Gender Differences In Social Work
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Gender Differences in Mental Health Disruption-Methods of Social Work Research
As such, the discussion in this article will primarily focus on the various components of gender equality as opposed to inequality. Culture and all of its components directly impact how gender equality is exercised as a basic human right. The quest to ensure global gender equality is an age-old endeavor embraced by women and girls individually, and cultures, communities, and organizations collectively. The support for addressing the issues of women and girls is not completely lacking, however action that impacts it is insufficient and sporadic. That is, every nation on the globe defines and embraces gender equality at different levels and intensity. Nonetheless, strides have been made by communities and major organizations and institutions.
The United Nation stands at the forefront of this movement to eliminate gender inequality and ensure that gender equality is a life-long reality for generations of women and girls to come Blanchfield, At the core of gender equality is the value of womanhood to life itself and the need to ensure the health and well-being of women and girls. World powers including the United States, China, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, France, and other world leaders as well as entities such as the United Nations and the World Bank are central to the gender equality movement and are imperative for system-wide reforms and transformations.
It is a global priority that requires multiple level responses in terms of policy, funding, services, education and training, and programs that efficiently and effectively respond to gender issues. There are obvious gaps and barriers in existing systems that attempt to address the issues of women and girls which warrant attention and response from every part of society.
Structural weaknesses such as the lack of leadership and coordination, financial disparities, disadvantages supported by existing structures, and lack of operational capacity have been noted by advocates as major barriers for reforming efforts on global gender equality Blanchfield, ; World Bank, Systems and structures including those in the field of social work must remain relevant, versatile, and innovate in ways that respond adequately to an ever-evolving culture of women across the globe today. In principle, the global debate on gender equality has been fundamental to the profession of social work with major implications for a female-populated yet male-dominated profession.
Accurately conceptualizing gender equality and its multiple dimensions and complexities in a global setting will contribute to the elimination of inequities and inequalities across the spectrum. Gender equality is, first and foremost, a human right. Women are entitled to live in dignity and in freedom from want and from fear. Empowering women is also an indispensable tool for advancing development and reducing poverty. Empowered women contribute to the health and productivity of whole families and communities and to improved prospects for the next generation. United Nations Population Fund, para. Although gender equality is acknowledged as significant to the development of nations across the world, gender-based discrimination and inequality such as violence against women and girls, socioeconomic disparities, health inequities, and other destructive traditions continue to be pervasive and persistent.
Among the entities around the globe that contribute to the movement toward gender equality, UNFPA has led the advocacy efforts for reform and transformation of systems that impact the rights and choices of women and girls around the world United Nations Population Fund, n. Because of the many facets of gender relative to household, needs, biology and learned behaviors, income and class differences, the existing literature is incongruent regarding whether gender equality should be measured in outcomes or opportunity. The literature posits gender differences in risk taking, social preferences, and competition, and suggests that if there are gender differences then differences in outcomes may or may not be a result of difference in opportunity.
On the other hand, in terms of equality in outcome, scholars argue that differences between men and women are not innate but rather learned, in that men and women embrace certain cultural, social, and environmental norms that may perpetuate inequalities. In reality, both equality of opportunity and equality of outcome are imperative for achieving gender equality among women and girls. A definition of gender equality around the globe cannot be complete without considering the complex and multidimensional roles of women and the contexts in which they exist. Roles in the lives of women and girls around the world are a unifying concept and thus, responses to their needs must be in concert with these roles. Despite the ongoing challenges experienced by women in terms of daily gender-based disadvantage, progress has been made toward equality.
Equal marriage, inheritance, and land rights have been guaranteed to women by many countries including gender equality and anti-discrimination laws in the constitutions of about countries World Bank, Nonetheless, although progress has been made toward gender equality for many women, lower income women—those living in countries with strong economies and those living in countries with the poorest economies—as well as women who face social exclusion stemming from their caste, disability, location, ethnicity, and sexual orientation have not experienced improvements in gender equality to the same extent as other women. Furthermore, among women of color, the notion of global gender equality manifests itself differently because the complexities of race and ethnicity play an integral role in their lived experiences.
Women in countries such as those in the continental Africa still live with unequal distribution of opportunities and outcomes in education, employment, health, and social services World Bank, Although certain policies have historically infringed on the rights of all women, the impact on women of color is uniquely intense. The question thus remains, does global gender equality matter? As indicated by the World Bank and discussed previously:. Most importantly, gender equality feeds the next generation by leveling the playing field, making it possible for social and political engagement, sound decision making, and policies and laws that inform inclusivity and advanced development paths World Bank, The debate on global gender inequality has always been framed by historical, cultural, and geographical mechanisms of oppression which are both practical and philosophical in nature.
At the root of gender inequality are mechanisms of oppression that serve to subordinate the strengths, knowledge, experiences, and needs of women in families, communities, and societies to those of men. Specifically, gender—that is, the meaning and value that society places on males and females—is socially constructed in such a way as to ascribe social, economic and political roles, and attitudes and beliefs about psychological traits and physiological abilities to each sex. As such, those assigned to females or women are deemed inferior and less powerful and influential in the public and private spheres than are those ascribed to males or men.
Gender stereotypes are made to seem natural by linking gender definitions to biological attributes that appear to distinguish the sexes Wiranto, Language is one aspect of culture that heavily reinforces stereotypes and has been linked to gender inequality. For example, Prewitt-Freilino, Caswell, and Laakso found in their study of countries that those where gendered languages that is, those where nouns are always assigned masculine or feminine gender are spoken have less gender equality than those that speak natural gender languages that is, those in which gender is distinguished through pronouns but not assigned to nouns or genderless languages that is, those which completely lack grammatical gender distinction.
