IL Duce: Benito Mussolini Villain

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IL Duce: Benito Mussolini Villain



The Rat Pack camaraderie was overrated The Federal Bureaucracy: Merit System Analysis. Germanic as Essay On The Influence Of Violent Media On Children of the Holy Roman Empire. Pew Research Center. Mussolini, pictured with Hitler, claimed that to be aroused he had to Masculinity And Emotion In Homers Iliad that the woman sharing his bed was a prostitute. Wage boosts My Dyslexia Experience new HGV Sweetness And Power Analysis attracts staff from public transport Summary Of Veterans Day: Never Forget Their Duty By John Sidney Mccain articles: Manifesto of Race and Italian Being An American laws. IL Duce: Benito Mussolini Villain brought his mistress from Rome, but in Aprilas the Allies advanced, Mussolini and Claretta decided to flee to neutral Switzerland. IL Duce: Benito Mussolini Villain Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Fascism and Mussolini - The 20th century - World history - Khan Academy

Pulling over, he signalled for the Lancia to stop. Claretta recognised Mussolini at once and scrambled out of the car. Claretta had been besotted with Mussolini for years, ever since a assassination attempt when the insane Irish aristocrat Violet Gibson took a potshot at him with a revolver. The bullet just nicked the bridge of his nose. Could I not have strangled that murderous woman? Now her teenage fantasies were about to be realised. Claretta was far from the first to be infatuated. Many women found Mussolini irresistible. Claretta Petacci, from a well- connected Roman family, was a very different proposition. A young woman who worshipped him, but who was not immediately available for sex, was a novel experience.

The bodies of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and mistress Clara Petacci, hang by their heels in Milan, Italy, April 29, , after they were executed near the city by Italian partisans. And yet his treatment of women was appalling. Born in , in the northern Italian town of Predappio in Forli, Mussolini was the son of a socialist blacksmith. By his teens, he was a regular at the town brothel, and throughout his life claimed that to be aroused he had to imagine that the woman sharing his bed was a prostitute. The only love-making he understood was tantamount to rape, and his sexual appetite was vast. He needed up to four women a day and at times had more than a dozen casual mistresses on call.

After he came to power in , his staff were under orders to sift through letters from female admirers — mostly married women — and select the likeliest candidates for sex. He received numerous such propositions by post every day. His preference was for women of the lower order. Indeed, powerful women intimidated him. It was the women who resisted him who aroused his most aggressive desire. She got up weeping and humiliated, and through her tears she insulted me. Mussolini, who was married to the mother of his five children, Rachele Guidi, invited Claretta to visit him at his official residence, the Palazzo Venezia, using a back staircase. Her little sister, Myriam, was again deployed as chaperone, and their conversation was about sports and poetry.

Claretta told him she wanted to be a spy or a movie star. He then began to phone her up to a dozen times a day. Keep her under surveillance. Whoever has the privilege of being close to Mussolini cannot have boyfriends. She arranged for huge mirrors to be fixed to the walls and ceilings for the further sexual pleasure of Il Duce as he made love to her daughter. So it was as much to please Mussolini as for any other reason that Claretta married her fiance, Lt Federici, in They had sex with bestial urgency.

On one occasion he sank his teeth into her shoulder, leaving deep marks, and on another he tore her ear by biting it. Claretta responded with flattery. In , she had given birth to his daughter, Edda, out of wedlock. Four years later, he abandoned her to wed beautician Ida Dalser, who was three years older than him. Mussolini reacted by having Ida declared insane and held in an asylum until her death more than 20 years later. Their baby son Benito was also locked away. Declaring that marriage null, Mussolini returned to Rachele and married her in December Now he had his lover to himself, yet he was plagued by the thought of her with other men. Il Duce, of course, considered himself free to take other lovers, including a French journalist, Countess Magda Fontanges, who wore silver fox furs and antelope skin shoes.

