Gender Roles In Ancient Societies
Main article: Legal recognition of intersex people. Importance Of Host-Pathogen Interactions are socialized to these norms from an Importance Of Host-Pathogen Interactions age by their Contaminated Water Documentary Analysis, education system, Strengths And Weaknesses Of Ww1, media, Germinated Seeds In The Dark Essay religion. New York: HarperCollins. Achieving stronger growth by promoting a more genderbalanced economy. A core research area within sociology is the way human behavior operates Germinated Seeds In The Dark Essay itselfin other words, how the behavior of one group or individual influences the behavior of other groups or individuals. How cool Theme Of Mediation In To Kill A Mockingbird that? Strengths And Weaknesses Of Ww1 a notion of Germinated Seeds In The Dark Essay then becomes naturalized Contributions Of Robert Merton a person's sense Theme Of Mediation In To Kill A Mockingbird self or identity, effectively imposing a gendered social category Strengths And Weaknesses Of Ww1 a sexed Strengths And Weaknesses Of Ww1.
Lesson from History: Transgender Mania is Sign of Cultural Collapse - Camille Paglia
When considering the parents' social class, lower-class families typically hold traditional gender roles, where the father works and the mother, who may only work out of financial necessity, still takes care of the household. However, middle-class "professional" couples typically negotiate the division of labor and hold an egalitarian ideology. These different views on gender from a child's parents can shape the child's understanding of gender as well as the child's development of gender.
Within a study conducted by Hillary Halpern  it was hypothesized, and proven, that parent behaviors, rather than parent beliefs, regarding gender are better predictors for a child's attitude on gender. It was concluded that a mother's behavior was especially influential on a child's assumptions of the child's own gender. For example, mothers who practiced more traditional behaviors around their children resulted in the son displaying fewer stereotypes of male roles while the daughter displayed more stereotypes of female roles. No correlation was found between a father's behavior and his children's knowledge of stereotypes of their own gender.
It was concluded, however, that fathers who held the belief of equality between the sexes had children, especially sons, who displayed fewer preconceptions of their opposite gender. Estimates of the number of people who are intersex range from 0. A clinical review paper found that between 8. Gender identity can lead to security issues among individuals that do not fit on a binary scale. These gender expressions may be described as gender variant , transgender, or genderqueer or non-binary  there is an emerging vocabulary for those who defy traditional gender identity ,  and people who have such expressions may experience gender dysphoria traditionally called gender identity disorder or GID. Transgender individuals are often greatly affected by language and gender pronouns before, during, and after their transition.
In recent decades it has become possible to provide sex reassignment surgery. Some people who experience gender dysphoria seek such medical intervention to have their physiological sex match their gender identity; others retain the genitalia they were born with see transsexual for some of the possible reasons but adopt a gender role that is consistent with their gender identity.
The terms gender identity and core gender identity were first used with their current meaning—one's personal experience of one's own gender   —sometime in the s. In lateth-century medical literature, women who chose not to conform to their expected gender roles were called "inverts", and they were portrayed as having an interest in knowledge and learning, and a "dislike and sometimes incapacity for needlework". During the mids, doctors pushed for corrective therapy on such women and children, which meant that gender behaviors that were not part of the norm would be punished and changed.
The aim of this therapy was to push children back to their "correct" gender roles and thereby limit the number of children who became transgender. In , Sigmund Freud presented his theory of psychosexual development in Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality , giving evidence that in the pregenital phase children do not distinguish between sexes, but assume both parents have the same genitalia and reproductive powers. On this basis, he argued that bisexuality was the original sexual orientation and that heterosexuality was resultant of repression during the phallic stage , at which point gender identity became ascertainable.
According to Freud, during this stage, children developed an Oedipus complex where they had sexual fantasies for the parent ascribed the opposite gender and hatred for the parent ascribed the same gender, and this hatred transformed into unconscious transference and conscious identification with the hated parent who both exemplified a model to appease sexual impulses and threatened to castrate the child's power to appease sexual impulses. During the s and '60s, psychologists began studying gender development in young children, partially in an effort to understand the origins of homosexuality which was viewed as a mental disorder at the time.
Psychoanalyst Robert Stoller generalized many of the findings of the project in his book Sex and Gender: On the Development of Masculinity and Femininity He is also credited with introducing the term gender identity to the International Psychoanalytic Congress in Stockholm, Sweden , in Behavioral psychologist John Money was also instrumental in the development of early theories of gender identity. His work at Johns Hopkins Medical School 's Gender Identity Clinic established in popularized an interactionist theory of gender identity, suggesting that, up to a certain age, gender identity is relatively fluid and subject to constant negotiation.
