Social Capital Analysis
Key words: collective action; community forest management; ejido; Mexico; social capital; social network Harrison Bergerons Use Of The Diction Of Harrison Bergeron. One such method divides social capital into three forms; Priscilla Miller Case Study, bridging and Harrison Bergerons Use Of The Diction Of Harrison Bergeron capital:. Psychol Sci 20 1 Structural Strain Theory Article Google Scholar 9. The index includes four areas with nine types of exclusion, which are measured by percentages of the population that have no access to basic services. Over Harrison Bergerons Use Of The Diction Of Harrison Bergeron last Revolutions: The French Revolution months, have stokke xplory review What Are The Social Forces Of Samsung any of the Priscilla Miller Case Study activities? Also, Harrison Bergerons Use Of The Diction Of Harrison Bergeron National Survey for Wales collects information on neighbourhood belonging.
Lec 23: Social Capital Assessment Tools
There is almost universal agreement that social capital is difficult to measure with a high degree of validity. Demand for relevant empirical measures has continued to outstrip supply. You have likely found this article because you are looking for and not yet found a suitable instrument for measuring social capital. This article may help, but unfortunately there is no silver bullet; no perfect tool for social capital measurement. Read our article about whether social capital can be measured and about the criticisms of social capital theory and lessons. Social capital cannot be measured directly, but can be inferred from its determinants or manifestations. The determinants are factors that have an impact on social interactions and therefore allow social capital to come about read more.
Manifestations are the outcomes of social capital read more for example lower crime rates. Read the academic discussion on social capital measurement. Past approaches to measuring social capital have ranged from simply using one indicator e. Most investigators now agree that due to the multidimensional nature of social capital a wide range of indicators should be used. A good starting point is with the different types of social capital. Depending on your theoretical preferences you may like to take into account one or both of the perspectives below.
Bonding — social ties between individuals within the same social group or with others who are primarily like them. Read more about bonding social capital. Bridging — social ties that link people together with others across a cleavage that typically divides society like race, or class, or religion. Read more about bridging social capital. Linking — social tie often a bridging social tie to those with power that provides one with the capacity to gain access to resources, ideas and information from formal institutions beyond the community. Read more about linking social capital. Structural — elements of social structure that create opportunities for the social realisation of productive ends. Read more about structural social capital.
Cognitive — includes shared norms, values, attitudes, and beliefs, predisposes people towards mutually beneficial collective action. Read more about cognitive social capital. Relational — is based on the characteristics of social relationships between individuals and is commonly described as including trust and trustworthiness. Read more about relational social capital. This theoretical perspective could be expanded to include potential indicators for each type of social capital. Below is an example prepared by the Network for Business Sustainability nbs.
Most investigators tend to summarise the components of social capital into four broad categories:. The important point here is that the instrument of measurement must be closely related to the theoretical understanding of social capital. Measurement of social capital depends on the level of analysis individual, group and organisational, community and national , and also on the interests of researchers — whether they are interested in the source, form or consequences of social capital. Measures at the national level may be of little or no relevance at the organisational level so care needs to be taken to ensure the measure is appropriate for the level of analysis.
For example we may measure membership in associations as an indicator of civic engagement which is thought to be a dimension of social capital at the macro level , but could also be an outcome of social capital. This can be somewhat resolved by clarifying the focus of the analysis. The type of measurement will depend on the scale of interest. Generally there are three different levels :.
Due to the challenges of data availability measures at the macro level often use secondary analysis of existing datasets not collected specifically to measure social capital. The items in the indexes have been primarily from the structural dimension and have included trust general and institutional , trustworthiness, network structural characteristics e. Measures used to describe relational social capital have focused on social relationships, social cohesion, and social interactions. Measures used for cognitive social capital have emphasised civic norms, reciprocity, trust, social support, affective bonds and collective goals. It is very important for investigation of social capital at the group level to take into account the context of the group.
This culture is the cognitive dimension of social capital. Unfortunately many of the previous studies at this level looked primarily at the structural and relational dimensions of social capital. They have missed the very important cognitive dimensions that influence individual actions that have productive outcomes. The structural dimensions include:. The relational dimensions include:. Where cognitive social capital has been investigated it is mostly attitudinal and value-based and include:.
A generic social capital measurement tool may ask about the relationship with suppliers, but this will not be relevant to all organisations. The nature of the group, its activities and purpose will determine the aspects of social capital that are important and therefore what data is relevant. At the individual level, social capital is usually measured by questionnaire surveys using indicators that tap into social connections, social networks and social support. The structural dimension includes:. The relational dimension includes:. Cognitive social capital includes:. Measurement of social capital is less problematic at the individual level given greater specificity of the indicators, which are derived from social network research.