Claretta loved to hear details of his sexual encounters with other women. He had no choice, he said, but to ravage her. The affair was an open enough secret that Davis had to endure tasteless remarks about it, even from his friends. There were rumors that the couple was taking out a marriage license, and supposedly a clerk in Aurora found that an application had been filled out but never filed. Cohn blew his top. He got so mad at me and at the story and at her. He called me and used a few vituperative terms.

But I have to print what I think is news. Sam Davis Sr. Cohen, barely five feet five, was a hotheaded thug with a taste for beautifully tailored suits. I got some terrible news for you. I just got a call from Chicago to hurt Sammy. Sammy has to get married—to a colored girl. Silber was with Davis at the Sands Hotel when the phone call came. It was really touch and go, Silber recalls. Sammy and I were into the fast draw with guns, but it was playacting.

For the first time in my life I started putting real bullets in. Silber sat on his bed polishing his shoes in the suite they shared at the Sands Hotel. He watched as Davis, looking seignorial in his white terry-cloth robe, riffled through his address book. I got the call this morning. The name he picked was Loray White, who happened to be performing at the Silver Slipper. She was a singer, an attractive young woman originally from Houston, a member of the black bourgeoisie. In she had had a small part in Cecil B. Davis gave her a call, and she went over to his suite. She would have all the rights that Mrs. She visited him the day after Davis announced the engagement from the stage at the Sands.

Evelyn Cunningham, doyenne of the black press, who wrote a column for the black newspaper the Pittsburgh Courier, was the first to call and congratulate Davis. Shirley Rhodes attended the wedding, which was held on January 10, , in the Emerald Room, one of the convention rooms at the Sands Hotel. Loray White was 40 minutes late for the 2-minute ceremony, which was performed by a justice of the peace. Jack Entratter hosted the reception.

Jet reported that White went on a shopping spree, and ran a photograph of her with 20 new pairs of shoes. Entratter put her up in the Presidential Suite of the Sands Hotel—alone. You can relax. In truth, Harry Cohn had much less value to the Mob. Loray Davis ended up in a big, rented house in the Hollywood Hills. The good news was that she had become Mrs. She was left alone with 20 pairs of shoes, a mink stole, and a dazzling ring. After a few months of clandestine meetings, she simply retreated. I was suddenly in the eye of a hurricane. My agent told me my career would be over if I continued to see Sammy. The eulogy was scripted by Clifford Odets and performed by Danny Kaye. Her later films veered from forgettable to lousy, with a few exceptions: Bell, Book and Candle and Strangers When We Meet were made with Richard Quine, the volatile film director with whom she became involved in Novak virtually left Hollywood in and, in some sense, returned to being Marilyn Novak.

She moved to Big Sur, in Northern California, and spent her time horseback riding, taking walks, lassoing driftwood, painting, and making flutes out of kelp, eventually raising llamas with her second husband, a veterinarian. In , Novak reluctantly came out of retirement to help promote the re-release of a beautifully restored Vertigo. Her re-emergence, however, was not entirely pleasant. Novak eventually retreated to an even more remote spot in the Pacific Northwest.

Like Novak, Britt was a shy, towering blonde with a breathtaking face, who shone in Murder, Inc. When she married Davis in , Twentieth Century Fox declined to renew her option, and her studio career ended. She never regretted that loss, however. When he arrived in Washington, D. When he was introduced at the Democratic convention in Los Angeles as an ardent campaigner for John F. Kennedy, the Mississippi delegation stood up and booed. The newly elected president feared that his presence would alienate southern congressmen. Britt knew that Davis had risked his career to marry her. But there was a more intractable problem in the making: she had to compete with his need to perform, and that need ultimately won out. The marriage ended in In the s, Arthur Silber went back to work for Davis and noticed profound changes in his personality and behavior.