His book Man and Woman, Boy and Girl became widely used as a college textbook , although many of Money's ideas have since been challenged. In the late s, Judith Butler began lecturing regularly on the topic of gender identity, and in , she published Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity , introducing the concept of gender performativity and arguing that both sex and gender are constructed. Transgender people sometimes wish to undergo physical surgery to refashion their primary sexual characteristics , secondary characteristics, or both, because they feel they will be more comfortable with different genitalia. This may involve removal of penis, testicles or breasts, or the fashioning of a penis, vagina or breasts. In the past, sex assignment surgery has been performed on infants who are born with ambiguous genitalia.
However, current medical opinion is strongly against this procedure, since many adults have regretted that these decisions were made for them at birth. Today, sex reassignment surgery is performed on people who choose to have this change so that their external sexual organs will match their gender identity. In the United States, it was decided under the Affordable Care Act that health insurance exchanges would have the ability to collect demographic information on gender identity and sexual identity through optional questions, to help policymakers better recognize the needs of the LGBT community. The concept of gender identity appeared in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in its third edition, DSM-III , in the form of two psychiatric diagnoses of gender dysphoria: gender identity disorder of childhood GIDC , and transsexualism for adolescents and adults.
The revision of the manual, the DSM-III-R , added a third diagnosis: gender identity disorder of adolescence and adulthood, nontranssexual type. This latter diagnosis was removed in the subsequent revision, DSM-IV , which also collapsed GIDC and transsexualism into a new diagnosis of gender identity disorder. The authors of a academic paper questioned the classification of gender identity problems as a mental disorder , speculating that certain DSM revisions may have been made on a tit-for-tat basis when certain groups were pushing for the removal of homosexuality as a disorder.
This remains controversial,  although the vast majority of today's mental health professionals follow and agree with the current DSM classifications. The Yogyakarta Principles , a document on the application of international human rights law , provide in the preamble a definition of gender identity as each person's deeply felt internal and individual experience of gender, which may or may not correspond with the sex assigned at birth, including the person's sense of the body which may involve, if freely chosen, modification of bodily appearance or function by medical, surgical or other means and other experience of gender, including dress, speech and mannerism.
No one shall be forced to undergo medical procedures, including sex reassignment surgery, sterilisation or hormonal therapy, as a requirement for legal recognition of their gender identity. The pathologization of difference has led to gender-transgressive children and adolescents being confined in psychiatric institutions, and subjected to aversion techniques — including electroshock therapy — as a 'cure'. Hodges in which marriage was no longer restricted between man and woman. No objective measurement or imaging of the human body exists for gender identity, as it is part of one's subjective experience. These have varying effect sizes among a number of specific sub-populations.
Some people, and some societies, do not construct gender as a binary in which everyone is either a boy or a girl, or a man or a woman. Those who exist outside the binary fall under the umbrella terms non-binary or genderqueer. Some cultures have specific gender roles that are distinct from "man" and "woman. They are anatomically male but dress and behave in a manner considered typically feminine. According to Tamasailau Sua'ali'i see references , fa'afafine in Samoa at least are often physiologically unable to reproduce. Fa'afafine are accepted as a natural gender, and neither looked down upon nor discriminated against. They have been and generally still are initially identified in terms of labour preferences, as they perform typically feminine household tasks.
Hijras are officially recognized as third gender in the Indian subcontinent,   being considered neither completely male nor female. Hijras have a recorded history in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity, as suggested by the Kama Sutra. Many hijras live in well-defined and organised all- hijra communities, led by a guru. The word " hijra " is a Hindustani word. The khanith form an accepted third gender in Oman. The khanith are male homosexual prostitutes whose dressing is male, featuring pastel colors rather than white, worn by men , but their mannerisms female. Khanith can mingle with women, and they often do at weddings or other formal events.
Khaniths have their own households, performing all tasks both male and female. However, similarly to men in their society , khaniths can marry women, proving their masculinity by consummating the marriage. Should a divorce or death take place, these men can revert to their status as khaniths at the next wedding. Many indigenous North American Nations had more than two gender roles. Those who belong to the additional gender categories, beyond cisgender man and woman, are now often collectively termed "two-spirit" or "two-spirited". There are parts of the community that take "two-spirit" as a category over an identity itself, preferring to identify with culture or Nation-specific gender terms. Category:LGBT culture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Personal sense of one's own gender. For identities defined by to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted, see sexual identity and sexual orientation. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Further information: Nature versus nurture. See also: Causes of transsexualism. Main article: Intersex. Main articles: Gender variance , Transgender , Transsexual , and Non-binary gender. See also: Cisgender. This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Gender binary , Non-binary gender , and Third gender. Main article: Fa'afafine. Main article: Hijra South Asia. Main article: Khanith. Main article: Two-Spirit.
