Indian Immigration

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Indian Immigration



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Thus the noted participation of the whole multi-ethnic population of the two islands in these events. After the Dutch government signed a treaty with the United Kingdom on the recruitment of contract workers, Indians began migrating to Suriname in from what was then British India as indentured labourers, many from the modern-day Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and the surrounding regions.

Just before and just after the independence of Suriname on 25 November many Indo-Surinamese emigrated to the Netherlands. During the heyday of British rule in India, many people from India were sent to other British colonies for work. Today, Europe's largest Hindu temple is currently situated in The Hague. The Indian emigrant community in the United Kingdom is now in its third generation. Indians in the UK are the largest community outside of Asia proportionally, and the second largest in terms of population, only surpassed by the United States, and closely followed by Canada.

The first wave of Indians in the United Kingdom worked as manual labourers and were not respected within society. However, this has changed considerably. On the whole, third and fourth generation immigrants are proving to be very successful, especially in the fields of law, business and medicine. Indian culture has been constantly referenced within the wider British culture, at first as an "exotic" influence in films like My Beautiful Laundrette , but now increasingly as a familiar feature in films like Bend It Like Beckham. The United Kingdom Census recorded 1,, people of Indian ethnicity resident in the UK not including those who categorised themselves as of mixed ethnicity.

Their presence in Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and other regions is not as large. The first generation of immigrants were to be found in the east-end of London, which was traditionally the poorest area of London. However, due to gentrification, this is no longer the case. There are 2,, people currently speaking Indian languages in the United Kingdom. Search terms can be confusing, because some of the indigenous people of the Americas are referred to, either legally or informally, as Indians. According to Statistics Canada , in there were 1,, people who classified themselves as being of Indian origin, including terms of "East Indian", South Asian or Indo-Canadian. A Punjabi community has existed in British Columbia, Canada, for over years.

The first known Indian settlers in Canada were Indian Army soldiers who had passed through Canada in on their way home from attending Queen Victoria 's Diamond Jubilee celebration in London, England. Some are believed to have remained in British Columbia and others returned there later. Punjabi Indians were attracted to the possibilities for farming and forestry. They were mainly male Sikhs who were seeking work opportunities. Indo-Caribbeans , descendants of the Indian indentured workers who had gone to the Caribbean since , made an early appearance in Canada with the arrival of the Trinidadian medical student Kenneth Mahabir and the Demerara now Guyana clerk M N Santoo, both in The first Indian immigrants in British Columbia allegedly faced widespread racism from the majority Anglo community.

Race riots targeted these immigrants, as well as new Chinese immigrants. Most decided to return to India, while a few stayed behind. The Canadian government prevented these men from bringing their wives and children until , another reason why many of them chose to leave. Quotas were established to prevent many Indians from moving to Canada in the early 20th century.

These quotas allowed fewer than people from India a year until , when the number was increased to In , all quotas were scrapped. Immigration was then based on a point system, thus allowing many more Indians to enter. Since this open-door policy was adopted, Indians continue to come in large numbers, and roughly 25,, arrive each year, which now makes Indians the second highest group immigrating to Canada each year, after the Chinese. Smaller communities are also growing in Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal, and Winnipeg.

Indians in Vancouver live mainly in the suburb of Surrey , or nearby Abbotsford but are also found in other parts of Vancouver. The vast majority of Vancouver Indians are of Punjabi Sikh origin and have taken significant roles in politics and other professions, with several Supreme Court justices , three attorneys general and one provincial premier hailing from the community. Both Gurmant Grewal and his wife Nina Grewal were the first married couple in Canada to be concurrently elected as Member of Parliament in The Greater Toronto Area contains the second largest population of Indian descent in North America, enumerating , residents of Indian origin as of , surpassed only by the , estimate by the American Community Survey [] [] and , in [] for the New York City Combined Statistical Area.

Compared to the Vancouver area, Toronto's Indian community is much more linguistically and religiously diverse with large communities of Gujaratis , Malayalis , and Tamils , as well as more Indians who are Hindu , Sikh and Muslim than Vancouver. She is the second Indian American Olympic medalist. He is the third American Olympic medalist of Indian ancestry.

The United States has the largest Indian population in the world outside Asia. Indian immigration to North America started as early as the s. Emigration to the United States also started in the late 19th and early 20th century, when Sikhs arriving in Vancouver found that the fact that they were subjects of the British Empire did not mean anything in Canada itself, and they were blatantly discriminated against. Most of these immigrants were Sikhs from the Punjab region. Asian women were restricted from immigrating because the US government passed laws in , at the behest of California and other states in the west, which had experienced a large influx of Chinese, Japanese, and Indian immigrants during and after the gold rush.

As a result, many of the South Asian men in California married Mexican women. A fair number of these families settled in the Central Valley in California as farmers, and continue to this day. These early immigrants were denied voting rights, family re-unification and citizenship. South Asians were ineligible for citizenship. Bhagat Singh Thind was a Sikh from India who settled in Oregon; he had applied earlier for citizenship and was rejected there.