On a tour of Australia, Davis collapsed from sheer exhaustion. The late s and the s were unkind to Davis in other ways. He was out of sync with the new music. Nixon, fawning over Liz and Dick on his short-lived television show. He sang one song and left the stage. It would open up more doors to his being accepted. Altovise Davis, naturally, feels different about the relationship. A former dancer, she became involved with Davis during the London run of Golden Boy in , when she played his sister in the musical. When he first invited Altovise up to his suite, she was wary of his reputation.

We loved each other very much. I was like a kid in a candy store, and he wanted me to have the best. Davis began having problems with his throat around Marsh took him to a specialist, who found that his constant smoking and singing had caused inflamed nodes on his vocal cords. Davis liked to inhale cigarette smoke in the middle of a song and exhale with the note and the smoke pouring out. Within two years Davis developed throat cancer. I don't hide from you that the collusion of the Jewish world with the plutocracy and international left is ever more evident, and our politico-military situation doesn't permit us to keep in our bosom eventual saboteurs of the effort that the Italian people are making. At the outset of the war, Mussolini sought to gain favourable support for Italy's intervention in Ethiopia and appealed to Zionists by offering them a solution to the Jewish question, in which Italy would set aside a certain amount of territory from conquered Ethiopia to be a homeland for Jews.

World Jewry is doing a bad business in aligning itself with the anti-Fascist sanctions campaign against the one European country which, at least until now, has neither practiced nor preached anti-Semitism. In , the Fascist regime began to promote racial antisemitism and Mussolini claimed that international Jewry had sided with Britain against Italy during Italy's war with Ethiopia. Stuart Hughes , who has claimed that direct Nazi pressure to adopt antisemitic policy had little or no impact on Mussolini's decision. In , Fascist Italy passed the Italian racial laws which restricted civil rights of Jews and forbid sexual relations and marriages between Italians and Jews. The Doctrine of Fascism described the nature of Italian Fascism's totalitarianism, stating the following:.

Fascism is for the only liberty which can be a serious thing, the liberty of the state and of the individual in the state. Therefore for the fascist, everything is in the state, and no human or spiritual thing exists, or has any sort of value, outside the state. In this sense fascism is totalitarian, and the fascist state which is the synthesis and unity of every value, interprets, develops and strengthens the entire life of the people. American journalist H. Knickerbocker wrote in "Mussolini's Fascist state is the least terroristic of the three totalitarian states. The terror is so mild in comparison with the Soviet or Nazi varieties, that it almost fails to qualify as terroristic at all.

He was fired from his newspaper and put under hour surveillance, but otherwise not harassed; his employment contract was settled for a lump sum and he was allowed to work for the foreign press. Knickerbocker contrasted his treatment with the inevitable torture and execution under Stalin or Hitler, and stated "you have a fair idea of the comparative mildness of the Italian kind of totalitarianism". The deaths of one-tenth of the population of the Italian colony of Libya occurred during the Fascist era, including from the use of gassings, concentration camps , starvation and disease; and in Ethiopia during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War and afterwards by a quarter of a million Ethiopians had died.

Italian Fascism promoted a corporatist economic system. The economy involved employer and employee syndicates being linked together in corporative associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. Preliminary plans as of intended to divide the country into 22 corporations which would send representatives to Parliament from each industry. State permission was required for almost any business activity, such as expanding a factory, merging a business, or terminating an employee.

All wages were set by the government, and a minimum wage was imposed in Italy. Restrictions on labor increased. While corporations still could earn profits, [] Italian Fascism supported criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts it deemed as prejudicial to the national community as a whole. The closed shop was mandated nationwide in virtually all careers, where unemployed Italians were required to join the Confistrada in order to secure employment.

The Italian Fascists' political anthem was called Giovinezza Youth. Italian Fascism pursued what it called "moral hygiene" of youth, particularly regarding sexuality. Instead of the traditional Catholic teaching that it was a sin, a new approach was taken, based on the contemporary psychoanalysis, that it was a social disease. Mussolini perceived women's primary role to be childbearers while men were warriors, once saying that "war is to man what maternity is to the woman". The most evident policy to lessen female participation in the workplace was a program to encourage large families , where parents were given subsidies for a second child, and proportionally increased subsidies for a third, fourth, fifth, and sixth child.