ISBN American Psychologist. PMID November The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. S2CID Moghadam, Patriarchy and the politics of gender in modernising societies , in International Sociology , "All societies have gender systems. Donald , "Sensation", in Carlson, Neil R. Donald eds. It is simply a naturally occurring part of all societies. Child Development: A Thematic Approach. Houghton Mifflin. Jr; Williams, R. Introduction to Behavioral Science in Medicine.
Men in Transition: Theory and Therapy. Retrieved 10 January George J. Bryjak and Michael P. Cengage Learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. Essentials of Sociology. New York: Worth. Psychological Bulletin. CiteSeerX Behavior Genetics. ISSN Sytsma, Sharon E. Ethics and Intersex. Springer Netherlands. Retrieved As nature made him : the boy who was raised as a girl 1st Harper Perennial ed.
New York: HarperCollins. OCLC Abnormal Psychology 6 ed. The present case report is a long-term psychosexual follow-up on a second case of ablatio penis in a 46 XY male. Who's afraid of Charles Darwin? Evidence supporting the biologic nature of gender identity. Endocrine Practice, 21 2 , pp. Szabo, and Graeme Pitcher. Retrieved October 29, The Biology of Homosexuality. Princeton University Press. Vilain, Genetics of intersexuality, J. Gay Lesbian Psychother. Fleming, E. Vilain, The endless quest for sex determination genes, Clin. Cerebral Cortex. Concluded that gynephilic trans women had brains like men's, but in a few areas, trans women's brains were different from both men's and women's brains.
Journal of Sexual Medicine. Found that a sample of androphilic trans women was shifted towards the female direction in brain responses. A diffusion tensor imaging study". Journal of Psychiatric Research. Found that the white matter pattern in gynephilic trans men was shifted in the direction of biological males even before the female-to-male transsexuals started taking male hormones. Nature Submitted manuscript. Bibcode : Natur. December Given that many transgender adolescents experience significant gender dysphoria before puberty and before sex differences in BSTc volume emerge , the relationship between BSTc volume and gender identity would appear to be unclear.
Bibcode : Sci September Horm Behav. Seven Countries Services, Inc. Archived from the original on April 15, The Oxford Etymological Dictionary of the English Language of defined gender as kind, breed, sex , derived from the Latin ablative case of genus , like genere natus , which refers to birth. The concept of gender, in the modern sense, is a recent invention in human history. Before Sexologist John Money and colleagues introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in , it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories.
By the end of this period, uses of "gender" outnumbered uses of "sex" in the social sciences, arts, and humanities. In the last two decades of the 20th century, the use of gender in academia has increased greatly, outnumbering uses of sex in the social sciences. While the spread of the word in science publications can be attributed to the influence of feminism, its use as a synonym for sex is attributed to the failure to grasp the distinction made in feminist theory, and the distinction has sometimes become blurred with the theory itself; David Haig stated, "Among the reasons that working scientists have given me for choosing gender rather than sex in biological contexts are desires to signal sympathy with feminist goals, to use a more academic term, or to avoid the connotation of copulation.
In legal cases alleging discrimination , sex is usually preferred as the determining factor rather than gender as it refers to biology rather than socially constructed norms which are more open to interpretation and dispute. Alabama ex rel. The word 'gender' has acquired the new and useful connotation of cultural or attitudinal characteristics as opposed to physical characteristics distinctive to the sexes.
That is to say, gender is to sex as feminine is to female and masculine is to male. The word was still widely used, however, in the specific sense of grammatical gender the assignment of nouns to categories such as masculine , feminine and neuter. According to Aristotle , this concept was introduced by the Greek philosopher Protagoras. In , Henry Watson Fowler stated that the definition of the word pertained to this grammar-related meaning:.
To talk of persons Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role , and was the first to use it in print in a scientific trade journal. In a seminal paper he defined it as "all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman. In this context, matters pertaining to this theoretical process of social construction were labelled matters of gender. The popular use of gender simply as an alternative to sex as a biological category is also widespread, although attempts are still made to preserve the distinction. The American Heritage Dictionary uses the following two sentences to illustrate the difference, noting that the distinction "is useful in principle, but it is by no means widely observed, and considerable variation in usage occurs at all levels.
The effectiveness of the medication appears to depend on the sex not gender of the patient. In peasant societies, gender not sex roles are likely to be more clearly defined. Gender identity refers to a personal identification with a particular gender and gender role in society. The term woman has historically been used interchangeably with reference to the female body, though more recently this usage has been viewed as controversial by some feminists. There are qualitative analyses that explore and present the representations of gender; however, feminists challenge these dominant ideologies concerning gender roles and biological sex.