After World War II, US immigration policy changed, after almost a half century, to allow family re-unification for people of non-white origin. In addition, Asians were allowed to become citizens and to vote. Many men who arrived before the s were finally able to bring their families to the US; most of them in this earlier era settled in California and other west coast states. Another wave of Indian immigrants entered the US after independence of India.

A large proportion of them were Sikhs joining their family members under the newly more though not completely colour-blind immigration laws, then Malayali immigrants from Middle East, Kerala, etc. The Cold War created a need for engineers in the defence and aerospace industries, some of whom came from India. By the late s and early s, large numbers of Gujarati , Telugu , and Tamil people had settled in the US. The most recent and probably the largest wave of immigration to date occurred in the late s and early s during the internet boom. As a result, Indians in the US are now one of the largest among the groups of immigrants with an estimated population of about 3.

In contrast to the earliest groups of Indians who entered the US workforce as taxi drivers, labourers, farmers, or small business owners, the later arrivals often came as professionals or completed graduate studies in the US and moved into professional occupations. They have become very successful financially thanks to highly technical industries, and are thus probably the most well-off community of immigrants. They are well represented in all walks of life, but particularly so in academia , information technology, and medicine.

At the Australian census, , people stated that they had Indian ancestry, of which , were born in India, with people from India making up the third largest immigrant population in the country and the second most popular country of origin for new migrants from They would transport goods and mail via camels in the desert. Many Punjabis took part in the rush for gold on the Victorian fields. Indians also entered Australia in the first half of the 20th century when both Australia and India were both British colonies. Indian Sikhs came to work on the banana plantations in Southern Queensland.

Today many of them live in the town of Woolgoolga a town lying roughly halfway between Sydney and Brisbane. Some of these Indians, the descendants of Sikh plantation workers, now own banana farms in the area. There are two Sikh temples in Woolgoolga, one of which has a museum dedicated to Sikhism. These British citizens decided to settle in Australia in large numbers but are still counted as Indian Nationals in the census. The third wave of Indians entered the country in the s and 80s after the abolition of the White Australia policy in with many Indian teachers, doctors and other professional public service occupations settling in Australia accompanied by many IT professionals.

After successive military coups in Fiji of and , a significant number of Fijian-Indians migrated to Australia; as such there is a large Fijian-Indian population in Australia. Fijian-Indians have significantly changed the character of the Indian community in Australia. While most earlier Indian migration was by educated professionals, the Fijian-Indian community was also largely by professionals but also brought many small business owners and entrepreneurs. The current wave of Indian migration is that of engineers, toolmakers, Gujarati business families from East Africa and relatives of settled Indians.

Starved of government funding, Australian education institutes are recruiting full fee paying overseas students. Many universities have permanent representatives stationed in India and other Asian countries. Their efforts have been rewarded with a new influx of Indian students entering Australia. The total number of student visas granted to Indian students for — was 34,; [] a significant rise from to , when 7, student visas were granted to Indian students.

Later on, a small population of Gujaratis and Punjabis emigrated to Fiji. They number , Music has featured prominently in Indo-Fijian culture, with a distinctive genre emerging in the first decades of the 20th century that some claim influenced early jazz musicians. One of the Indo-Fijian jazz pioneers in the early evolution of this distinct ethnic art-form, Ravinda Banjeeri, likened the struggle to be heard through music as "like a bear emerging from a dark wood, listening to twigs snapping in an otherwise silent forest". The Indo-Fijians have fought for equal rights, although with only limited success. Many have left Fiji in search of better living conditions and social justice and this exodus has gained pace with the series of coups starting in the late s.

Indians began to arrive in New Zealand in the late eighteenth century, mostly as crews on Royal Navy ] warships. Changes in immigration policy in the s allowed many more Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis into the country. Today, South Asians from all over the subcontinent live and work in New Zealand, with small numbers involved in both local and national politics. There are over 28, Indian citizens in Armenia , including those who are seeking permanent residence status in Armenia, as recorded in In the first half of , 10, Indians crossed Armenia's borders, and more than 2, were seeking permanent residence status.

In the second half of the 20th century, most of them emigrated to Israel , where they now number about 85, Another prominent community that migrated to Israel after its creation were the Jews of Cochin , in Kerala Cochin Jews — a community with a very long history. They are known to have been granted protection by the king of the Princely State of Cochin. The earliest Jews in this region, as per local tradition, date to as early as CE. The community, after the creation of Israel, saw a mass exodus from Cochin, and is presently facing extinction in India. Linguistically, Bnei Menashe are Tibeto-Burmans and belong to the Mizo , Kuki and Chin peoples the terms are virtually interchangeable. Indians command a dominant majority of the population Persian Gulf countries.

After the s oil boom in the Middle East , numerous Indians from Kerala emigrated, taking advantage of close historical ties with the 'Gulf' as well as the lack of ample skilled labour from nearby Africa and the Middle East. Major urban centers such as Dubai , Abu Dhabi , Doha and Manama were experiencing a development boom and thousands of Indians labored in construction industries. This work was done on a contractual basis rather than permanently, and working age men continued to return home every few years. This has remained the dominant pattern as the countries in the Persian Gulf, especially United Arab Emirates , Bahrain , Qatar and Kuwait have a common policy of not naturalising non-Arabs, even if they are born there.