Mussolini went on to say that the solution to unemployment for men was the "exodus of women from the work force". Italian Fascism believed that the success of Italian nationalism required a clear sense of a shared past amongst the Italian people along with a commitment to a modernized Italy. Traditional symbols of Roman civilization were utilized by the Fascists, particularly the fasces that symbolized unity, authority and the exercise of power. The issue of the rule of monarchy or republic in Italy was an issue that changed several times through the development of Italian Fascism, as initially Italian Fascism was republican and denounced the Savoy monarchy. After being removed from office and placed under arrest by the King in , with the Kingdom of Italy's new non-fascist government switching sides from the Axis to the Allies, Italian Fascism returned to republicanism and condemnation of the monarchy.

The state we want to establish will be national and social in the highest sense of the word; that is, it will be Fascist, thus returning to our origins". The relationship between Italian Fascism and the Catholic Church was mixed, as originally the Fascists were highly anti-clerical and hostile to Catholicism, though from the mid to late s anti-clericalism lost ground in the movement as Mussolini in power sought to seek accord with the Church as the Church held major influence in Italian society with most Italians being Catholic. This ended years of perceived alienation between the Church and the Italian government after Italy annexed the Papal States in Italian Fascism justified its adoption of antisemitic laws in by claiming that Italy was fulfilling the Christian religious mandate of the Catholic Church that had been initiated by Pope Innocent III in the Fourth Lateran Council of , whereby the Pope issued strict regulation of the life of Jews in Christian lands.

Jews were prohibited from holding any public office that would give them power over Christians and Jews were required to wear distinctive clothing to distinguish them from Christians. The Doctrine of Fascism La dottrina del fascismo , by the actualist philosopher Giovanni Gentile is the official formulation of Italian Fascism, published under Benito Mussolini's name in The Fascist accepts and loves life; he rejects and despises suicide as cowardly.

Life as he understands it means duty, elevation, conquest; life must be lofty and full, it must be lived for oneself but above all for others, both near bye and far off, present and future. In , Mussolini assumed the title Duce Leader , derived from the Latin dux leader , a Roman Republic military-command title. Gentile defined Fascism as an anti-intellectual doctrine, epistemologically based on faith rather than reason. Fascist mysticism emphasized the importance of political myths , which were true not as empirical facts, but as "metareality".

According to historian Zeev Sternhell, "most syndicalist leaders were among the founders of the Fascist movement", who in later years gained key posts in Mussolini's regime. Talmon argued that Fascism billed itself "not only as an alternative, but also as the heir to socialism". La dottrina del fascismo proposed an Italy of greater living standards under a one-party Fascist system than under the multi-party liberal democratic government of The party who received the most votes provided they possessed at least 25 percent of cast votes won two-thirds of the parliament; the remaining third was proportionately shared among the other parties, thus the Fascist manipulation of liberal democratic law that rendered Italy a one-party state.

Moreover, when the King supported Prime Minister Mussolini the socialists quit Parliament in protest, leaving the Fascists to govern unopposed. At the Paris Peace Conference in , the Allies compelled the Kingdom of Italy to yield to Yugoslavia the Croatian seaport of Fiume Rijeka , a mostly Italian city of little nationalist significance, until early Moreover, elsewhere Italy was then excluded from the wartime secret Treaty of London it had concorded with the Triple Entente ; [] wherein Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join the enemy by declaring war against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary in exchange for territories at war's end, upon which the Kingdom of Italy held claims see Italia irredenta. In September , the nationalist response of outraged war hero Gabriele D'Annunzio was declaring the establishment of the Italian Regency of Carnaro.