One's biological sex is directly tied to specific social roles and the expectations. Judith Butler considers the concept of being a woman to have more challenges, owing not only to society's viewing women as a social category but also as a felt sense of self, a culturally conditioned or constructed subjective identity. The groups people belong to therefore provide members with the definition of who they are and how they should behave within their social sphere.
Categorizing males and females into social roles creates a problem for some individuals who feel they have to be at one end of a linear spectrum and must identify themselves as man or woman, rather than being allowed to choose a section in between. The gender system is the basis of social patterns in many societies, which include the separation of sexes, and the primacy of masculine norms. Philosopher Michel Foucault said that as sexual subjects, humans are the object of power, which is not an institution or structure, rather it is a signifier or name attributed to "complex strategical situation".
For example, being female characterizes one as a woman, and being a woman signifies one as weak, emotional, and irrational, and incapable of actions attributed to a "man". Butler said that gender and sex are more like verbs than nouns. She reasoned that her actions are limited because she is female. Rather than 'woman' being something one is, it is something one does. According to gender theorist Kate Bornstein , gender can have ambiguity and fluidity. The World Health Organization defines gender as the result of socially constructed ideas about the behavior, actions, and roles a particular sex performs.
The assignment of gender involves taking into account the physiological and biological attributes assigned by nature followed by the imposition of the socially constructed conduct. Gender is a term used to exemplify the attributes that a society or culture constitutes as "masculine" or "feminine". Although a person's sex as male or female stands as a biological fact that is identical in any culture, what that specific sex means in reference to a person's gender role as a woman or a man in society varies cross-culturally according to what things are considered to be masculine or feminine. Learning gender roles starts from birth and includes seemingly simple things like what color outfits a baby is clothed in or what toys they are given to play with.
However, a person's gender does not always align with what has been assigned at birth. Factors other than learned behaviors play a role in the development of gender. Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role in The term gender role is defined as the actions or responses that may reveal their status as boy, man, girl or woman, respectively. In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued that gender "is a vast orchestration of subtle mediations between oneself and others", rather than a "private cause behind manifest behaviours". Historically, most societies have recognized only two distinct, broad classes of gender roles, a binary of masculine and feminine, largely corresponding to the biological sexes of male and female.
However, some societies have historically acknowledged and even honored people who fulfill a gender role that exists more in the middle of the continuum between the feminine and masculine polarity. Contemporary Native American and FNIM people who fulfill these traditional roles in their communities may also participate in the modern, two-spirit community,  however, these umbrella terms, neologisms, and ways of viewing gender are not necessarily the type of cultural constructs that more traditional members of these communities agree with. The hijras of India and Pakistan are often cited as third gender. In addition to these traditionally recognized third genders, many cultures now recognize, to differing degrees, various non-binary gender identities.
People who are non-binary or genderqueer have gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine. They may identify as having an overlap of gender identities, having two or more genders, having no gender, having a fluctuating gender identity, or being third gender or other-gendered. Recognition of non-binary genders is still somewhat new to mainstream Western culture,  and non-binary people may face increased risk of assault, harassment, and discrimination. Both instruments categorize individuals as either being sex typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits , cross sex-typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits , androgynous either males or females who report themselves as high on both masculine and feminine traits or undifferentiated either males or females who report themselves as low on both masculine and feminine traits.
Biologist and feminist academic Anne Fausto-Sterling rejects the discourse of biological versus social determinism and advocates a deeper analysis of how interactions between the biological being and the social environment influence individuals' capacities. The philosopher and feminist Simone de Beauvoir applied existentialism to women's experience of life: "One is not born a woman, one becomes one. However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive.
Within feminist theory , terminology for gender issues developed over the s. In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities. In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ". Charles E. Hurst states that some people think sex will, " For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations.
Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas". Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them. Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences for breaking these cultural norms. Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based on sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices. He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex".
Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating her belief in radical feminism. Political scientist Mary Hawkesworth addresses gender and feminist theory, stating that since the s the concept of gender has transformed and been used in significantly different ways within feminist scholarship. She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding and Joan Scott , began to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within which humans think about and organize their social activity".
Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts". However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline". American political scientist Karen Beckwith addresses the concept of gender within political science arguing that a "common language of gender" exists and that it must be explicitly articulated in order to build upon it within the political science discipline. Beckwith describes two ways in which the political scientist may employ 'gender' when conducting empirical research: "gender as a category and as a process.
It may also demonstrate how gender differences, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors. Gender as a process has two central manifestations in political science research, firstly in determining "the differential effects of structures and policies upon men and women," and secondly, the ways in which masculine and feminine political actors "actively work to produce favorable gendered outcomes". With regard to gender studies, Jacquetta Newman states that although sex is determined biologically, the ways in which people express gender is not. Gendering is a socially constructed process based on culture, though often cultural expectations around women and men have a direct relationship to their biology.
