Punishment In The Canterbury Tales
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The Merchant's Tale
In this unruly place, the rules of tale telling are established, themselves to be both disordered and broken; here the tales of game and earnest, solas and sentence, will be set and interrupted. Here the sacred and profane adventure begins, but does not end. Here, the condition of peril is as prominent as that of protection. The act of pilgrimaging itself consists of moving from one urban space, through liminal rural space, to the next urban space with an ever fluctuating series of events and narratives punctuating those spaces.
The goal of pilgrimage may well be a religious or spiritual space at its conclusion, and reflect a psychological progression of the spirit, in yet another kind of emotional space. Liminality is also evident in the individual tales. An obvious instance of this is The Friar's Tale in which the yeoman devil is a liminal figure because of his transitory nature and function; it is his purpose to issue souls from their current existence to hell, an entirely different one. While Chaucer clearly states the addressees of many of his poems the Book of the Duchess is believed to have been written for John of Gaunt on the occasion of his wife's death in , the intended audience of The Canterbury Tales is more difficult to determine.
Chaucer was a courtier , leading some to believe that he was mainly a court poet who wrote exclusively for the nobility. He is referred to as a noble translator and poet by Eustache Deschamps and by his contemporary John Gower. It has been suggested that the poem was intended to be read aloud, which is probable as this was a common activity at the time. However, it also seems to have been intended for private reading, since Chaucer frequently refers to himself as the writer, rather than the speaker, of the work. Determining the intended audience directly from the text is even more difficult, since the audience is part of the story. This makes it difficult to tell when Chaucer is writing to the fictional pilgrim audience or the actual reader. Chaucer's works may have been distributed in some form during his lifetime in part or in whole.
Scholars speculate that manuscripts were circulated among his friends, but likely remained unknown to most people until after his death. However, the speed with which copyists strove to write complete versions of his tale in manuscript form shows that Chaucer was a famous and respected poet in his own day. The Hengwrt and Ellesmere manuscripts are examples of the care taken to distribute the work. More manuscript copies of the poem exist than for any other poem of its day except The Prick of Conscience , causing some scholars to give it the medieval equivalent of bestseller status. Even the most elegant of the illustrated manuscripts, however, is not nearly as highly decorated as the work of authors of more respectable works such as John Lydgate 's religious and historical literature.
John Lydgate and Thomas Occleve were among the first critics of Chaucer's Tales , praising the poet as the greatest English poet of all time and the first to show what the language was truly capable of poetically. This sentiment was universally agreed upon by later critics into the midth century. Glosses included in The Canterbury Tales manuscripts of the time praised him highly for his skill with "sentence" and rhetoric, the two pillars by which medieval critics judged poetry. The most respected of the tales was at this time the Knight's, as it was full of both. The incompleteness of the Tales led several medieval authors to write additions and supplements to the tales to make them more complete.
Some of the oldest existing manuscripts of the tales include new or modified tales, showing that even early on, such additions were being created. The Tale of Beryn , written by an anonymous author in the 15th century, is preceded by a lengthy prologue in which the pilgrims arrive at Canterbury and their activities there are described. While the rest of the pilgrims disperse throughout the town, the Pardoner seeks the affections of Kate the barmaid, but faces problems dealing with the man in her life and the innkeeper Harry Bailey. As the pilgrims turn back home, the Merchant restarts the storytelling with Tale of Beryn. In this tale, a young man named Beryn travels from Rome to Egypt to seek his fortune only to be cheated by other businessmen there.
He is then aided by a local man in getting his revenge. John Lydgate wrote The Siege of Thebes in about Like the Tale of Beryn , it is preceded by a prologue in which the pilgrims arrive in Canterbury. Lydgate places himself among the pilgrims as one of them and describes how he was a part of Chaucer's trip and heard the stories. He characterises himself as a monk and tells a long story about the history of Thebes before the events of the Knight's Tale.
John Lydgate's tale was popular early on and exists in old manuscripts both on its own and as part of the Tales. It was first printed as early as by John Stow , and several editions for centuries after followed suit. There are actually two versions of The Plowman's Tale , both of which are influenced by the story Piers Plowman , a work written during Chaucer's lifetime. Chaucer describes a Plowman in the General Prologue of his tales, but never gives him his own tale.
One tale, written by Thomas Occleve , describes the miracle of the Virgin and the Sleeveless Garment. Another tale features a pelican and a griffin debating church corruption, with the pelican taking a position of protest akin to John Wycliffe 's ideas. The Tale of Gamelyn was included in an early manuscript version of the tales, Harley , which is notorious for being one of the lower-quality early manuscripts in terms of editor error and alteration.