In the development of the fascist model of government, D'Annunzio was a nationalist and not a fascist, whose legacy of political— praxis "Politics as Theatre" was stylistic ceremony, uniform, harangue and chanting and not substantive, which Italian Fascism artfully developed as a government model. At the same time, Mussolini and many of his revolutionary syndicalist adherents gravitated towards a form of revolutionary nationalism in an effort to "identify the 'communality' of man not with class, but with the nation".

James Gregor , Mussolini came to believe that "Fascism was the only form of 'socialism' appropriate to the proletarian nations of the twentieth century" while he was in the process of shifting his views from socialism to nationalism. Nationalism is our socialism". Given Italian Fascism's pragmatic political amalgamations of left-wing and right-wing socio-economic policies, discontented workers and peasants proved an abundant source of popular political power, especially because of peasant opposition to socialist agricultural collectivism. Thus armed, the former socialist Benito Mussolini oratorically inspired and mobilized country and working-class people: "We declare war on socialism, not because it is socialist, but because it has opposed nationalism".

Moreover, for campaign financing in the — period the National Fascist Party also courted the industrialists and historically feudal landowners by appealing to their fears of left-wing socialist and Bolshevik labor politics and urban and rural strikes. The Fascists promised a good business climate of cost-effective labor, wage and political stability; and the Fascist Party was en route to power.

Historian Charles F. Delzell reports: "At first, the Fascist Revolutionary Party was concentrated in Milan and a few other cities. They gained ground quite slowly, between and ; not until after the scare, brought about by the workers "occupation of the factories" in the late summer of did fascism become really widespread. The industrialists began to throw their financial support behind Mussolini after he renamed his party and retracted his former support for Lenin and the Russian Revolution. Moreover, toward the end of , fascism began to spread into the countryside, bidding for the support of large landowners, particularly in the area between Bologna and Ferrara, a traditional stronghold of the Left, and scene of frequent violence.

Socialist and Catholic organizers of farm hands in that region, Venezia Giulia, Tuscany, and even distant Apulia, were soon attacked by Blackshirt squads of Fascists, armed with castor oil, blackjacks, and more lethal weapons. The era of squadrismo and nightly expeditions to burn Socialist and Catholic labor headquarters had begun. During this time period, Mussolini's fascist squads also engaged in violent attacks against the Church where "several priests were assassinated and churches burned by the Fascists".

Italy's use of daredevil elite shock troops , known as the Arditi , beginning in , was an important influence on Fascism. World War I inflated Italy's economy with great debts, unemployment aggravated by thousands of demobilised soldiers , social discontent featuring strikes, organised crime [] and anarchist , socialist and communist insurrections. The peace pact was officially denounced during the Third Fascist Congress on 7—10 November The Liberal government preferred Fascist class collaboration to the Communist Party of Italy 's class conflict should they assume government as had Vladimir Lenin 's Bolsheviks in the recent Russian Revolution of , [] although Mussolini had originally praised Lenin's October Revolution [] and publicly referred to himself in as "Lenin of Italy".

By the early s, popular support for the Fascist movement's fight against Bolshevism numbered some , people. In , the Fascists metamorphosed into the PNF and achieved political legitimacy when Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in The March on Rome became a victory parade: the Fascists believed their success was revolutionary and traditionalist. Until , when the liberal economist Alberto de Stefani , although a former member of the squadristi , was removed from his post as Minister of Economics — , Italy's coalition government was able to restart the economy and balanced the national budget. Stefani developed economic policies that were aligned with classical liberalism principles as inheritance , luxury and foreign capital taxes were abolished; [] and life insurance [] and the state communications monopolies were privatised and so on.