Because of this, Newman argues, many privilege sex as being a cause of oppression and ignore other issues like race, ability, poverty, etc. Current gender studies classes seek to move away from that and examine the intersectionality of these factors in determining people's lives. She also points out that other non-Western cultures do not necessarily have the same views of gender and gender roles. Newman believes this is problematic because there is no unified definition as to what equality means or looks like, and that this can be significantly important in areas like public policy. Sociologists generally regard gender as a social construct, and various researchers, including many feminists , consider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not about social or cultural construction.
For instance, sexologist John Money suggests the distinction between biological sex and gender as a role. Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, maintains "'biology' is not seen as something which might change. However, there are scholars who argue that sex is also socially constructed. For example, gender theorist Judith Butler states that "perhaps this construct called 'sex' is as culturally constructed as gender; indeed, perhaps it was always already gender, with the consequence that the distinction between sex and gender turns out to be no distinction at all. It would make no sense, then, to define gender as the cultural interpretation of sex, if sex is itself a gender-centered category.
Gender should not be conceived merely as the cultural inscription of meaning based on a given sex a juridical conception ; gender must also designate the very apparatus of production whereby the sexes themselves are established. Butler argues that "bodies only appear, only endure, only live within the productive constraints of certain highly gendered regulatory schemas,"  and sex is "no longer as a bodily given on which the construct of gender is artificially imposed, but as a cultural norm which governs the materialization of bodies. With regard to history, Linda Nicholson, a professor of history and women's studies , argues that the understanding of human bodies as sexually dimorphic was historically not recognised. She states that male and female genitals were considered inherently the same in Western society until the 18th century.
At that time, female genitals were regarded as incomplete male genitals, and the difference between the two was conceived as a matter of degree. In other words, there was a belief in a gradation of physical forms, or a spectrum. In addition, drawing from the empirical research of intersex children, Anne Fausto-Sterling , a professor of biology and gender studies , describes how the doctors address the issues of intersexuality. She starts her argument with an example of the birth of an intersexual individual and maintains "our conceptions of the nature of gender difference shape, even as they reflect, the ways we structure our social system and polity; they also shape and reflect our understanding of our physical bodies.
After describing how the doctors inform parents about the intersexuality, she asserts that because the doctors believe that the intersexuals are actually male or female, they tell the parents of the intersexuals that it will take a little bit more time for the doctors to determine whether the infant is a boy or a girl. That is to say, the doctors' behavior is formulated by the cultural gender assumption that there are only two sexes. Lastly, she maintains that the differences in the ways in which the medical professionals in different regions treat intersexual people also give us a good example of how sex is socially constructed. A group of physicians from Saudi Arabia recently reported on several cases of XX intersex children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH , a genetically inherited malfunction of the enzymes that aid in making steroid hormones.
A number of parents, however, refused to accept the recommendation that their child, initially identified as a son, be raised instead as a daughter. Nor would they accept feminizing surgery for their child. Thus it is evident that culture can play a part in assigning gender, particularly in relation to intersex children. Priess, Sara M. Lindberg, and Janet Shibley Hyde on whether or not girls and boys diverge in their gender identities during adolescent years. The researchers based their work on ideas previously mentioned by Hill and Lynch in their gender intensification hypothesis in that signals and messages from parents determine and affect their children's gender role identities.
This hypothesis argues that parents affect their children's gender role identities and that different interactions spent with either parents will affect gender intensification. Priess and among other's study did not support the hypothesis of Hill and Lynch which stated "that as adolescents experience these and other socializing influences, they will become more stereotypical in their gender-role identities and gendered attitudes and behaviors.
Authors of "Unpacking the Gender System: A Theoretical Perspective on Gender Beliefs and Social Relations", Cecilia Ridgeway and Shelley Correll, argue that gender is more than an identity or role but is something that is institutionalized through "social relational contexts. The coauthors argue that daily people are forced to acknowledge and interact with others in ways that are related to gender. Every day, individuals are interacting with each other and comply with society's set standard of hegemonic beliefs, which includes gender roles. They state that society's hegemonic cultural beliefs sets the rules which in turn create the setting for which social relational contexts are to take place. Ridgeway and Correll then shift their topic towards sex categorization.
The authors define sex categorization as "the sociocognitive process by which we label another as male or female. The failure of an attempt to raise David Reimer from infancy through adolescence as a girl after his genitals were accidentally mutilated is cited as disproving the theory that gender identity is determined solely by parenting. Many surgeons believed such males would be happier being socially and surgically reassigned female. Available evidence indicates that in such instances, parents were deeply committed to raising these children as girls and in as gender-typical a manner as possible. Six of seven cases providing orientation in adult follow-up studies identified as heterosexual males, with one retaining a female identity, but who is attracted to women.
