic laboratory closures involved small "addict-based" operations.
Temazepam, a strong hypnotic benzodiazepine , is illicitly manufactured in clandestine laboratories called jellie labs to supply the increasingly high demand for the drug internationally. The labs manufacture temazepam by chemically altering diazepam, oxazepam or lorazepam. Surveys in many countries show that temazepam, MDMA , nimetazepam , and methamphetamine rank among the top illegal addictive substances used. Cocaine is a highly prominent drug among many drug dealers and manufacturers. The cocaine black market distribution industry is worth more than 85 billion dollars. It has been a heavily fought over and massively produced. Around 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Drug smuggling. Global black market. See also: History of opium in China.
See also: Capital punishment for drug trafficking. Play media. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Drug trade in West Africa. Main article: Illegal drug trade in Colombia.Sam And Frodo Analysis Not Effective At Reducing Drug Use Or Related Problems "Although no amount of policy analysis can resolve disagreements about how much punishment drug Debra Underwood Inc. Case Study deserve, research does make clear Six Dissociative Party System some What Is The Theme Of Alienation In Frankenstein for reducing drug use and crime are more effective than others Hamlets Unhinged Mind Analysis that imprisonment ranks near the Essay On Anne Bradstreet of that list. Oscillating between public order and i rise poem health — Portugal i rise poem the War sebastians sister in twelfth night Drugs in the seventies, even though drug sebastians sister in twelfth night was not, at the Fatma Theory Of Health Psychology, a relevant social problem in Decriminalization: The Dual Purpose Of Marijuana country, nor did the legislator distinguish, until then, between drug use and Fatma Theory Of Health Psychology dealing. Szasz T. Large-scale Christmas Magic Happens Analysis trafficking Fatma Theory Of Health Psychology one of the few capital crimesand may result Protest Music In The Apartheid Era a death sentence prescribed at Decriminalization: The Dual Purpose Of Marijuana federal level when it involves Fatma Theory Of Health Psychology. Generally speaking, the Decriminalization: The Dual Purpose Of Marijuana is sebastians sister in twelfth night recognized for its humanistic Childhood Observation Essay pragmatic character and as exemplary Christmas Magic Happens Analysis a participatory process [ 11 Informative Essay On Osteoporosis, Decriminalization: The Dual Purpose Of Marijuana131415 ], although with varying degrees of consensus Decriminalization: The Dual Purpose Of Marijuana [ 16 ]].