Strongly held gender-typed practices and beliefs are so integral to the social fabric of societies that extreme measures that would be viewed as heinous and unlawful in other contexts are legitimated to uphold gender stereotypes and force women as well as men who would violate them to submit. As previously alluded, gender has historically defined power and authority relationships between the sexes—that is, the privilege afforded or denied to each group. The physiological ability of females to bear children has been cast as a biological and psychological vulnerability of women that renders them inferior and in need of the protection of males, and effectively limits their economic, political, and social opportunities.
Nonetheless, global gender inequality is so pervasive as to seem intractable without major reworking and restructuring of all number of social, religious, and political institutions. Traditions and strategies that bind the divisiveness of gender identity subsets which are rooted in sexual preferences, patriarchy, domination, and intellectual privileging of race, biology, and pedigree have yielded political policies that have fueled multi-generational cultures of underclass poverty and inequity. The country of Sweden provides a glimpse of what might be accomplished in the name of achieving gender equality. Even with the success of these practices in advancing gender equality, forces of oppression are at work with domestic violence and rape remaining persistent problems.
More recently the country has begun efforts to implement gender neutral language and de-emphasize gender distinctions between boys and girls in school yards and classrooms. The measures are not embraced by everyone, but they represent a bold attempt to push the envelope on gender equality. Women and children tend to be disproportionately impacted by poverty, and health care is one resource that is consistently out of reach. International advocates have fought extensively for medical resources from having the latest pharmaceuticals to building and staffing full service health clinics. Access issues are furthermore influenced by distance and lack of transportation particularly in remote locations, as well as not having sufficiently trained medical personnel to meet the needs of the community.
The formulation of international, national, NGO, and local collaborative partnerships is one means of significantly advancing health care for vulnerable populations, groups dominated by women and girls. The enmeshment of policies that place unequal burdens on gender, particularly for women and girls, often complicates access to services. Access to healthcare also ties into sustainability of healthy communities that can produce a labor force to further build the capacity of the community.
Ensuring laws and policies that respect, value, and support equity for women and girls helps to guarantee gender equality as a human right globally. Although historically mainstream education was inaccessible to women, education equity has become the gateway for women to gain access to intellectual capacity, power, and economic security. Shifting focus toward educational policies that emphasize collective care and progress may be a slow process because of the entrenchment of gender power differences in every aspect of life; however, collectivity and reciprocity are critical to making progress toward gender equality.
In addition, a shift in language use is one way to move from dichotomous terms that suggest superiority, rank order, and hierarchy relative to gender, to language that is inclusive, collective, and mindful of the inherent interdependency among human beings for the purpose of survival and quality of life Ramdas, These customs and common law practices steer women into lives of dependency and caregiving with limited opportunities to participate in other sectors of the society. Empowerment at this level would involve equal access to attend and complete school, as well as participate in all aspects of the education process.
Scarce resources are a reality and fairness in distribution is imperative. An important component of distributive justice is assuring that certain laws and policies are not created to reinforce unfair privileges for a particular sector of the community to gain more than a fair share of the same goods, opportunities, and privileges. Justice in the distribution of resources is a critical aspect of current conversations given the historical exclusion of women and girls from participation in the local and global economy Symington, In society, persons with the most financial resources are able to purchase additional access to opportunities that make their lives comfortable and secure.
When one considers the intersection of gender, labor force, and income, particularly among women, having access to the labor force to earn income is a complex and complicated concept because women continue to receive lower salaries for their labor, which in turn translates into the perpetual inability to purchase the same amount of access as their male counterparts. International organizations such as the United Nations and World Bank have led the efforts in working with national and local governments to assist in addressing some of the gender-based resource, income, and labor gaps through partnerships with municipalities to ensure equal access and provision of additional in-kind goods, as necessary Symington, ; Connell, The literature has defined this term through both a biological and individual framework.
The hijacking of the term gender by these Western intellectuals has perpetuated a dichotomous and adversarial existence. Gender, as defined beyond the Western concept of individualism to mean a more inclusive indigenous epistemology, leads to an opportunity to understand and debate gender in terms of relationship with multiple dimensions and nuances Connell, ; Blanchfield, Gender and relationship are therefore recognized in the connection with male, female, child, family, and community.
In a historical context, gender is ever evolving. Gender has been used to define love, voice, violence, and collective action. For instance, as voice, gender has been used to establish power and privilege based on anatomy; and preference has been assigned to male. Ultimately, gender becomes a means to justify existing division of labor, distribution of income, power and dominance, role characteristics, and organization of power Connell, Advanced Search.
Privacy Copyright. Authors S. Abstract A scale of prejudice against transgender individuals was developed, validated, and contrasted with a homophobia measure in female and male US college undergraduates. Publication Information Nagoshi, J. Recommended Citation Brzuzy, S. Link to Full Text. A communication culture is a group of people with an existing set of norms regarding how they communicate with each other. These cultures can be categorized as masculine or feminine. Gender cultures are primarily created and sustained by interaction with others. Through communication we learn about what qualities and activities our culture prescribes to our sex. While it is commonly believed that our sex is the root source of differences and how we relate and communicate to others, it is actually gender that plays a larger role.
Whole cultures can be broken down into masculine and feminine, each differing in how they get along with others through different styles of communication. Julia T. Source: Boundless. Retrieved 27 Feb. Skip to main content. Gender Stratification and Inequality. Search for:. Gender Differences in Social Interaction Brief Masculine and feminine individuals generally differ in how they communicate with others.
Learning Objectives Explain and illustrate gender differences in social interactions.Sen, A Rhetorical Analysis Of Katies Book Blog. Gender Stratification and Inequality. Ruth HuberRuth Is romeo a montague. Within social work, ethnomethodological perspectives on pros and cons of drugs are rare, but there pros and cons of drugs research that pros and cons of drugs gender as practice.