Such cases do not support the theory that parenting influences gender identity or sexual orientation of natal males. In , the American Academy of Pediatrics released a webinar series on gender, gender identity, gender expression, transgender, etc. Sherer explains that parents' influence through punishment and reward of behavior can influence gender expression but not gender identity.
Roosevelt with long hair, wearing a dress. Sherer argued that kids will modify their gender expression to seek reward from their parents and society but this will not affect their gender identity their internal sense of self. Some gendered behavior is influenced by prenatal and early life androgen exposure. This includes, for example, gender normative play, self-identification with a gender, and tendency to engage in aggressive behavior. These levels may also influence sexuality, with non-heterosexual persons exhibiting sex atypical behavior in childhood.
The biology of gender became the subject of an expanding number of studies over the course of the late 20th century. One of the earliest areas of interest was what became known as "gender identity disorder" GID and which is now also described as gender dysphoria. Studies in this, and related areas, inform the following summary of the subject by John Money. He stated:. The term "gender role" appeared in print first in The term gender identity was used in a press release, 21 November , to announce the new clinic for transsexuals at The Johns Hopkins Hospital.
It was disseminated in the media worldwide, and soon entered the vernacular. The definitions of gender and gender identity vary on a doctrinal basis. In popularized and scientifically debased usage, sex is what you are biologically; gender is what you become socially; gender identity is your own sense or conviction of maleness or femaleness; and gender role is the cultural stereotype of what is masculine and feminine. Causality with respect to gender identity disorder is sub-divisible into genetic, prenatal hormonal, postnatal social, and post-pubertal hormonal determinants, but there is, as yet, no comprehensive and detailed theory of causality.
Gender coding in the brain is bipolar. In gender identity disorder, there is discordance between the natal sex of one's external genitalia and the brain coding of one's gender as masculine or feminine. Although causation from the biological— genetic and hormonal —to the behavioral has been broadly demonstrated and accepted, Money is careful to also note that understanding of the causal chains from biology to behavior in sex and gender issues is very far from complete. There are studies concerning women who have a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia , which leads to the overproduction of the masculine sex hormone , androgen. These women usually have ordinary female appearances though nearly all girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH have corrective surgery performed on their genitals.
However, despite taking hormone-balancing medication given to them at birth, these females are statistically more likely to be interested in activities traditionally linked to males than female activities. Psychology professor and CAH researcher Dr. Sheri Berenbaum attributes these differences to an exposure of higher levels of male sex hormones in utero. According to biologist Michael J. Ryan , gender identity is a concept exclusively applied to humans. Sex is a biological concept; gender is a human social and cultural concept. Jacques Balthazart suggests that "there is no animal model for studying sexual identity.
It is impossible to ask an animal, whatever its species, to what sex it belongs. Nonetheless she asserts that "non-human animals do experience femininity and masculinity to the extent that any given species' behaviour is gender segregated. Despite this, Poiani and Dixson emphasise the applicability of the concept of gender role to non-human animals  such as rodents  throughout their book. Gender studies is a field of interdisciplinary study and academic field devoted to gender, gender identity and gendered representation as central categories of analysis.
This field includes Women's studies concerning women , feminity , their gender roles and politics, and feminism , Men's studies concerning men , masculinity , their gender roles , and politics , and LGBT studies. These disciplines study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature and language, history , political science , sociology , anthropology , cinema and media studies , human development, law, and medicine.
Many of the more complicated human behaviors are influenced by both innate factors and by environmental ones, which include everything from genes, gene expression, and body chemistry, through diet and social pressures. A large area of research in behavioral psychology collates evidence in an effort to discover correlations between behavior and various possible antecedents such as genetics, gene regulation, access to food and vitamins, culture, gender, hormones, physical and social development, and physical and social environments. A core research area within sociology is the way human behavior operates on itself , in other words, how the behavior of one group or individual influences the behavior of other groups or individuals. Starting in the late 20th century, the feminist movement has contributed extensive study of gender and theories about it, notably within sociology but not restricted to it.
Social theorists have sought to determine the specific nature of gender in relation to biological sex and sexuality, [ citation needed ] with the result being that culturally established gender and sex have become interchangeable identifications that signify the allocation of a specific 'biological' sex within a categorical gender. As the child grows, " Some believe society is constructed in a way that splits gender into a dichotomy via social organisations that constantly invent and reproduce cultural images of gender.
Joan Acker believes gendering occurs in at least five different interacting social processes: . Looking at gender through a Foucauldian lens, gender is transfigured into a vehicle for the social division of power. Gender difference is merely a construct of society used to enforce the distinctions made between what is assumed to be female and male, and allow for the domination of masculinity over femininity through the attribution of specific gender-related characteristics. Gender conventions play a large role in attributing masculine and feminine characteristics to a fundamental biological sex.