The Persian Gulf region has provided incomes many times over for the same type of job in India and has geographical proximity to India, and these incomes are free of taxation. Since the earlys, significant number of Indians have reached the region, taking up high skill jobs in business and industry. Major Indian corporations maintain solid regional presence there while some are headquartered there. They work as engineers, doctors, lawyers, labourers and in clerical jobs. They have a minority in Saudi Arabia. The NRI population tends to save and remit considerable amounts to their dependents in India. The relative ease with which people can travel to their home country means that many NRIs in the Gulf and West Asia maintain close links to Indian culture, with people often travelling twice or thrice a year, especially during holiday period, while some live in India for several months each year.

Live performances and cultural events, such as Tiarts for Goans living in UAE, occur quite often and are staged by community groups. The diaspora of indic religions are:. The day commemorates the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi in India from South Africa, and during a three-day convention held around the day, a forum for issues concerning the Indian diaspora is held and the annual Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Awards are bestowed. Indian diaspora has significant impact on the globalisation of economy of India , especially in the following areas:.

Generations of diaspora have enhanced India's soft power through proliferation of elements of Indian culture. With expansion of Indosphere cultural influence of Greater India , [] through transmission of Hinduism in Southeast Asia [] [] [] and the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism [] [] leading to Indianization of Southeast Asia through formation of non-Indian southeast Asian native Indianized kingdoms [] which adopted sanskritized language [] and other Indian elements [] such as the honorific titles , naming of people , naming of places , mottos of organisations and educational institutes as well as adoption of Indian architecture , martial arts , Indian music and dance , traditional Indian clothing , and Indian cuisine , a process which has also been aided by the ongoing historic expansion of Indian diaspora.

Political lobbying groups of Indian diaspora influence the foreign policies of other nations in India's favor. Indian diaspora's lobby groups especially collaborate well with the influential Jewish diaspora in the Western World for creating favorable outcome for India and Israel. Indian diaspora has good relations with most other diasporas, including its offshoot Bangladeshi and Pakistani diasporas , as well all other SAARC neighbors such as Afghan , Bhutanese , Burmese , Nepali.

Sri Lankan , and Tibetan diasporas. In Australia, Indian Australians and India were the largest source of new permanent migrants to Australia in —18, [] and Indians were the most educated migrant group in Australia with In Britain, British Indians are the largest ethnic minority population in the country , [] with the highest average hourly pay rate and the lowest poverty rate among all ethnic groups, [] [] [] and are more likely to be employed in professional and managerial occupations than other ethnic groups.

In Canada, Indo-Canadians are the second largest non-European ethnic group and one of the fastest growing ethnic communities in the country. In New Zealand, Indian New Zealanders are the fastest growing Kiwi ethnic group, [] and are the second largest group of Asians in New Zealand with a population of , Indians in Coinciding with Prime Minister Narendra Modi 's Australia visit in November , the Indian community in Australia had launched an online campaign, appealing to him to grant dual citizenship to overseas Indians.

The petition has also sought granting Indian passports to overseas citizens of Indian heritage with full political and economic rights, granting of convenient voting rights to such dual passport -holding overseas Indians as well as overseas Indians with Indian passports NRIs , which can be exercised either at the consulate, high commission or embassy premises in their country of residence and through postal or online facilities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Indian diaspora. People of Indian birth, descent or origin who live outside the Republic of India for more than 6 months. This article uses bare URLs , which may be threatened by link rot. Please consider converting them to full citations to ensure the article remains verifiable and maintains a consistent citation style. Several templates and tools are available to assist in formatting, such as reFill documentation. July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

For other uses, see Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Non-status Indian. Flag of India. Main article: Overseas Citizenship of India. See also: Indians in Oman and Aden Protectorate. No data. Main article: Indians in Madagascar. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Mauritians of Indian origin. Main article: Indian South Africans. Main articles: Indian Indonesians and Tamil Indonesians. Main article: Indians in Japan. Main article: Indian Singaporeans. Main articles: Indians in the Netherlands and Indo-Surinamese. Main articles: British Indians and Indian community of London. Main article: Indo-Canadians. Main article: Indian Americans. See also: Indians in the New York City metropolitan area. Main article: Indian Australians.

Main articles: Indo-Fijians and Girmityas. Main category: New Zealand people of Indian descent. Assamese diaspora Bengali diaspora Bihari diaspora Gujarati diaspora Kannadiga diaspora Kashmiri diaspora Maharashtrian diaspora Malayali diaspora Odia diaspora Punjabi diaspora Romani diaspora [] [] Saraiki diaspora Sindhi diaspora South Indian diaspora Tamil diaspora Telugu diaspora. See also: Indian soft power. See also: Economic impact of Indian diaspora.

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