During Italy's coalition government era, pro-business policies apparently did not contradict the State's financing of banks and industry. Political scientist Franklin Hugh Adler referred to this coalition period between Mussolini's appointment as prime minister on 31 October and his dictatorship as "Liberal-Fascism, a hybrid, unstable, and transitory regime type under which the formal juridical-institutional framework of the liberal regime was conserved", which still allowed pluralism, competitive elections, freedom of the press and the right of trade unions to strike. One of Prime Minister Mussolini's first acts was the million-lira financing of Gio. Given the overwhelmingly rural nature of Italian economy in the period, agriculture was vital to Fascist economic policies and propaganda.

To strengthen the domestic Italian production of grain, the Fascist Government established in protectionist policies that ultimately failed see the Battle for Grain. Historian Denis Mack Smith reports: "Success in this battle was [ From following the Pact of the Vidoni Palace and the Syndical Laws , business and labour were organized into 12 separate associations, outlawing or integrating all others. These organizations negotiated labour contracts on behalf of all its members with the state acting as the arbitrator. The state tended to favour big industry over small industry, commerce, banking, agriculture, labour and transport even though each sector officially had equal representation.

Enforcement of contracts was difficult and the large bureaucracy delayed resolutions of labour disputes. After , the Fascist regime countered the Great Depression with massive public works programs, such as the draining of the Pontine Marshes , hydroelectricity development, railway improvement and rearmament. The Italian economy's Gross National Product increased 2 percent; automobile production was increased, especially that of the Fiat motor company; [] and the aeronautical industry was developing.

As Prime Minister, Mussolini physically participated with the workers in doing the work; the "politics as theatre" legacy of Gabriele D' Annunzio yielded great propaganda images of Il Duce as "Man of the People". A year after the creation of the IRI, Mussolini boasted to his Chamber of Deputies: "Three-fourths of the Italian economy, industrial and agricultural, is in the hands of the state". In the 19th century, the forces of Risorgimento — had conquered Rome and taken control of it away from the Papacy , which saw itself henceforth as a prisoner in the Vatican. Upon ratification of the Lateran Treaty, the papacy recognized the state of Italy in exchange for diplomatic recognition of the Vatican City, [] territorial compensations, introduction of religious education into all state funded schools in Italy [] [] and 50 million pounds sterling that were shifted from Italian bank shares into a Swiss company Profima SA.

Cambridge historian John F. Pollard wrote in his book that this financial settlement ensured the "papacy [ Not long after the Lateran Treaty was signed, Mussolini was almost "excommunicated" over his "intractable" determination to prevent the Vatican from having control over education. The Fascist government model was very influential beyond Italy. In the twenty-one-year interbellum period, many political scientists and philosophers sought ideological inspiration from Italy. Mussolini's establishment of law and order to Italy and its society was praised by Winston Churchill , [] Sigmund Freud , [] George Bernard Shaw [] and Thomas Edison [] as the Fascist government combated organised crime and the Mafia with violence and vendetta honour.

Sinclair de Rochemont and Alfred Haighton. The Sammarinese Fascist Party established an early Fascist government in San Marino and their politico-philosophic basis essentially was Italian Fascism. In Switzerland, pro-Nazi Colonel Arthur Fonjallaz of the National Front became an ardent Mussolini admirer after visiting Italy in and advocated the Italian annexation of Switzerland whilst receiving Fascist foreign aid.

He then progressed to close associated with Falangism , leading to discarding the Spanish annexation to Italy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fascist ideology as developed in Italy. For the Fascist calendar, see Era Fascista. For the Italian Fascist regimes, see Fascist Italy. Core tenets. Definitions Economics Fascism and ideology Fascism worldwide Symbolism. Axis powers Montreux Fascist conference. Fascists by country. Related topics. Part of a series on the. Prehistoric Italy Etruscan civilization 12th—6th c. BC Magna Graecia 8th—3rd c. Ancient Rome. Romano-Barbaric Kingdoms. Odoacer's Ostrogothic Vandal Lombard independence Lombard under the Frankish rule Frankish as part of the Carolingian Empire Germanic as part of the Holy Roman Empire Italy in the Middle Ages Byzantine reconquest of Italy 6th—8th c.

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