These traits provide the foundations for the creation of hegemonic gender difference. It follows then, that gender can be assumed as the acquisition and internalisation of social norms. Individuals are therefore socialized through their receipt of society's expectations of 'acceptable' gender attributes that are flaunted within institutions such as the family, the state and the media. Such a notion of 'gender' then becomes naturalized into a person's sense of self or identity, effectively imposing a gendered social category upon a sexed body.
The conception that people are gendered rather than sexed also coincides with Judith Butler's theories of gender performativity. Butler argues that gender is not an expression of what one is, but rather something that one does. Contemporary sociological reference to male and female gender roles typically uses masculinities and femininities in the plural rather than singular, suggesting diversity both within cultures as well as across them. The difference between the sociological and popular definitions of gender involve a different dichotomy and focus. There is then, in relation to definition of and approaches to "gender", a tension between historic feminist sociology and contemporary homosexual sociology.
A person's sex as male or female has legal significance—sex is indicated on government documents, and laws provide differently for men and women. Many pension systems have different retirement ages for men or women. Marriage is usually only available to opposite-sex couples; in some countries and jurisdictions there are same-sex marriage laws. The question then arises as to what legally determines whether someone is female or male. In most cases this can appear obvious, but the matter is complicated for intersex or transgender people. Different jurisdictions have adopted different answers to this question.
Almost all countries permit changes of legal gender status in cases of intersexualism, when the gender assignment made at birth is determined upon further investigation to be biologically inaccurate—technically, however, this is not a change of status per se. Rather, it is recognition of a status deemed to exist but unknown from birth. Increasingly, jurisdictions also provide a procedure for changes of legal gender for transgender people.
Gender assignment , when there are indications that genital sex might not be decisive in a particular case, is normally not defined by a single definition, but by a combination of conditions, including chromosomes and gonads. Thus, for example, in many jurisdictions a person with XY chromosomes but female gonads could be recognized as female at birth. The ability to change legal gender for transgender people in particular has given rise to the phenomena in some jurisdictions of the same person having different genders for the purposes of different areas of the law. For example, in Australia prior to the Re Kevin decisions, transsexual people could be recognized as having the genders they identified with under many areas of the law, including social security law, but not for the law of marriage.
Thus, for a period, it was possible for the same person to have two different genders under Australian law. It is also possible in federal systems for the same person to have one gender under state or provincial law and a different gender under federal law. For intersex people, who according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights , "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies",  access to any form of identification document with a gender marker may be an issue. Some countries now legally recognize non-binary or third genders, including Canada , Germany ,  Australia , New Zealand , India and Pakistan.
In the United States , Oregon was the first state to legally recognize non-binary gender in ,  and was followed by California and the District of Columbia. Historically, science has been portrayed as a masculine pursuit in which women have faced significant barriers to participate. This topic includes internal and external religious issues such as gender of God and deities creation myths about human gender, roles and rights for instance, leadership roles especially ordination of women , sex segregation , gender equality , marriage, abortion, homosexuality.
They believe that the difference in religiosity between genders is due to biological differences, for instance usually people seeking security in life are more religious, and as men are considered to be greater risk takers than women, they are less religious. Although religious fanaticism is more often seen in men than women. In Taoism , yin and yang are considered feminine and masculine, respectively.
The Taijitu and concept of the Zhou period reach into family and gender relations. Yin is female and yang is male. They fit together as two parts of a whole. The male principle was equated with the sun: active, bright, and shining; the female principle corresponds to the moon: passive, shaded, and reflective. Male toughness was balanced by female gentleness, male action and initiative by female endurance and need for completion, and male leadership by female supportiveness. In Judaism , God is traditionally described in the masculine, but in the mystical tradition of the Kabbalah , the Shekhinah represents the feminine aspect of God's essence.
Conceptions of the gender of God notwithstanding, traditional Judaism places a strong emphasis on individuals following Judaism's traditional gender roles, though many modern denominations of Judaism strive for greater egalitarianism. As well, traditional Jewish culture dictates that there are six genders. In Christianity , God is traditionally described in masculine terms and the Church has historically been described in feminine terms.
On the other hand, Christian theology in many churches distinguishes between the masculine images used of God Father, King, God the Son and the reality they signify, which transcends gender, embodies all the virtues of both men and women perfectly, which may be seen through the doctrine of Imago Dei. John among other verses. Hence, the Father , the Son and the Holy Spirit i. Trinity are all mentioned with the masculine pronoun; though the exact meaning of the masculinity of the Christian triune God is contended.
