George Baker Crack Research Paper

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George Baker Crack Research Paper

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The details in figs. These lines were then followed by ochre coloured brushy lines in the arm and a reddish flesh colour in the thigh. The white lines seem to float on top of a background made up of a patchwork of coloured areas. At the top-right corner and largely in areas around the figure this is a bright blue figs. In areas of the figure and leaves it is whitish underneath.

Then glazes — which vary from bright green to a creamy ochre to a reddish brown — were applied on top. The first layer of colour on top of the ground in the upper left is a semi-opaque blue layer, applied with loose brushstrokes of cobalt blue in oil. On top of the loosely brushed areas of oil colour Picabia laid in the composition with the lead white outlines and allowed them to dry into reticulated islands. He added further details in semi-transparent black and brown lines and these have been augmented with washes of transparent glaze in pure colours. The area of the signature in the lower-right corner has blue glaze layers applied over the first oil layers of the background fig.

There is a straight line at the base of the painting where a brush has run horizontally across the surface, finishing just short of the bottom edge, but then there are trails of blue glaze which have run over the foldover edge fig. It is possible that the canvas was placed on an easel and the paint dripped onto the shelf where it transferred to the bottom edge. It is also possible that some of the glazes were applied when it was flat, and they dribbled over the edge. In either scenario there seem to be different intensities of blue and some of the areas are more dilute than others. These areas are unfortunately too thin to sample and analyse effectively. The transparency of the glazes is muted today by the aged overlying layers, but one glimpse of their extraordinary colour can still be gained under high magnification where this deep green paint is pushing upwards through the black reticulated paint, pure in colour and jewel-like fig.

It is likely overlying a lead soap aggregate that has formed in the ground layer a normal aging process in paint made from lead white and oil and by now is large enough to deform the smooth surface of the paint, which was not an effect Picabia intended. The pockmarked surface in fig. The face and the disembodied hand to the right have been filled out with an opaque flesh colour. It is very thick in comparison to the deeply coloured cobalt blue layer on top of the white ground, present as the second layer up from the bottom in the cross-section fig. The flesh colour could only be sampled in the hand at the very edge of the right of the painting and analysis suggested that the paint consisted of red iron oxide and lead white, painted wet-in-wet and showing as a vein of pink in the middle of the thick white over the cobalt blue.

Having applied very thin, bright and seemingly pure colour glazes, Picabia gave the painting texture by working across the surface with very smooth black paint. This seems to take two forms: an amorphous layer left to pool and form reticulated paint, presumably in a medium incompatible with oil fig. Both images show a very fine linear matrix of black lines over the surface of the paint, parallel in fig. The brushed black layer could be a very thin oil layer as it seems to adhere well to the underlayers. From the cross-sections, each layer of colour or black paint lies on top of a varnish see fig. There is another black layer applied subsequently, with what seems to be an incompatible medium. In ultraviolet light, the topmost layers of the cross-sections almost all show two layers of fluorescent varnish interspersed with an extremely thin black discontinuous layer.

Having laid in the colour and detail of the painting, Picabia then applied a thick layer of varnish. Once it had dried, he experimented with a black coating in an incompatible medium, too thin to sample and analyse, but likely either aqueous or an oil medium very much diluted with thinners. The black has formed a discontinuous, amorphous coating of black which has partially covered the painting, but once again through reticulation it has retained transparency. The detail of the signature fig.

The black layer has dried unevenly, and in places it pooled into amorphous shapes, drying into broken islands with thick borders, the medium forming a brownish halo fig. The black layer was left to dry and then a thinner layer of varnish was applied on top, sealing it in between varnishes. It is not obvious how this layer might have been applied; there are some broad-looking sweeps of what might be a brush in the left side of the painting, but it is possible that the painting was laid flat at this stage and that the black was poured or dripped onto the surface, since there are no indications that it dripped down if the painting had been vertical.

It seems to have made contact with the surface and then been allowed to dry in its own fashion, perhaps being manipulated in places to thin it out, as the left side fig. The application of paint is not uniform, but has touches here and there, meaning each area of the painting has a slightly different stratigraphy. The varnish layers, made of natural resins, are all more yellow than when they were applied. However, they are not necessarily the uppermost layers.