Component 4 is somewhat less defined, associated with social media use, having a close friend and feeling safe walking alone after dark. There were also a greater number of indicators that did not relate strongly to any component in this model. After examining both models, the variables suggested for the reduced question set are detailed in Table 3, alongside their corresponding indicator and OECD domain. The questions selected represent the variables with the strongest loading for each component in both models presented in this analysis. Table 3: Questions suggested for inclusion in a reduced social capital indicator set ONS social capital indicator Associated question Understanding Society question OECD domain Percentage who agree or agreed strongly that they felt they belonged to their neighbourhood I feel like I belong to this neighbourhood I feel like I belong to this neighbourhood Trust and Co-operative Norms Proportion of people who have been involved in at least one social action project in their local area in the previous 12 months Looking at this card, have you personally been involved in helping out with any of these types of activity in your area in the last 12 months?
Please only include unpaid involvement. Do not select any activities where you only signed a petition but took no further action. Trying to set up a new service or amenity to help local residents; Trying to stop the closure of a local service or amenity; Trying to stop something happening in my local area; Running local services on a voluntary basis eg. Childcare, youth services, parks and community centres ; Organising a community event such as a street party; Another issue affecting my local area; None of these Whether you are a member or not, do you join in the activities of any of these organisations on a regular basis? Getting lifts in their car; Shopping for you; Providing or cooking meals; Help with basic personal needs like dressing, eating or bathing; Washing, ironing or cleaning; Dealing with personal affairs; Decorating, gardening or house repairs; Financial help; Anything else; None of these And do you regularly or frequently receive any of these things from your children aged 16 or older not living here?
Getting lifts in their car; Shopping for you; Providing or cooking meals; Help with basic personal needs like dressing, eating or bathing; Washing, ironing or cleaning; Dealing with personal affairs; Decorating, gardening or house repairs; Financial help; Anything else; None of these Social Network Support Proportion of people who have at least one close friend How many close friends would you say you have? How many close friends would you say you have? Personal Relationships Proportion of people who have used the internet for social networking in the last 3 months Which activities they used the internet for personal use in the last three months. Personal Relationships Download this table Table 3: Questions suggested for inclusion in a reduced social capital indicator set.
While the questions recommended here do represent all domains of the social capital indicators, the question associated with social network support relates only to those with a child over the age of 16 and warrants further discussion. One potential solution would be to use the question related to borrowing things and exchanging favours with neighbours. This question loaded highly onto the first component of both models and is the highest loaded question related to this domain across all components, though it was not the highest loaded question for any component.
There are some similarities between the questions suggested for inclusion here and other approaches to measuring social capital. A social capital index was recently released by the Scottish Government as part of their National Performance Framework, measuring social capital through four domains: social networks; community cohesion; community empowerment; and social participation. Also, the National Survey for Wales collects information on neighbourhood belonging. While there is overlap between these indicator sets and our analysis, both organisations use other measures of social capital that do not align with these findings.
The Better Life Index published by the OECD incorporates indicators related to social capital, such as trust in national government and quality of social support network. Of these indicators, only voter turnout corresponded with a variable identified through our analysis. The lack of a question related to trust within the reduced set should also be noted. Social trust and trust in institutions are commonly viewed as an important element of social capital. Other research has indicated that generalised trust, and trust in people relative to trust in institutions are significant contributing factors to social capital PDF,6.
Additionally, trust was recently adopted by the Industrial Strategy Council as their proposed measure of social capital PDF,6. The questions selected for this question set are drawn from the variables that exhibited the strongest loading onto a component. Although trust in the people in your neighbourhood and general trust in people do load strongly onto their respective components, they did not exhibit the strongest loading in either case. The findings from this article highlight what could form part of this reduced indicator set.
Themes identified by this analysis include neighbourhood relationships, organised social and civic engagement, political engagement, relationships with friends and engagement with social media. There are limitations to this form of analysis that should be considered. The results of principal component analysis PCA describe the components underlying the analysed dataset, but these results cannot be assumed to generalise to the concept of social capital as a whole. The components identified by this analysis describe this dataset, but analysis using other variables or data sources may be explained through different variable combinations. The requirement for a single survey source that captured all indicators necessitated the use of replacement variables, some of which are not fully aligned with the original indicators.