It is now widely rejected by scholars as an authentic Chaucerian tale, although some scholars think he may have intended to rewrite the story as a tale for the Yeoman. Dates for its authorship vary from to Many literary works both fiction and non-fiction alike have used a similar frame narrative to The Canterbury Tales as an homage. Science-fiction writer Dan Simmons wrote his Hugo Award winning novel Hyperion based on an extra-planetary group of pilgrims. His animal pilgrims are on their way to find the common ancestor, each telling a tale about evolution.
Henry Dudeney 's book The Canterbury Puzzles contains a part reputedly lost from what modern readers know as Chaucer's tales. Historical-mystery novelist P. Doherty wrote a series of novels based on The Canterbury Tales , making use of both the story frame and Chaucer's characters. Canadian author Angie Abdou translates The Canterbury Tales to a cross section of people, all snow-sports enthusiasts but from different social backgrounds, converging on a remote back-country ski cabin in British Columbia in the novel The Canterbury Trail.
The most well-known work of the 18th century writer Harriet Lee was called The Canterbury Tales , and consists of twelve stories, related by travellers thrown together by untoward accident. In turn, Lee's version had a profound influence on Lord Byron. Nevill Coghill 's modern English version formed the basis of a musical version that was first staged in A Canterbury Tale , a film, jointly written and directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger , is loosely based on the narrative frame of Chaucer's tales. The movie opens with a group of medieval pilgrims journeying through the Kentish countryside as a narrator speaks the opening lines of the General Prologue.
The scene then makes a now-famous transition to the time of World War II. From that point on, the film follows a group of strangers, each with their own story and in need of some kind of redemption, who are making their way to Canterbury together. The film's main story takes place in an imaginary town in Kent and ends with the main characters arriving at Canterbury Cathedral, bells pealing and Chaucer's words again resounding.
A Canterbury Tale is recognised as one of the Powell-Pressburger team's most poetic and artful films. It was produced as wartime propaganda, using Chaucer's poetry, referring to the famous pilgrimage, and offering photography of Kent to remind the public of what made Britain worth fighting for. In one scene, a local historian lectures an audience of British soldiers about the pilgrims of Chaucer's time and the vibrant history of England. Pier Paolo Pasolini 's film The Canterbury Tales features several of the tales, some of which cohere to the original tale and others which are embellished.
British Psychedelic rock band Procol Harum's hit " A Whiter Shade of Pale " is often assumed to be referencing the Canterbury Tales through the line, "as the miller told his tale. He commented, "Although those words were written more than years ago, they still describe spring. In , the BBC again featured modern re-tellings of selected tales in their six-episode series Canterbury Tales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Collection of 24 stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer. For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales disambiguation. Dewey Decimal. The Merchant's Prologue. Recording in reconstructed Middle English pronunciation. The Chaucer Review , Vol.
Accessed 6 January Its modern name first appeared as Canterbury talys in John Lydgate 's — prologue to the Siege of Thebes. An Age of Plague — ISBN Retrieved 25 September The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. Canada: Broadview Press. Mooney , "Chaucer's Scribe," Speculum , 81 : 97— The Guardian. Benson, 3rd edn Oxford: Oxford University Press , , p. Benson, 3rd edn Oxford: Oxford University Press, , pp. The New York Times. Retrieved 9 September S2CID The people of the 14 th century struggled with the failure of their religion. The Church could not save people from the disease, leading many Europeans to question their beliefs. In that time doctors did not understand the origin of disease and how it was transmitted, so it was common for people to believe that supernatural powers were in control.
They saw the plague as divine punishment. Flagellation, the act of self-mutilation through whipping, became common and many people began to beat themselves in the hope of atoning for their supposed sins. Failure of the Church to protect the people and its own clergy led to a dramatic loss of power and influence. The conclusion was that there must be something wrong with the Church itself that warranted punishment.
However, it was far easier for people to loose faith and to point at the shortcomings or responsibility of others. Specific group were singled out for persecution and the Jews quickly became the primary scapegoats for the 14 th century plague. Rate 5 stars Rate 4 stars Rate 3 stars Rate 2 stars Rate 1 star. Forced Order. Support Sporcle. Get the ad-free and most optimal, full-featured Sporcle experience. Play Quiz. You got. Link that replays current quiz. Link to next quiz in quiz playlist. Open a modal to take you to registration information. Button that open a modal to initiate a challenge.
Link to a random quiz page. Create a free account on Sporcle. Log In.This ad-free experience offers The Beat Generation: Nonconformists features, more stats, and The Importance Of Plastic Surgery In Texas fun while also helping to support Sporcle. Daily Sun Post. Crime and Punishment Fyodor Dostoyevksy, He avoids allowing couplets How Entertainment Conquered Reality Analysis become too prominent in the poem, and four of the tales the Man of Law's, Clerk's, How Do Political Parties Influence Congressional Elections, and Second Nun's How Entertainment Conquered Reality Analysis rhyme royal. You might How Entertainment Conquered Reality Analysis find what you need.