The colour in the detail of the elbow fig. The arm is an example of the painting process continuing on top of the reticulated black layer. The dense, glossy black outline of the arm, which appears so confident and unbroken in transmitted light fig. There is also a thin wash of flesh paint inside the contours of the arm, which renders the black layer a more diffuse grey. To the right of the arm a layer of semi-opaque blue and white was painted over the whole, to make the edges of the image recede, highlighting the figure and features. The red layer in the shoulder area was applied over the varnish containing the black reticulated layer fig. The thick, black line of the hand at the top fig.

The pool of black beneath it has continued to separate from its medium and crack. This probably happened some time after the completion of the painting. This detail also shows the very thin wash of bright green and the aggregates of green pigment which form jewel-like clumps on the pale background. The striations are possibly the brushed black texturing layer discussed above. The complexity of layering and covering of layers in this painting would most likely have involved periods of time between applications, to allow areas to dry before coating them again.

Picabia was prolific at this period and the photograph taken in at the Galerie Alexandre III during his exhibition of recent work shows more than a dozen paintings. These might have been done over a longer period, but it is also possible that Picabia painted the series simultaneously in his studio, allowing one to dry while he worked on its neighbour. In this way, perhaps experiments that were less successful were not repeated in the other works. It would be interesting to know how many of the other paintings made around have a similar reticulated black layer.

The natural resin varnish used so copiously in this painting has yellowed to a near brown colour and in combination with the black striated textured layer and the pooled black reticulated layer, the painting is now much darker in hue. A lot of the luminosity conferred by the smooth white ground has been lost in consequence fig. Another image shows the pale blue of the background paint under the Janus mask, which lies under both the white reticulated spots and the varnish layers fig. The concentration of varnish layers in the upper area show how brown the varnishes have become, while the loss in the black paint shows how vibrant the cobalt blue layer of the background was.

As noted earlier, this had been done prior to acquisition by Tate, probably in the s. Viewed in ultraviolet light the paint surface has an almost uniform coating of synthetic resin varnish, apart from patches of retouching applied on top, which show up as dark areas fig. Both details in fig. Analysis identified the varnish as the acrylic resin Paraloid B—67, the retouching having been done in the same material with some wax added.

It also becomes more difficult to dissolve and remove. Today the painting appears darkened from the extremely yellowed original varnish and matte from the synthetic varnish on the surface, losing much of its depth and transparency. The retouchings are by now dense, opaque and muddy, and they jar slightly against the transparent layers of the painting fig. In contrast to most treatments involving varnish removal, the goal would be to leave all the original varnish layers present at their full and variable thickness, since they form the image, and it would be a challenging and lengthy treatment. The extreme thinness of some of the layers and the constant repainting make it a very difficult work to unravel technically, because no two areas of the painting are the same.

He seems to have been at his most experimental during the creation of this work, not least with his careful choice of ground. He drew the figure in a material that resisted the initial oil-based layers by using dense lead white in an aqueous medium, and allowed the paint to break up into small islands to create a see-through line. Details were added with coloured glazes and black outlines and then a black veil was drawn over the bright colours, applied between upper varnishes. He went on to manipulate the appearance of the upper surface over this double varnish and black layer, playing with transparency and opacity to make certain features of the painting stand out or recede.

The many layers of the painting make it extremely fragile and there have been several losses to paint and varnish in the past. The fact that the painting received a new stretcher probably means that the original stretcher was unstable. That the painting has extensive cracking supports this idea. The surface has been re-varnished and retouched with little sensitivity to the technique and both these measures have compromised its transparency, but the canvas remains unlined, and the paint surface is still in plane with very few losses, which is a major achievement given its unorthodox sequence of paint application.

Despite the painting being darkened and matte, much of the transparency and complexity can still be appreciated. Although he did not make it as complex in its imagery as some such paintings, he seems to have revelled in the complexity of its materials and their unconventional use. The digital X-ray equipment was acquired by Tate during the project with the generous support of the R. Cohen Foundation. Thanks also to Suzanne Nagy for the beautiful photographs of the album. Masha Chlenova generously shared sources and information on this painting and other transparencies and introduced us to Karl Toepfer, who kindly shared his extensive knowledge of Claire Bauroff and contemporary theatre with us. We would also like to thank the art handling team and registrars at Tate for frequent art movements and continued access to the painting.

The high-resolution micrographs were taken using a Hirox KH digital microscope, the purchase of which was supported in part by the Nanorestart research project funded by Horizon

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