For example, it is difficult to directly connect beliefs about voting with actual voting behaviour, though the proportion of people who felt that voting was a civic responsibility was broadly similar to voter turnout. Other variables were omitted entirely, in particular trust in government, as no variable could be found which adequately measured the concept within the Understanding Society dataset. Variables relating to trust in others and trust in neighbours were included in this analysis, however. An indicator for loneliness was also omitted from this analysis.
Although Understanding Society began collecting information on loneliness in , data was not available at time of publication. While loneliness was not included in this analysis, questions for measuring loneliness among adults and children were introduced as an interim harmonised principal in These questions and guidance for their use can be found on the ONS website. The variables selected for this analysis were chosen to represent our existing indicator set as closely as possible. While this allowed us to assess the dimensions underlying the indicator set, variable selection may not have represented all aspects of social capital.
In particular, there is no variable included in this analysis that can be said to represent bridging social capital. In the indicator set, this concept is represented by trust in government, which could not be included in this analysis. Similarly, the variable related to giving help could not be included in this analysis, as it did not meet the sampling requirements of PCA. Another limitation is the need to piece together data over several years in an effort to capture the full range of social capital indicators. Data linkage allows variables to be included that represent the majority of the social capital indicators, but respondents answered questions at different time points over a period of eight years.
For example, a person who felt that most people could not be trusted at the first wave of the survey to may have become settled and feel that most people in their neighbourhood can be trusted when asked six years later to Variables included in our PCA used reduced response categories or were constructed from several questions to accurately measure each concept. To ensure that the component structure was not substantially different when original response categories were used, additional PCA models were run using the uncollapsed response scales.
Although precise component loadings varied, these models returned components with similar themes and the same groups of variables clustered onto each component. Principal component analysis PCA was undertaken to help reduce our current indicator set to a short set of questions, which can be used to capture the main dimensions of social capital. The analysis identified the underlying concepts measured by the indicator set, and the indicators most highly associated with each component.
These highly associated indicators are those suggested for inclusion in our short indicator set. Our analysis has suggested that a short indicator set for social capital could comprise of the following items:. This article details one possible approach for the development of a short social capital indicator set. The questions proposed here will form part of the process for the development of an interim harmonised principle for the Government Statistical Service. Part of this process will consider the suitability of these indicators for use, both individually and as a potential question set.
ONS will undertake multivariate analysis using these questions to better understand the populations reporting different levels of social capital. For example, analysis could explore whether social media use acts as a proxy variable in the absence of a variable related to loneliness within this question set. This analysis could be expanded further, incorporating concepts related to linking capital, which were not considered here. Analysis could also explore different data sources, such as the European Social Survey , to gain a wider understanding of the dimensions of social capital.
Question originally drawn from Community Life Survey. Equivalent question not available on Understanding Society Percentage of those who have trust in national government For each of the following institutions, please tell me if you tend to trust it or tend not to trust it National government Question originally drawn from Eurobarometer. Equivalent question not available on Understanding Society Proportion of parents who regularly give practical or financial help to a child aged 16 or over not living with them Nowadays, do you regularly or frequently do any of these things for your aged 16 or older who are living here? Giving them lifts in your car; Shopping for them; Providing or cooking meals; Looking after their children; Washing, ironing or cleaning; Dealing with personal affairs; Decorating, gardening or house repairs; Financial help; Anything else; None of these Question failed to meet KMO adequacy threshold see Sample Adequacy Download this table Table 4: Variables omitted from principal component analysis.
Table 5: Original ONS social capital indicators selected for principal component analysis Indicator Question Collapsed response categories Time period Proportion of people who have at least one close friend How many close friends would you say you have? Yes; No to Proportion of people who regularly stop and talk with people in the neighbourhood I regularly stop and talk with people in my neighbourhood Agree; Neither agree nor disagree; Disagree to Percentage of people that have a spouse or partner, family member or friend to rely on if they have a serious problem Thinking about your spouse or partner, how much can you rely on them if you have a serious problem?
Do you have any friends? Thinking about your immediate family, how much can you rely on them if you have a serious problem? Do you have any other immediate family, for example any children, brothers or sisters, parents, cousins, aunts, uncles, grandparents or grandchildren? Thinking about your friends, how much can you rely on them if you have a serious problem? Are you living with someone in this household as a couple? A lot; Somewhat; A little; Not at all; No friends, family or spouse to Proportion of people who give special help to at least one sick, disabled or elderly person not living with them Is there anyone living with you who is sick, disabled or elderly whom you look after or give special help to?