Here Shiva manifests himself so that the left half is Female and the right half is Male. The left represents Shakti energy, power in the form of Goddess Parvati otherwise his consort and the right half Shiva. Whereas Parvati is the cause of arousal of Kama desires , Shiva is the killer. Shiva is pervaded by the power of Parvati and Parvati is pervaded by the power of Shiva. While the stone images may seem to represent a half-male and half-female God, the true symbolic representation is of a being the whole of which is Shiva and the whole of which is Shakti at the same time. It is a 3-D representation of only shakti from one angle and only Shiva from the other. Shiva and Shakti are hence the same being representing a collective of Jnana knowledge and Kriya activity.
Adi Shankaracharya, the founder of non-dualistic philosophy Advaita—"not two" in Hindu thought says in his "Saundaryalahari"— Shivah Shaktayaa yukto yadi bhavati shaktah prabhavitum na che devum devona khalu kushalah spanditam api " i. In the absence of Shakti, He is not even able to stir. In fact, the term "Shiva" originated from "Shva," which implies a dead body. It is only through his inherent shakti that Shiva realizes his true nature. This mythology projects the inherent view in ancient Hinduism, that each human carries within himself both female and male components, which are forces rather than sexes, and it is the harmony between the creative and the annihilative, the strong and the soft, the proactive and the passive, that makes a true person.
Such thought, leave alone entail gender equality, in fact obliterates any material distinction between the male and female altogether. This may explain why in ancient India we find evidence of homosexuality, bisexuality, androgyny, multiple sex partners and open representation of sexual pleasures in artworks like the Khajuraho temples, being accepted within prevalent social frameworks. Gender inequality is most common in women dealing with poverty. Many women must shoulder all the responsibility of the household because they must take care of the family.
Oftentimes this may include tasks such as tilling land, grinding grain, carrying water and cooking. Pearce coined the term feminization of poverty to describe the problem of women having higher rates of poverty. Gender and Development GAD is a holistic approach to give aid to countries where gender inequality has a great effect of not improving the social and economic development. It is a program focused on the gender development of women to empower them and decrease the level of inequality between men and women. According to general strain theory , studies suggest that gender differences between individuals can lead to externalized anger that may result in violent outbursts. Males are likely to put the blame on others for adversity and therefore externalize feelings of anger.
On the other end of the spectrum, men are less concerned with damaging relationships and more focused on using anger as a means of affirming their masculinity. Gender, and particularly the role of women is widely recognized as vitally important to international development issues. Gender is a topic of increasing concern within climate change policy and science. Furthermore, the intersection of climate change and gender raises questions regarding the complex and intersecting power relations arising from it. These differences, however, are mostly not due to biological or physical differences, but are formed by the social, institutional and legal context. Subsequently, vulnerability is less an intrinsic feature of women and girls but rather a product of their marginalization.
This is reflected in the fact that discourses of and negotiations over climate change are mostly dominated by men. Similarly, MacGregor  attests that by framing climate change as an issue of 'hard' natural scientific conduct and natural security, it is kept within the traditional domains of hegemonic masculinity. Gender roles and stereotypes have slowly started to change in society within the past few decades. These changes occur mostly in communication, but more specifically during social interactions.
Over the past few years, the use of social media globally has started to rise. Recent studies suggest that men and women value and use technology differently. They further showed that women's posts enjoyed higher popularity than men's post s. Social media is more than just the communication of words. With social media increasing in popularity, pictures have come to play a large role in how many people communicate. According to recent research, gender plays a strong role in structuring our social lives, especially since society assigns and creates "male" and "female" categories.
Every individual also has the right to express their opinion, even though some might disagree, but it still gives each gender an equal amount of power to be heard. Young adults in the U. Teens are avid internet and social media users in the United States. Research has found that almost all U. According to a study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation, toyear-olds spend on average over one and a half hours a day using a computer and 27 minutes per day visiting social network sites, i. Teen girls and boys differ in what they post in their online profiles.
Studies have shown that female users tend to post more "cute" pictures, while male participants were more likely to post pictures of themselves in activities. Women in the U. The study also found that males would post more alcohol and sexual references. Boys share more personal information, such as their hometown and phone number, while girls are more conservative about the personal information they allow to go public on these social networking sites. Boys, meanwhile, are more likely to orient towards technology, sports, and humor in the information they post to their profile. Social media goes beyond the role of helping individuals express themselves, as it has grown to help individuals create relationships, particularly romantic relationships.
A large number of social media users have found it easier to create relationships in a less direct approach, compared to a traditional approach of awkwardly asking for someone's number. Social media plays a big role when it comes to communication between genders. Therefore, it's important to understand how gender stereotypes develop during online interactions. Research in the s suggested that different genders display certain traits, such as being active, attractive, dependent, dominant, independent, sentimental, sexy, and submissive, in online interaction. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the grammatical concept, see Grammatical gender.
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