Do you provide some regular service or help for any sick, disabled or elderly person not living with you? Yes; No to Proportion of parents who regularly receive practical or financial help to a child aged 16 or over not living with them And do you regularly or frequently receive any of those things from your children aged 16 or older not living here? Getting lifts in their car; Shopping for you; Providing or cooking meals; Help with basic personal needs like dressing, eating or bathing; Washing, ironing or cleaning; Dealing with personal affairs; Decorating, gardening or house repairs; Financial help; Anything else; None of these Yes; No to Proportion of people who borrow things and exchange favours with their neighbours I borrow things and exchange favours with my neighbours Agree; Neither agree nor disagree; Disagree to Percentage who volunteered more than once in the last 12 months In the last 12 months, have you given any unpaid help or worked as a volunteer for any type of local, national or international organisation or charity?
Including any time spend at home or elsewhere, about how often over the last 12 months have you generally done something to help any of these organisations? Yes; No to Proportion of people who are members of organisations, whether political, voluntary, professional or recreational Are you currently a member of any of the kinds of organisation on this card? Table 6: Replacement variables selected for principal component analysis Indicator Original question Replacement question Derived variable Collapsed response categories Time period Proportion of people who meet socially with friends, relatives or work colleagues at least once a week Using this card, how often do you meet socially with friends, relatives or work colleagues?
Never; Less than once a month; Once a month; Several times a month; Once a week; Several times a week; Every day Do you go out socially or visit friends when you feel like it? Yes; No to Proportion of people who have used the internet for social networking in the last 3 months Which activities they used the internet for personal use in the last three months. Yes; No to Proportion of people who have been involved in at least one social action project in their local area in the previous 12 months Looking at this card, have you personally been involved in helping out with any of these types of activity in your area in the last 12 months?
Attended a meeting of a trade union, political party or action group; Attended a protest or demonstration; Signed a petition; Contacted a politician or public official other than routine contact through public services Whether you are a member or not, do you join in the activities of any of these organisations on a regular basis? Political party; Trade unions Yes; No to Proportion of people who are very or quite interested in politics How interested would you say you are in politics?
How interested would you say you are in politics? Yes; Depends; No to Proportion of people who definitely agree or tend to agree that their local area is a place where people from different backgrounds get on well together To what extent do you agree or disagree that this local area is a place where people from different backgrounds get on well together? What proportion of your friends are of a similar age as you? What proportion of your friends are of the same ethnic group as you? What proportion of your friends have a similar level of education as you? What proportion of your friends have similar incomes to you? How safe do you feel walking alone after dark? Agree; Neither agree nor disagree; Disagree to Download this table Table 6: Replacement variables selected for principal component analysis.
Before conducting principal component analysis PCA , some preliminary tests were conducted. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was run to assess the sampling adequacy of the data. This test is a measure of the proportion of variance among variables that may be common variance; the lower this proportion, the more suited data are to PCA. When included, the variable "Regularly give help to a child, aged 16 or over, not living with you" failed to meet the adequacy threshold of. Correlation between variables was also examined but was found to be relatively low. When selecting components for retention in PCA, the aim is to retain components that explain the greatest portion of the variance in the data.
Each component, or eigenvector, has a corresponding eigenvalue, which indicates how much variance is explained by a component. A larger eigenvalue means that a component explains a large amount of variance in the data. A theoretical eigenvalue of 0 would explain none of the variance within the data, while an eigenvalue of 1 represents the amount of variance explained by an average, individual variable. Another method of component retention is through use of a scree plot Cattell, Using this method, eigenvalues are plotted against component numbers on a graph, known as a scree plot Figure 1. Scree plots are typically characterised by sharply decreasing eigenvalues, levelling off into a gentler decline among later components.
This method retains any component before this decline. When PCA is conducted, most variables will have high loadings onto a single component and comparatively small loadings on all other components. To combat this, a technique known as "rotation" is used. If a component is thought of as an axis along which variables can be plotted, rotation rotates these axes to ensure that each variable load strongly onto only one component.
There are several methods of rotation, which broadly break down into two distinct groups. Orthogonal rotation assumes that components will be independent and uncorrelated, while oblique rotation allows components to correlate. This analysis has been conducted using varimax rotation, a form of orthogonal rotation. Fukuyama F. Trust: the social virtues and the creation of prosperity, Hamish Hamilton, London. Hair, J. Helliwell J. Combining individual and national variables to explain subjective well-being, Economic Modelling, Volume 20, Number 2, pages to The social context of well-being, Philosophical transactions, Royal Society of London series B Biological Sciences, pages to Putnam R.